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Results 351 - 400 of 1295
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Kofoed K F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acute myocardial ischemia. To evaluate this hypothesis myocardial 11C-acetate ...
MacGowan G A - - 2000
Toborinone (OPC-18790, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, 2(1H) -quinolone,6-[3-[ [3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl] amino]-2-hydroxy prop oxyl]-,(.+-.)-) is a novel iv. inotropic agent. Positive inotropic effects are produced by PDE inhibition with the resulting increase in cAMP and intracellular calcium levels. Unlike other inotropic agents that increase cAMP, there is an absence of positive chronotropic ...
Bengel F M - - 2000
Thyroid hormones influence cardiac performance directly and indirectly via changes in peripheral circulation. Little, however, is known about the effect on myocardial oxidative metabolism and its relation to cardiac function and geometry. Patients with a history of thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer present a unique model to investigate the cardiac effects ...
Gaillard D - - 2000
Myocardial protection during cardiac surgery aims to preserve myocardial function while providing a bloodless and motionless operating field to make surgery easier. Myocardial protection is achieved by decreasing the oxygen needs using hypothermia and producing electromechanical cardiac arrest using potassium infusion which allows surgery to be performed on a non-beating ...
Sherman A J - - 2000
Chronically instrumented dogs underwent 2- or 5-h regional reductions in coronary flow that were followed, respectively, by balanced reductions in myocardial contraction and O(2) consumption ("hibernation") and persistently reduced contraction despite normal myocardial O(2) consumption ("stunning"). Previously unidentified myofibrillar disruption developed during flow reduction in both experimental models and persisted ...
Al-Obaidi M K - - 2000
The supply and utilization of oxygen by the myocardium reflect the dynamic efficiency of the microcirculation. The present study examines these parameters during coronary artery bypass surgery. We used a voltammetric microelectrode technique to assess regional variations in myocardial tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)) and myocardial tissue perfusion (MTP) ...
Mas A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe global hemodynamics and splanchnic perfusion changes in response to acute modifications in Paco2 in hemodynamically stable patients. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized crossover study. SETTING: Medical-surgical intensive care unit at a community hospital (400,000 inhabitants). PATIENTS: Ten critically ill patients who were sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. INTERVENTIONS: Hypercapnia ...
Leone R J RJ - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that increasing myocardial cyclic GMP would attenuate cyclic AMP induced positive inotropy and O2 consumption, in part, through changes in cyclic AMP and that renal hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy (HYP) would alter this relationship. Anesthetized, open chest rabbits (N = 48) were divided into four groups of ...
Ratzenhofer-Komenda B - - 2000
PURPOSE: To report the anaesthetic management of a case of tracheal rupture, using different types of ventilation and additional hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). CLINICAL FEATURES: An 8 cm postintubation tracheal tear was repaired in a 66-yr-old woman with acute myocardial reinfarction, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, cardiac failure and unrecognized lymphoma. Intraoperative ...
Kieler-Jensen N - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the use of clevidipine, a new vascular selective, ultra-short-acting calcium antagonist for blood pressure control after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: The effects of clevidipine on central hemodynamics, myocardial blood flow and metabolism were studied at two different phases after CABG. In phase ...
Schenkman K A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To simultaneously determine the effect of propofol on myocardial oxygenation, mitochondrial function, and whole organ function in an isolated heart model, using optical reflectance spectroscopy. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory investigation. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty adult guinea pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Isolated hearts were perfused alternately with a modified oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer ...
McGrath J J - - 2000
Several recent epidemiologic studies investigating the short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) concentrations have shown carbon monoxide (CO) to have the strongest and most consistent statistical relationship with hospital admissions for cardiac diseases. This article suggests a potential hypothesis for these epidemiologic observations. Oxygen (O2) is transported, in reversible combination ...
Shinke T - - 1999
It has been shown recently that the force-frequency relationship is blunted in experimental heart failure models. Furthermore, tachycardia is thought to have adverse effects on the diseased heart for several reasons, one of which is an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Inversely, the oxygen-saving effects of bradycardia may be beneficial ...
Porenta G - - 1999
The aims of this study were: (1) to measure noninvasively and near simultaneously myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and contractile function and (2) to analyze myocardial energy expenditure and efficiency at rest and during dobutamine stress in normal humans. Dynamic and gated carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was ...
Fukuda S - - 1999
To investigate the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in hypoxic coronary arteries, we studied the effect of isoproterenol (Iso) on isolated porcine coronary arteries contracted with endothelin-1 in media aerated with 0, 5, 7.5, and 95% O(2). The concentration-response curve of Iso was significantly shifted to the left by hypoxia (0 and 5% ...
Ekelund U E - - 1999
Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, increases myofilament calcium responsiveness and blunts calcium cycling in isolated cardiac muscle. We sought to extend these observations to conscious dogs with and without pacing-induced heart failure and tested the prediction that allopurinol would have a positive inotropic effect without increasing energy expenditure, thereby ...
Simons M - - 1999
The presence of chronic myocardial ischemia signifies an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand that usually reflects the existence of advanced atherosclerotis coronary disease. Standard therapies for this condition that have evolved over the past 40 years include drugs primarily designed to reduce myocardial oxygen demand or improve flow ...
Kanellopoulos G K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Creation of non-transmural myocardial channels by lasers transmitted through endovascular fiberoptics is a novel therapeutic option in the management of patients with coronary artery disease. The acute effect of transventricular laser treatment (TvL) on coronary blood flow, myocardial metabolism and left ventricular function are not well established. METHODS: In ...
Holm C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementary oxygen on heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy. DESIGN: Controlled study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 40 patients having colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: 20 patients were given supplementary oxygen through nasal prongs (2 L/min), and 20 patients breathed room air during colonoscopy. ...
Svedjeholm R - - 1999
There is increasing evidence that the availability of different metabolic substrates can influence post-ischemic functional recovery of the heart and the damage incurred during episodes of myocardial ischemia. Here we present the rationale for metabolic interventions, describe their mechanisms of action and suggest potential clinical applications. In cardiac surgery, basic ...
Pietersen H G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to clarify whether myocardial substrate uptake and oxidation change after a period of hypothermic cardioplegic arrest during coronary artery bypass grafting procedures. METHODS: In 30 patients arterial and coronary sinus blood was sampled and coronary sinus flow measurements were performed before and after sternotomy and ...
Mikane T - - 1999
We investigated the effects of myocardial temperature on left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics in the excised, cross-circulated canine heart. We used the framework of the LV contractility (E(max))-pressure-volume area (PVA; a measure of total mechanical energy)-myocardial oxygen consumption (VO(2)) relationship. We have shown this framework to be useful to integrative analysis ...
Abdel-Aleem S - - 1999
Hypoxia is characterized by inadequate oxygen delivery to the myocardium with a resulting imbalance between oxygen demand and energy supply. Several adaptive mechanisms occur to preserve myocardial survival during hypoxia. These include both short- and long-term mechanisms, which serve to achieve a new balance between myocardial oxygen demand and energy ...
Mital S - - 1999
The production of endogenous nitric oxide, which regulates myocardial oxygen consumption, is decreased in heart failure. As with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, amlodipine, a calcium antagonist, increases kinin-mediated nitric oxide production in coronary microvessels. We investigated the possibility of synergy between ACE inhibitors and amlodipine in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption. ...
Forfia P R - - 1999
Recent evidence from our laboratory and others suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is a modulator of in vivo and in vitro oxygen consumption in the murine and canine heart. Therefore, the goal of our study was twofold: to determine whether NO modulates myocardial oxygen consumption in the nonhuman primate heart ...
Pearson JT - - 1999
The aims of this study were to determine the patterns of development of heart rate (fH) in altricial avian embryos and hatchlings, and then to examine how fH is regulated to meet metabolic requirements in altricial embryos. Embryonic mean heart rate (fH-) in 12 altricial species (Passeriformes and Psittaciformes) increased ...
Ferdinandy P - - 1999
We examined the mechanism of the time- and protein synthesis-dependent decline in cardiac mechanical function in isolated working rat hearts. Hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 120 min in the presence or absence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CX; 10 microM). Cardiac work remained stable for 60 min ...
Yada T - - 1999
Adenosine has been postulated to mediate the increase in coronary blood flow when myocardial oxygen consumption is increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adenosine when myocardial oxygen consumption was augmented by cardiac paired-pulse stimulation without the use of catecholamines. In 10 anesthetized closed-chest dogs, ...
Wacker C M - - 1999
The aim of this pilot-study was to evaluate changes in myocardial oxygenation and perfusion under pharmacological stress with dipyridamole (DIP) by means of MRI. Twenty healthy volunteers were examined using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence. The differential myocardial signal response due to the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect was studied ...
Mundhenke M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with ...
Blanchaert R H RH - - 1999
Imbalances between myocardial oxygen delivery and oxygen demand result in ischemic heart disease. Accurate stratification of risk for permanent myocardial injury and appropriate choice of therapy are critical in the successful management of ischemic heart disease. Dental therapy can be performed safely for most ambulatory patients with ischemic heart disease.
Wacker C M - - 1999
Changes of myocardial oxygenation can be studied by measurements of the apparent transverse relaxation time T2*, which is correlated with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin. In this study, ten patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) T2* measurements using a segmented gradient echo pulse sequence ...
Murakami Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen ...
Saadjian A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to assess whether arterial chemoreceptors are activated in chronic heart failure and to appreciate whether this activation is related to the degree of cardiac dysfunction. We examined whether administration of pure oxygen for 30 min to 35 patients with chronic heart failure was followed ...
Samaja M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess how coronary flow, oxygen supply and energy demand affect myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and their metabolites during oxygen shortage and recovery. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were exposed for 20 min to either low-flow ischaemia or hypoxaemia at the same oxygen supply, followed ...
Laitinen P O - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published ...
Murphy T - - 1998
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of midazolam-sufentanil (Group I) and sufentanil-enflurane (Group II) anaesthesia on myocardial oxygenation and metabolism in patients with preserved ventricular function undergoing CABG surgery. METHODS: Patients randomized to Group I (n = 16) received midazolam 0.3 mg.kg-1 at induction of anaesthesia, 0.15 mg.kg-1 after tracheal intubation, ...
Recchia F A - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to determine whether cardiac nitric oxide (NO) production changes during the progression of pacing-induced heart failure and whether this occurs in association with alterations in myocardial metabolism. Dogs (n=8) were instrumented and the heart paced until left ventricular end-diastolic pressure reached 25 mm ...
Mancia G - - 1998
Several pathological conditions affecting the cardiovascular system are characterized by a dysfunction of the viscoelastic properties of the arterial vessels and, in particular, of arterial distensibility and compliance. These alterations have pathophysiological and clinical relevance because both distensibility and compliance play a key role in cardiovascular homeostatic control by modulating ...
Monnet E - - 1998
The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible myocardial sparing effect by dynamic cardiomyoplasty. We directly measured cardiac work and myocardial oxygen consumption after dynamic cardiomyopathy in dogs with adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Ten dogs with cardiomyopathy induced by 4 weekly intracoronary infusions of adriamycin were studied. Five dogs underwent ...
Tune J D - - 1998
Insulin improves myocardial contractile function during moderate ischemia, but the mechanism is unknown. To determine effects of insulin on myocardial oxygen utilization efficiency (O2UE) and energetics, regional left coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was lowered sequentially from 100 to 60, 50, and 40 mmHg in 24 anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Regional power ...
Cohn P F - - 1998
A rational approach to the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia requires an appreciation of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and the treatment options available. Any factor that causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand can provoke ischemia. Myocardial oxygen requirements rise with increases in heart rate, contractility, ...
Kazmaier S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in ...
Sakashita H - - 1998
The oxygen-supply capability of a spray cycle reactor was evaluated by using it for oxidative degradation of L-alanine. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa, was evaluated as a parameter for the oxygen supply. The liquid circulation rate in the spray cycle reactor was represented in terms of the number of ...
Zmudka K - - 1998
To evaluate the extent to which the protective effect of metoprolol was accompanied by changes in myocardial oxygen consumption and metabolism, thrombotic occlusion of coronary artery followed by infusion of metoprolol or placebo was performed in twenty four German Shepherds. To restore a coronary blood flow rt-PA was administered. Plasma ...
Koyama T - - 1998
Capillaries are nonuniform thin tubes: The arteriolar and venular capillary portions express alkaline phosphatase (AP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), respectively. Differences in enzyme activities between arteriolar and venular capillary portions could be shown by staining sections of cardiac tissues for AP and DPPIV after coronary infusion of microspheres and ...
Velmahos G C - - 1998
Seventeen patients with hemodynamic instability from acute cerebrovascular accidents were evaluated shortly after arrival at the emergency department of a university-run county hospital with both invasive Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter placement and a new, noninvasive, thoracic electrical bioimpedance device. Values were recorded and temporal patterns of survivors and nonsurvivors were ...
Rabindranauth P - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that preventing cyclic GMP degradation with zaprinast, (a selective cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor) would produce a blunted reduction in myocardial O2 consumption in renal hypertension (One Kidney-One Clip, 1K1C)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Four groups of anesthetized open-chest New Zealand white rabbits (n = 26) were utilized. Either vehicle ...
Jeppesen P - - 1998
Myocardial dynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine were studied in the isolated retrogradely perfused and spontaneously beating guinea-pig heart. Pharmacokinetic analysis of drug accumulation showed one-compartment characteristics with an half-life of 76 min. Whereas disposition exhibited two-compartment characteristics with phasic half-lives of 25 and 174 min., respectively. Myocardial drug accumulation ...
Todaka K - - 1998
BAY y 5959 is a dihydropyridine derivative with positive inotropic actions mediated by a direct increase in intracellular calcium. We characterized the direct myocardial actions of this new agent in hearts isolated from seven normal dogs and from five dogs with repeated coronary microembolization-induced heart failure. Inotropic actions of BAY ...
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