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Results 201 - 250 of 1322
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Simonot Danielle L - - 2007
We examined the nature, extent and timing of cardiac ventricular remodelling in response to chronic, chemically induced anaemia in warm- and cold-acclimated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chronic anaemia was induced by bi-weekly injections of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ) and resulted in transient but large decreases in haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin concentration. ...
Knotzer H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Microcirculatory dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a key role in the pathophysiology of multiple organ failure and, consequently, patient outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in reactive hyperemia response and oscillation frequency in surviving and non-surviving patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: ...
Ferns S - - 2009
Acute myocardial infarction is a cause of neonatal collapse. The diagnosis is suggested by ischaemic electrocardiography, raised cardiac enzymes and deteriorating cardiac function and should be considered in severe neonatal cardiac dysfunction without other identifiable causes. This paper presents four cases of neonatal myocardial infarction treated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane ...
Bredin Fredrik - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer with a positive inotropic effect without increasing oxygen consumption. We have evaluated the immediate effects of levosimendan on cardiac index when given peri-operatively to patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in conjunction with passive containment surgery. DESIGN: Ten patients with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing passive containment surgery ...
Schenkman Kenneth A - - 2007
Recent clinical studies of patients with sepsis have shown that the delivery of adequate oxygen alone does not necessarily result in improved organ function or survival. This study was undertaken to determine if optical spectroscopy could detect higher intracellular oxygenations in isolated, perfused guinea pig hearts that have been treated ...
Keweloh Boris - - 2007
Treatment of acute heart failure frequently requires positive-inotropic stimulation. However, there is still no inotropic agent available, which combines a favourable haemodynamic profile with low expenditure for energy metabolism. Pyruvate exhibits positive inotropic effects in vitro and in patients with heart failure. The effect on myocardial energy metabolism however remains ...
Wang Jian - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Beating-heart valve surgery appears to be a promising technique for protection of hypertrophied hearts. Normothermic normokalemic simultaneous antegrade/retrograde perfusion (NNSP) may improve myocardial perfusion. However, its effects on myocardial oxygenation and energy metabolism remain unclear. The present study was to determine whether NNSP improved myocardial oxygenation and energy metabolism ...
Fragasso G - - 2007
Recent studies have evidenced that alterations of cardiac metabolism can be present in several cardiac syndromes. In heart failure, wasting of subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle is relatively common and suggests an increased utilisation of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat ...
Hannukainen J C - - 2007
Exercise training seems to restore impaired vascular function in both peripheral and myocardial vessels in patients with coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease or in patients with risk factors for these diseases. However, the results on the effects of exercise training on vascular function in apparently healthy subjects are controversial. ...
Zhang Min - - 2007
Adverse cardiac remodeling is a fundamental process in the progression to chronic heart failure. Although the mechanisms underlying cardiac remodeling are multi-factorial, a significant body of evidence points to the crucial roles of increased reactive oxygen species. This article reviews recent advances in delineating the different sources of production for ...
Conti C R - - 2007
William Heberden in 1772 published "some account of the disorder of the breast" which contains the essential elements of angina pectoris as we understand it today. The number of existing cases in the U.S. population today is 6.4 million. Myocardial ischemia manifested by angina pectoris can be either acute or ...
Suematsu Nobuhiro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been considered a vascular disease associated with increased levels of oxidative stress that results in scavenging of NO. However, little is known of the impact of HHcy on cardiac function and especially myocardial metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: L-Homocysteine was intravenously infused into conscious dogs, and the ...
Madden Kenneth M - - 2007
PURPOSE: Postprandial myocardial ischemia has been observed in frail older adults with postprandial hypotension and in patients with severe coronary artery disease, especially after high doses of carbohydrates. The impact of oral glucose on myocardial oxygen supply and demand in healthy older adults without postprandial hypotension or postprandial angina remains ...
Biyik I - - 2007
A number of studies from different countries and several large-scale meta-analyses have reported reduced coronary heart disease rates among those regularly consuming mild to moderate amounts of alcohol compared with those abstaining from alcohol. In contrast, various studies have also reported that heavy alcohol consumption promotes the progression of atherosclerosis ...
Barrio Rocío Carda RC Servicio de Cardiología, Instituto Cardiovascular, Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid, - - 2007
Kidney failure is more prevalent in patients with ischemic heart disease than in the general population. A high serum creatinine level is known to be a predictor of an adverse outcome in acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of the glomerular filtration ...
Dullenkopf Alexander - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated for use in monitoring global oxygenation in adult patients after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical monitoring study. SETTING: Intensive care unit for cardiac surgery; university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 35 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with insertion of a pulmonary artery ...
Kojić Z - - 2006
In our previous work we have shown that in mouse heart basal level of endothelial produced nitrite, as a marker of nitric oxide (NO) formation, was 9.7 nmol l(-1). Bradykinin (10 microl l(-1)) induced a 5-fold rise in nitrite release, the coronary venous effluent concentration being 58 nmol l(-1), but ...
Ichinose Fumito - - 2007
Myocardial dysfunction contributes to the high mortality of patients with endotoxemia. Although nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of septic cardiovascular dysfunction, the role of myocardial NO synthase 3 (NOS3) remains incompletely defined. Here we show that mice with cardiomyocyte-specific NOS3 overexpression (NOS3TG) are protected from myocardial ...
Corder R - - 2006
Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show ...
Tuunanen Helena - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Metabolic modulators that enhance myocardial glucose metabolism by inhibiting free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism may improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. We studied the effect of acute FFA withdrawal on cardiac function in patients with heart failure caused by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen fasting ...
Medlin William M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A number of adverse effects are associated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary compliance and gas exchange are decreased, and myocardial edema may result in diastolic dysfunction. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) after CPB in children decreases body water, removes inflammatory mediators, improves ...
Kyriakides Zenon S - - 2007
Asynchronous depolarization and contraction sequence, secondary to intraventricular conduction defects or to permanent right ventricular apical pacing, is associated with adverse effects that may be clinically evident in the failing heart. Experimental and clinical studies have suggested that asynchronous ventricular contraction deteriorates left ventricular performance and induces unfavourable left ventricular ...
Toyoda Kiyohiro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is associated with poor clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, to date there have been no reports focusing on the myocardial oxygen metabolism in these patients. Thus, we evaluated the myocardial oxygen metabolism in patients with and without diabetes suffering from acute myocardial infarction using carbon-11 acetate ...
Kochiadakis George E - - 2007
In 12 patients we assessed the effect of inhaled salbutamol on the coronary circulation. According to our results, large doses of salbutamol increase coronary flow, but not in proportion to the needs of the myocardium (as documented by the increase in coronary oxygen extraction), and decrease coronary flow reserve. These ...
Lagunilla J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: High thoracic epidural techniques are increasingly being used in patients scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting. In the present study, we evaluated the acute effects of the epidural blockade on myocardial oxygen availability by means of tissue oxygen pressure monitoring in patients submitted for surgical revascularization. ...
Ohri Sunil K - - 2006
Cardiac surgery is associated with a low incidence of GI complications, but with a disproportionate mortality. A number of risk factors have become established which identify patients at risk. CPB is associated with profound reductions in mucosal blood flow. Mesenteric perfusion is altered by primary endothelial dysfunction, which may further ...
Kronenberg Marvin W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is associated with left ventricular remodeling, hypertrophy, and mitochondrial metabolic abnormalities in vitro. We evaluated the hypothesis that energy supply, as judged by the rate of myocardial oxidative metabolism, is inadequate to meet oxygen demand in patients with NIDCM compared with normal subjects. METHODS AND ...
Vanky F B - - 2006
AIM: Post ischemic disturbances of myocardial metabolism that may contribute to postoperative heart failure and are accessible to metabolic treatment have been identified early after coronary surgery. Knowledge derived from these studies may not be applicable to other patient groups. Therefore we studied myocardial energy metabolism in patients operated for ...
Mahajan Aman - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 100% oxygen and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and transpulmonary gradient (TPG) in dilated cardiomyopathy patients being evaluated for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT); who, despite maximal intravenous (IV) dilator therapy, had persistent moderate-to-severe ...
Minkovich Leonid - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary atelectasis and hypoxemia remain considerable problems after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of consecutive vital capacity maneuvers (C-VCMs) to improve oxygenation in patients after cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral teaching center. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-five patients requiring ...
Zhou Lufang - - 2006
In response to exercise, the heart increases its metabolic rate severalfold while maintaining energy species (e.g., ATP, ADP, and Pi) concentrations constant; however, the mechanisms that regulate this response are unclear. Limited experimental studies show that the classic regulatory species NADH and NAD+ are also maintained nearly constant with increased ...
Deitch E J - - 2006
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in how growth hormone (GH) transgenesis affects fish physiology. However, the results of these studies are often difficult to interpret because the transgenic and non-transgenic fish had very different environmental/rearing histories. This study used a stable line of size-matched ...
Mobini Reza - - 2006
Although beta-adrenergic blockade is beneficial in heart failure, inhibition of central sympathetic outflow using moxonidine has been associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we studied the acute effects of the imidazoline-receptor agonist moxonidine on haemodynamics, NA (noradrenaline) kinetics and myocardial metabolism. Fifteen patients with CHF (chronic heart failure) ...
Van Ginderdeuren Filip - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of digital clubbing on oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry measurements (SpO2) in Cystic Fibrosis patients. BACKGROUND: Measuring the arterial oxygen saturation at the fingertip by pulse-oximetry is commonly used in the management of CF patients. In these patients, clinical signs of hyperoxia are often observed ...
Murdoch Colin E - - 2006
Reactive oxygen species play important roles in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure secondary to chronic left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction. Reactive oxygen species influence several components of the phenotype of the failing heart, including contractile function, interstitial fibrosis, endothelial dysfunction and myocyte hypertrophy. Recent studies implicate the production ...
Sen Chandan K - - 2006
Focal coronary artery blockage followed by further reperfusion injury is commonly involved in myocardial infarction. The injured heart has some inherent reparative responses. Although such natural healing mechanisms seem to be inefficient, a clear understanding of the underlying principles of myocardial healing holds the key to successful therapy. Under normoxic ...
d'Agostino Chiara - - 2006
Acute inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase causes a reversible alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged NO synthase inhibition alters cardiac metabolic phenotype. Seven chronically instrumented dogs were treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 35 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) po) for 10 days to inhibit NO synthesis, and ...
Bjerrum Jacob T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cardioplegic solutions on myocardial oxygenation during surgical revascularization. METHODS: In 30 patients, randomized to receive crystalloid (CC) or blood (BC) cardioplegia, myocardial oxygen tension was measured continuously by polarography. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of ...
Wikenheiser Jamie - - 2006
Tissue hypoxia plays a critical role in normal development, including cardiogenesis. Previously, we showed that oxygen concentration, as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5, is lowest in the outflow tract (OFT) myocardium of the developing chicken heart and may be regulating events in OFT morphogenesis. In this study, we identified ...
Tendera Michal - - 2006
Pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine during exercise results in the decrease in oxygen demand and the increase in oxygen supply through the prolongation of diastole. These properties are crucial for its beneficial effect in patients with chronic stable angina. The ability of ivabradine to reduce the heart rate at ...
Ritchie Rebecca H - - 2006
1. Metabolic remodelling in the heart occurs in response to chronically altered workload and substrate availability. Recently, the importance of the metabolic remodelling processes inherent in the hypertrophic growth response (whether primary or secondary) has been recognized. 2. Altered energy demand, shifts in substrate utilization and increased oxidative stress are ...
Matschke K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Experimental data have shown the potential risk of cellular damage of the myocardium during extra corporeal circulation (ECC). The influence of ECC on myocardial oxygen tension however remained unclear. Therefore, the influence of ECC on the oxygen tension in a beating heart was investigated. METHODS: In a pig animal ...
von Heymann Christian - - 2006
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces hemodilutional anemia, which frequently requires the transfusion of blood products. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxygen delivery and consumption and clinical outcome in low risk patients who were allocated to an hematocrit (Hct) of 20% versus 25% during normothermic CPB for elective coronary ...
Martinez-Hervás Sergio S Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, - - 2006
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (i.e., survivors of myocardial infarction) in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). We compared a group of 20 male patients with FCH who had survived a myocardial infarction with two other groups matched for age and body ...
Claver Eduard E Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, - - 2006
Risk stratification in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome makes use of clinical variables that can identify patients at an increased risk of complications. Our objective was to identify clinical variables that predict significant stenosis (i.e., >50%) of the left main coronary artery in high-risk patients who have had a first episode ...
Mass? Linda - - 2005
Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a clinical condition that is caused by a transient decrease in systemic perfusion secondary to myocardial dysfunction. The outcome is an imbalance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption at the cellular level which leads to metabolic acidosis. Although LCOS is observed most commonly in ...
Nicholls Tim P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to describe the early time course of hemodynamic and tissue perfusion and oxygenation patterns in survivors and nonsurvivors after head injury; to suggest physiologic mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns; and to evaluate postinjury parameters that might be useful for treatment. The hypothesis ...
Rosano Giuseppe M C - - 2005
Diabetic patients with ischaemic heart disease have a greater amount of myocardial ischaemia, often silent, and an increased incidence of heart failure compared to nondiabetic patients. This is the result of altered myocardial metabolism and accelerated atherogenesis with involvement of peripheral coronary segments causing chronic hypoperfusion and diffuse hybernation. In ...
Suzuki Takeshi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Since beta-blocker therapy is known to be effective in patients with an injured heart, such as infarction, we designed the present study to examine the protective effects of infusion of the beta1-selective blocker esmolol on myocardial function in peritonitis-induced septic rats using an isolated working heart preparation. DESIGN: Randomized ...
Kirkeby-Garstad I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: An acute increase in oxygen demand can be compensated for either by increased cardiac index (CI) or increased oxygen extraction, resulting in reduced mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). We tested the hypothesis that post-operative cardiac dysfunction may explain why oxygen extraction alone is increased during early mobilization after cardiac ...
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