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Results 201 - 250 of 1295
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Toyoda Kiyohiro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is associated with poor clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, to date there have been no reports focusing on the myocardial oxygen metabolism in these patients. Thus, we evaluated the myocardial oxygen metabolism in patients with and without diabetes suffering from acute myocardial infarction using carbon-11 acetate ...
Kochiadakis George E - - 2007
In 12 patients we assessed the effect of inhaled salbutamol on the coronary circulation. According to our results, large doses of salbutamol increase coronary flow, but not in proportion to the needs of the myocardium (as documented by the increase in coronary oxygen extraction), and decrease coronary flow reserve. These ...
Lagunilla J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: High thoracic epidural techniques are increasingly being used in patients scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting. In the present study, we evaluated the acute effects of the epidural blockade on myocardial oxygen availability by means of tissue oxygen pressure monitoring in patients submitted for surgical revascularization. ...
Ohri Sunil K - - 2006
Cardiac surgery is associated with a low incidence of GI complications, but with a disproportionate mortality. A number of risk factors have become established which identify patients at risk. CPB is associated with profound reductions in mucosal blood flow. Mesenteric perfusion is altered by primary endothelial dysfunction, which may further ...
Kronenberg Marvin W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is associated with left ventricular remodeling, hypertrophy, and mitochondrial metabolic abnormalities in vitro. We evaluated the hypothesis that energy supply, as judged by the rate of myocardial oxidative metabolism, is inadequate to meet oxygen demand in patients with NIDCM compared with normal subjects. METHODS AND ...
Vanky F B - - 2006
AIM: Post ischemic disturbances of myocardial metabolism that may contribute to postoperative heart failure and are accessible to metabolic treatment have been identified early after coronary surgery. Knowledge derived from these studies may not be applicable to other patient groups. Therefore we studied myocardial energy metabolism in patients operated for ...
Mahajan Aman - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 100% oxygen and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and transpulmonary gradient (TPG) in dilated cardiomyopathy patients being evaluated for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT); who, despite maximal intravenous (IV) dilator therapy, had persistent moderate-to-severe ...
Minkovich Leonid - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary atelectasis and hypoxemia remain considerable problems after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of consecutive vital capacity maneuvers (C-VCMs) to improve oxygenation in patients after cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral teaching center. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-five patients requiring ...
Zhou Lufang - - 2006
In response to exercise, the heart increases its metabolic rate severalfold while maintaining energy species (e.g., ATP, ADP, and Pi) concentrations constant; however, the mechanisms that regulate this response are unclear. Limited experimental studies show that the classic regulatory species NADH and NAD+ are also maintained nearly constant with increased ...
Deitch E J - - 2006
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in how growth hormone (GH) transgenesis affects fish physiology. However, the results of these studies are often difficult to interpret because the transgenic and non-transgenic fish had very different environmental/rearing histories. This study used a stable line of size-matched ...
Mobini Reza - - 2006
Although beta-adrenergic blockade is beneficial in heart failure, inhibition of central sympathetic outflow using moxonidine has been associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we studied the acute effects of the imidazoline-receptor agonist moxonidine on haemodynamics, NA (noradrenaline) kinetics and myocardial metabolism. Fifteen patients with CHF (chronic heart failure) ...
Van Ginderdeuren Filip - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of digital clubbing on oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry measurements (SpO2) in Cystic Fibrosis patients. BACKGROUND: Measuring the arterial oxygen saturation at the fingertip by pulse-oximetry is commonly used in the management of CF patients. In these patients, clinical signs of hyperoxia are often observed ...
Murdoch Colin E - - 2006
Reactive oxygen species play important roles in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure secondary to chronic left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction. Reactive oxygen species influence several components of the phenotype of the failing heart, including contractile function, interstitial fibrosis, endothelial dysfunction and myocyte hypertrophy. Recent studies implicate the production ...
Sen Chandan K - - 2006
Focal coronary artery blockage followed by further reperfusion injury is commonly involved in myocardial infarction. The injured heart has some inherent reparative responses. Although such natural healing mechanisms seem to be inefficient, a clear understanding of the underlying principles of myocardial healing holds the key to successful therapy. Under normoxic ...
d'Agostino Chiara - - 2006
Acute inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase causes a reversible alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged NO synthase inhibition alters cardiac metabolic phenotype. Seven chronically instrumented dogs were treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 35 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) po) for 10 days to inhibit NO synthesis, and ...
Bjerrum Jacob T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cardioplegic solutions on myocardial oxygenation during surgical revascularization. METHODS: In 30 patients, randomized to receive crystalloid (CC) or blood (BC) cardioplegia, myocardial oxygen tension was measured continuously by polarography. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of ...
Wikenheiser Jamie - - 2006
Tissue hypoxia plays a critical role in normal development, including cardiogenesis. Previously, we showed that oxygen concentration, as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5, is lowest in the outflow tract (OFT) myocardium of the developing chicken heart and may be regulating events in OFT morphogenesis. In this study, we identified ...
Tendera Michal - - 2006
Pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine during exercise results in the decrease in oxygen demand and the increase in oxygen supply through the prolongation of diastole. These properties are crucial for its beneficial effect in patients with chronic stable angina. The ability of ivabradine to reduce the heart rate at ...
Ritchie Rebecca H - - 2006
1. Metabolic remodelling in the heart occurs in response to chronically altered workload and substrate availability. Recently, the importance of the metabolic remodelling processes inherent in the hypertrophic growth response (whether primary or secondary) has been recognized. 2. Altered energy demand, shifts in substrate utilization and increased oxidative stress are ...
Matschke K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Experimental data have shown the potential risk of cellular damage of the myocardium during extra corporeal circulation (ECC). The influence of ECC on myocardial oxygen tension however remained unclear. Therefore, the influence of ECC on the oxygen tension in a beating heart was investigated. METHODS: In a pig animal ...
von Heymann Christian - - 2006
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces hemodilutional anemia, which frequently requires the transfusion of blood products. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxygen delivery and consumption and clinical outcome in low risk patients who were allocated to an hematocrit (Hct) of 20% versus 25% during normothermic CPB for elective coronary ...
Mass? Linda - - 2005
Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a clinical condition that is caused by a transient decrease in systemic perfusion secondary to myocardial dysfunction. The outcome is an imbalance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption at the cellular level which leads to metabolic acidosis. Although LCOS is observed most commonly in ...
Nicholls Tim P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to describe the early time course of hemodynamic and tissue perfusion and oxygenation patterns in survivors and nonsurvivors after head injury; to suggest physiologic mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns; and to evaluate postinjury parameters that might be useful for treatment. The hypothesis ...
Rosano Giuseppe M C - - 2005
Diabetic patients with ischaemic heart disease have a greater amount of myocardial ischaemia, often silent, and an increased incidence of heart failure compared to nondiabetic patients. This is the result of altered myocardial metabolism and accelerated atherogenesis with involvement of peripheral coronary segments causing chronic hypoperfusion and diffuse hybernation. In ...
Suzuki Takeshi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Since beta-blocker therapy is known to be effective in patients with an injured heart, such as infarction, we designed the present study to examine the protective effects of infusion of the beta1-selective blocker esmolol on myocardial function in peritonitis-induced septic rats using an isolated working heart preparation. DESIGN: Randomized ...
Kirkeby-Garstad I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: An acute increase in oxygen demand can be compensated for either by increased cardiac index (CI) or increased oxygen extraction, resulting in reduced mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). We tested the hypothesis that post-operative cardiac dysfunction may explain why oxygen extraction alone is increased during early mobilization after cardiac ...
Thoennissen Nils H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Microembolic signals (MES) can be detected by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). To identify gaseous microemboli the inhalation of oxygen is an established method in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Time domain analysis of sample volume length (SVL) and of frequency modulation showed promising results in the discrimination between solid ...
Lepore John J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Irreversible, severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) can produce right heart failure and early mortality after cardiac transplantation. We hypothesized that dipyridamole, an inhibitor of Type 5 phosphodiesterase, would augment the ability of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) to identify reversibility of PH. METHODS: In 9 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) ...
Shoemaker William C - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aims were a) to noninvasively monitor acute emergency trauma patients beginning within 1 hr after admission to the emergency department; b) to prospectively predict outcome; and c) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various modes of therapy. DESIGN: Prospective outcome prediction study using a mathematical search and display ...
Matschke Klaus - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The influence of heart rate on cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and myocardial activity has been widely investigated. However, the influence of heart rate on myocardial oxygen tension (pO2) remains unclear. Since the introduction of flexible pO2 micro catheters to measure partial oxygen tension in a working muscle, it is ...
Lei Biao - - 2005
Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits myocardial glucose transport and metabolism, although the underlying mechanism(s) and functional consequences of this effect are not clearly understood. We tested the hypothesis that NO inhibits the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and translocation of cardiac glucose transporters (GLUTs; GLUT-4) and reduces lactate production. Ischemia ...
Conti C Richard - - 2005
The basic principle of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is diastolic augmentation of arterial pressure, lowering of systolic arterial pressure along with increasing venous return. EECP is a noninvasive procedure involving sequential inflation and rapid deflation of compressive cuffs wrapped around the patient's calves, thighs, and lower abdomen, timed to the ...
Mahle William T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy have expanded to include cardiopulmonary arrest and support after congenital heart surgery. Data from a national registry have reported that cardiac patients have the poorest survival of all extracorporeal membrane oxygenation recipients. Concerns have been raised about the appropriateness of such an aggressive ...
Burkhoff Daniel - - 2005
Despite the availability of interventional catheterization for patients with acute coronary syndromes, there is an unavoidable delay until the occluded coronary artery(s) can be revascularized, during which time persistent ischemia may lead to irreversible myocardial damage despite subsequently high patency rates. Accordingly, there has been an intense effort to develop ...
Michaels Andrew D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing agent and an inodilator under current investigation in the treatment of decompensated heart failure. The effects of intravenous levosimendan on the human coronary vasculature, together with myocardial wall stress and oxygen uptake, have not been adequately studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten adult patients underwent right- ...
Giordano Frank J - - 2005
A constant supply of oxygen is indispensable for cardiac viability and function. However, the role of oxygen and oxygen-associated processes in the heart is complex, and they and can be either beneficial or contribute to cardiac dysfunction and death. As oxygen is a major determinant of cardiac gene expression, and ...
Hare Joshua M - - 2005
There is growing evidence that the altered production and/or spatiotemporal distribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species creates oxidative and/or nitrosative stresses in the failing heart and vascular tree, which contribute to the abnormal cardiac and vascular phenotypes that characterize the failing cardiovascular system. These derangements at the integrated system ...
Steinhauer Tad - - 2005
The heart pumps blood through a system of blood vessels under the control of an electric conduction system to deliver oxygen to all cells of the body. When the blood volume becomes greater than the limited volume capacity of the vascular system, the patient develops hypertension. When the myocardium does ...
Portman Michael A - - 2005
Thyroid acting through ligand binding to nuclear receptors modifies myocardial respiratory kinetics and oxidative phosphorylation in the heart. Direct nongenomic action of thyroid hormone on high-energy phosphate concentrations and respiratory kinetics has never been proven in vivo but might be responsible for observed changes in oxygen utilization efficiency immediately after ...
Frostfeldt Gunnar - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Early reperfusion is an established therapeutic objective in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The relationship of regional myocardial microcirculation and metabolism toward outcome in acute human MI is not well known. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8 patients, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with oxygen 15-labeled water at 3 hours, ...
Maekawa Takuji - - 2005
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of propofol on contractility and oxygen balance in acute ischemic myocardium and compared them with those of normal myocardium using a coronary microembolization model in dogs. METHODS: In open-chest dogs, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was perfused through an extracorporeal bypass from the ...
Ouattara Alexandre - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Terlipressin, a synthetic analog of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), has been proposed as an effective vasopressive therapy in catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock. Although beneficial effects of terlipressin on systemic arterial pressure have been clearly demonstrated, its intrinsic effects on coronary circulation and myocardial performances remain unknown. METHODS: The authors compared the coronary ...
Ejike J Chiaka - - 2005
Previous work from this laboratory using near-infrared optical spectroscopy of myoglobin has shown that approximately 20% of the myocardium is hypoxic in buffer-perfused hearts that are perfused with fully oxygenated buffer at 37 degrees C. The present study was undertaken to determine cardiac myoglobin saturation in buffer-perfused hearts when cardiac ...
Bilkovski Robert N - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of the traumatically injured patient has evolved during the past half century despite continually high morbidity and mortality rates. The management of the trauma victim requires timely intervention and damage control in an attempt to maintain normal hemodynamic parameters and adequate systemic perfusion. There is ...
Allamaneni Shyam S R - - 2004
Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with clinical varicoceles; however, its correlation with varicocele grade and testis size is unknown. In our study, seminal ROS levels showed significant correlation with left varicocele grade and significantly elevated seminal ROS levels were seen in men with left varicocele grade ...
Setty Srinath - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in oxygen demand-supply balance in hypoperfused canine right ventricular myocardium. METHODS: The right coronary artery of anesthetized, open-chest dogs was perfused at pressures of 80, 60, and 40 mm Hg, and right ventricular myocardial oxygen consumption, right coronary blood ...
Nicholson Christopher - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute cardiac chest pain receive oxygen as part of their treatment. Oxygen is given in the belief it will help to correct the oxygen demand - supply imbalance of acute myocardial ischaemia. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to review the evidence base for the use of ...
Dekleva Milica - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The role of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with acute myocardial infarction is controversial, ranging from not beneficial to having a favorable effect. This randomized study was conducted to further assess the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen treatment after thrombolysis on left ventricular function and remodeling in patients with acute myocardial ...
Dworschak Martin - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) supplementation may modify myocardial oxygen consumption and vascular function after ischemia. We investigated the effects of the NO donor, S-nitroso human serum albumin (S-NO-HSA), on cardiac oxygen metabolism during controlled reperfusion on normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass after severe myocardial ischemia. Pigs randomly received either S-NO-HSA or human serum ...
Zhang Jianyi - - 2005
NO and O(2) compete at cytochrome-c oxidase, thus potentially allowing NO to modulate mitochondrial respiration. We previously observed a decrease of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP during very high cardiac work states, corresponding to an increase in cytosolic free ADP. This study tested the hypothesis that NO inhibition of respiration contributes to ...
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