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Gundewar Susheel - - 2009
Clinical studies have reported that the widely used antihyperglycemic drug metformin significantly reduces cardiac risk factors and improves clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms by which metformin exerts these cardioprotective effects remain unclear and may be independent of antihyperglycemic effects. We tested the hypothesis that chronic activation ...
Isaka Mitsuhiro - - 2008
Perfluoro-octyl bromide (PFOB), one of the perfluorochemical oxygen transporters, improved postischemic cardiac dysfunctions. Also norepinephrine (NE) is one of the important inducible factors on reperfusion arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation [VF]). We used these methods to evaluate the relationship between PFOB emulsion and NE release on reperfusion arrhythmias. The perfusion of isolated ...
Skyschally Andreas - - 2009
Ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) reduces infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion. Whether or not phosphorylation of RISK (reperfusion injury salvage kinases) (AKT, ERK1/2, P70S6K, GSK3beta) is causal for protection by IPoC is controversial. We therefore studied the impact of RISK on IPoC in anesthetized pigs subjected to 90 minutes of left anterior descending ...
García-Villalón Angel Luis - - 2009
AIMS: Diadenosine polyphosphates are vasoactive mediators that may be released from platelet granules and which may be present at higher concentrations during coronary ischaemia-reperfusion. The objective of this study was to analyse their effects in such conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation and the ...
Penna Claudia - - 2009
Whether cardioprotection by postconditioning (PostC) is gender dependent is not clear. We studied the effect of PostC in terms of both infarct size (IS) and post-ischemic systolic dysfunction (PSD) reduction. Isolated male and female rat hearts were subjected to 10- or 30-min of global ischemia and 120-min of reperfusion, with ...
de Diego Carlos - - 2008
Electrophysiological changes promoting arrhythmias during acute regional ischemia/reperfusion are challenging to study in intact cardiac tissue because of complex 3-dimensional myocardial and vascular geometry. We characterized electrophysiological alterations and arrhythmias during regional ischemia/reperfusion in a simpler 2-dimensional geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers. Optical mapping of intracellular Ca ...
Henninger Nils - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is increasingly used to assess adequate occlusion after embolic stroke (ES) in rats. METHODS: Employing LDF, relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was continuously monitored during the first 2 h following ES and correlated with 24 h 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)-staining of corrected infarct ...
Gibson C Michael - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), rapid reperfusion is associated with improved mortality. As such, door-to-needle (D2N) and door-to-balloon (D2B) times have become metrics of quality of care and targets for intense quality improvement. METHODS: The National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI) collected data regarding reperfusion therapy, ...
Larsen J R - - 2008
AIMS: Volatile anaesthetics prevent experimental myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) in several species, but this finding is partially inconsistent with clinical evidence. Some experimental models may not accurately represent the complex signal transduction pathways triggered by volatile anaesthetics. We therefore investigated sevoflurane I/R prevention in vivo in a porcine model with ...
Merritt Matthew E ME Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. - - 2008
Isolated rat hearts were studied by (31)P NMR and (13)C NMR. Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate was supplied to control normoxic hearts and production of [1-(13)C]lactate, [1-(13)C]alanine, (13)CO(2) and H(13)CO(-) (3) was monitored with 1-s temporal resolution. Hearts were also subjected to 10 min of global ischemia followed by reperfusion. Developed pressure, heart ...
Mohan Iyyapu K - - 2009
Many cardiac interventional procedures, such as coronary angioplasty, stenting, and thrombolysis, attempt to reintroduce blood flow (reperfusion) to an ischemic region of myocardium. However, the reperfusion is accompanied by a complex cascade of cellular and molecular events resulting in oxidative damage, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we ...
McCully James D - - 2009
Previously, we demonstrated that ischemia induces mitochondrial damage and dysfunction that persist throughout reperfusion and impact negatively on postischemic functional recovery and cellular viability. We hypothesized that viable respiration-competent mitochondria, isolated from tissue unaffected by ischemia and then injected into the ischemic zone just before reperfusion, would enhance postischemic functional ...
Yang Zequan - - 2008
The activation of adenosine 2A receptors before reperfusion following coronary artery occlusion reduces infarct size and improves ejection fraction (EF). In this study, we examined the effects of delaying treatment with the adenosine 2A receptor agonist ATL146e (ATL) until 1 h postreperfusion. The infarct size and EF were serially assessed ...
Motoki Atsuko - - 2008
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis ...
Lie R H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Timely reperfusion is a prerequisite for myocardial salvage; however, re-oxygenation of the ischemic myocardium initiates reperfusion injury. Post-conditioning diminishes the detrimental aftermath of an acute myocardial infarction through alleviation of reperfusion injury. Ischemic post-conditioning consists of a series of brief interruptions in the coronary blood supply that has to ...
LeDoux John F - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that unloading the left ventricle with intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation just prior to reperfusion provides infarct salvage compared with left ventricular (LV) unloading postreperfusion or reperfusion alone. BACKGROUND: Previous reports demonstrated infarct salvage with complete LV unloading with an LVAD prior to reperfusion; however, partial LV ...
Inserte Javier - - 2009
AIMS: Indirect data suggest that delayed recovery of intracellular pH (pHi) during reperfusion is involved in postconditioning protection, and calpain activity has been shown to be pH-dependent. We sought to characterize the effect of ischaemic postconditioning on pHi recovery during reperfusion and on calpain-dependent proteolysis, an important mechanism of myocardial ...
Escabí-Mendoza José - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients that present with acute STEMI have proven morbidity and mortality benefit from early reperfusion therapy. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines recommend either fibrinolytic therapy within 30 minutes or a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 90 minutes of patients arrival to the Emergency Department. ...
Leshnower Bradley G - - 2008
Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) has been shown to contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We sought to demonstrate that the myocardial protective effect of inhibiting MPTP opening with cyclosporine A (CsA) results in stabilization of mitochondrial morphology and is independent of CsA-induced calcineurin inhibition. Thirty-seven rabbits were ...
Meyer K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan improves ventricular function, induces vasodilation and induces myocardial preconditioning. We determined the external efficiency and assessed the effects on arrhythmias. METHODS: In isolated, blood-perfused rabbit hearts, levosimendan (0.75 micromol) or placebo was administered, while hemodynamics were recorded. After no-flow ischemia and reperfusion, data were recorded again. RESULTS: Placebo ...
Bonios Michael J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Studies of the IABP have reported variable effects on coronary blood flow (CBF). The purpose of the present study was to measure the changes in coronary blood flow induced by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation in normal and reperfused porcine myocardium. METHODS: A 30-ml IABP was placed in the ...
Yang Q - - 2008
We investigated whether chronic fetal anaemia affects myocardial infarct in adulthood and elicits functional modifications in adult coronary vasoreactivity. Seven-month-old sheep that were made anaemic in utero and transfused to normal haematocrit before birth were studied. Infarct size was determined by tetrazolium after 1-h ischaemia (occlusion of the mid of ...
Doue Tomoki - - 2008
Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) during or immediately after myocardial ischemia can reduce subsequent myocardial apoptosis, a key phenomenon in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we assessed the effect of EPO on (99m)Tc-annexin V myocardial uptake and whether the accumulation of (99m)Tc-annexin V can predict cardiac remodeling and functional deterioration. ...
Moss Nancy C NC Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2008
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury remains a vexing problem. Translating experimental strategies that deliver protective agents before the ischemic insult limits clinical applicability. We targeted 2 proteins in the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway, inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta, and 26S cardiac proteasome to determine their cardioprotective effects when delivered during reperfusion. C57BL/6 mice underwent ...
Filusch Arthur - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The ability to assess myocardial perfusion in small animals is important, especially to investigate models of myocardial ischemia. Myocardial perfusion is usually assessed by postmortem techniques, eliminating the possibility of follow-up in intervention studies. The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of real time myocardial contrast ...
Booth Erin Anne - - 2008
There is an accumulating body of data to suggest that estrogen mediates its cardioprotective effects via cyclooxygenase activation and synthesis of prostaglandins (PG), specifically PGI2. We hypothesized that inhibition of COX-2 would prevent estrogen's cardioprotective effects after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Acute treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E2; 20 microg/rabbit) increased COX-2 protein expression ...
Monassier Jean-Pierre - - 2008
Two forms of reperfusion injury can occur in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction who are undergoing primary angioplasty: no-reflow phenomenon and reperfusion syndrome. No-reflow, defined as low or no distal perfusion despite removal of epicardial occlusion, can be detected by angiographic flow, myocardial blush grade and contrast echocardiography. ...
Kamada Noriko - - 2008
Propofol exerts cardioprotective effects, but the involved mechanisms remain obscure. The present study examines the cardioprotective effects of propofol and its role in cardiac function, including its effect on K(ATP) channel opening and the inhibition of GSK-3beta activity in ischemia-reperfused hearts. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was produced in isolated guinea pig hearts ...
Gao Hao-Kao - - 2008
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta inhibitors play an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that GSK-3beta inhibitors protect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the roles of inflammation and apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the cardioprotection by GSK-3beta inhibitor ...
Liu Ru-xiu - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the Chinese medicine Qiangxin Fumai Granule (, QFG) on electrophysiological functions of the sinoatrial node during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of the right coronary artery in rabbits. METHODS: The right coronary artery IR model in rabbits was adopted. The modeled rabbits were randomly divided into 4 ...
Kiss A - - 2008
Exogenous peroxynitrite from nanomolar to micromolar concentrations exerts cardioprotection. Here, we have assessed its effects on ischaemia- and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in vivo and a possible role for mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in these effects, using the channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD). Chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized dogs were treated twice for 5 min with peroxynitrite ...
George Isaac I Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, - - 2008
Studies on myocardial function have shown that hsp70, stimulated by an increase in temperature, leads to improved survival following ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) also induce the stress protein hsp70, but without elevating temperature. We have examined the hemodynamic changes in concert with EMF pre-conditioning and the induction ...
Miura Tetsuji - - 2008
This review takes a critical look at the current effectiveness of reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction and at the potential for cardioprotective agents to improve it. Reperfusion alone limits the median value of infarct size to approximately 50% of the ischemic region. However, the range of infarct sizes is ...
Toufektsian Marie-Claire - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is associated with increased inflammatory processes that can exert deleterious effects and therefore contribute to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the administration of sTNFR-Fc, a scavenger of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, at the time of reperfusion would ...
Chen Hong-tao - - 2008
AIM: The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 protects against ischemic-reperfusion injury. Whether ERK1/2 mediates the cardioprotection of sevoflurane postconditioning is unknown. We tested whether sevoflurane postconditioning produces cardioprotection via an ERK1/2-dependent mechanism. METHODS: In protocol 1, Langendorff-perfused Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (n=84, 12 per group), with the exception of the ...
Kawada Toru - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate vagal stimulation-mediated myocardial protection against ischemia and reperfusion in in vivo ischemic myocardium. MAIN METHODS: We measured myocardial interstitial myoglobin levels in the ischemic region using a cardiac microdialysis technique in anesthetized and vagotomized cats. We occluded the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 60 min ...
Prunier Fabrice - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias are life-threatening complications of heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Increased diastolic Ca2+ overload occurring in ischemia leads to afterdepolarizations and aftercontractions that are responsible for cellular electric instability. We inquired whether sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA2a) overexpression could reduce ischemic ventricular arrhythmias by modulating Ca2+ overload. ...
Hale Sharon L - - 2008
It has been suggested that ranolazine protects the ischemic/reperfused heart by reducing diastolic wall pressure during ischemia. However, there is limited information regarding the effect of ranolazine on the anatomic zone of no-flow in a model of acute myocardial occlusion/reperfusion. Before coronary artery occlusion (CAO), open-chest anesthetized rabbits were assigned ...
Cohen Michael V - - 2008
Repetitive cycles of reflow/reocclusion in the initial 2 min following release of a prolonged coronary occlusion, i.e., ischemic postconditioning (IPoC), salvages ischemic myocardium. We have proposed that the intermittent ischemia prevents formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) by maintaining an acidic myocardial pH for several minutes until survival kinases ...
Heusch Gerd - - 2008
AIMS: Effects of the bradycardic agent ivabradine on regional blood flow, contractile function, and infarct size were studied in a pig model of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. Heart rate reduction by beta-blockade is associated with negative inotropism and unmasked alpha-adrenergic coronary vasoconstriction. Ivabradine is the only available bradycardic agent for clinical use. ...
Lauzier Benjamin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is at present a tragic lack of organs available for transplantation. This has led to the harvesting of hearts from older donors. Unfortunately, hearts from such donors are much more sensitive to ischemic insult. Models such as "Senescence Accelerated Mouse" Prone 8 (SAM-P8) can help understand this sensitivity. ...
van Vuuren Derick - - 2008
PURPOSE: Despite the attention focussed on postconditioning (postC; brief cycles of reperfusion/ischaemia at the onset of reperfusion, conferring cardioprotection against reperfusion injury), an infarct sparing effect for postC in the isolated working heart model has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to develop a cardioprotective postC protocol ...
Tawa Masashi - - 2008
Endothelin-1 and norepinephrine are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenously generated endothelin-1 in ischemia/reperfusion-induced norepinephrine overflow and cardiac dysfunction using a nonselective prototype of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor, phosphoramidon, and a selective ECE inhibitor, SM-19712 (4-chloro-N-[[(4-cyano-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide, monosodium salt). According ...
Rempf C - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of administering a perfluorochemical-based oxygen therapeutic such as perflubron emulsion (Oxygen) prior to ischaemia is currently unknown, although there is evidence for potential beneficial effects for the perioperative treatment in cardiac risk patients. This experimental study investigated the efficacy of perflubron emulsion in preventing reperfusion ...
Tamareille Sophie - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that after an acute myocardial infarction, endothelin-1 release with subsequent calcium overload is a mediator of myocardial reperfusion injury, which can be inhibited, in part, by left ventricular unloading immediately before reperfusion. We recently have reported that left ventricular ...
Gonzalez Felix M - - 2008
Accumulating evidence suggests that the ubiquitous anion nitrite (NO2-) is a physiological signaling molecule, with roles in intravascular endocrine nitric oxide transport, hypoxic vasodilation, signaling, and cytoprotection. Thus, nitrite could enhance the efficacy of reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. The specific aims of this study were (1) to assess ...
Daire J L - - 2008
The aim of this study was to measure the myocardial area at risk in rat, using MRI and manganese injection during a coronary occlusion/reperfusion model at 1.5T. A sequential protocol with occlusion and MnCl2 injection immediately followed by MRI was used with the assumption that MnCl2-induced contrast persistence is enough ...
Kacmaz Fehmi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although ischemia induced QRS complex changes have been described previously, their relationship with impaired reperfusion, which is known to be associated with poor clinical outcomes, is not clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the relationship of QRS duration changes with myocardial reperfusion, we studied 165 acute myocardial infarction (MI) ...
Peart Jason N - - 2008
The temporal properties of kappa-opioid receptor (kappa-OR) mediated cardioprotection are less well characterised than delta-opioid receptor (delta-OR) responses. This study was aimed at delineating the time course of kappa-OR-mediated protection in two experimental models: an in vivo rat model of regional myocardial infarction (30 min of left coronary artery occlusion ...
Shibata Itsuko - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of administration time for fasudil treatment of the stunned myocardium in 40 anesthetized open chest swine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All swine were subjected to 12 min ischemia followed by reperfusion to generate stunned myocardium. Group A (n = 11) received saline in place of fasudil ...
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