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Galvani M - - 1999
Coronary thrombosis is an important determinant of prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the identification of patients at high-risk for progression of coronary thrombosis is difficult partly because we currently lack clinically meaningful laboratory methods for its detection. The most promising approaches involve the measurement in plasma ...
Hari C K - - 1999
We describe a patient who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma following the application of topical intranasal cocaine. A 46-year-old woman underwent an elective antral washout under general anaesthesia and with local application of 25 per cent cocaine paste to the nasal mucosa. Twenty-four hours post-operatively the patient developed sudden painful blindness ...
de la Sayette V - - 1999
A 54 year old man experienced excruciating left retro-orbital pain with lacrimation and redness of the eye representative of a cluster headache attack. This was followed by left hemiparesis with plegia of the lower limb and left Horner's syndrome. Five days later the hemiparesis recovered while the patient developed hypoanaesthesia ...
Guharoy R - - 1999
We describe experience with 6 cases of methamphetamine overdose. Because of its low cost, easy availability and longer duration of action compared to cocaine, methamphetamine has become the drug of choice in various communities. Marked change in mental status was observed in all of our patients. One patient had a ...
Devi B G - - 1999
The role of cocaine in cardiac ischemia and subsequent reversible and irreversible pathologic changes is well established. Nevertheless, the mechanisms leading to cardiac injury and irreversible cellular changes remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are the critical mediators of cellular damage during ischemia-reperfusion. To explore the response of cardiac oxidative ...
Dilley A - - 1998
A genetic variation in the prothrombin gene is located in the 3-untranslated region at position 20210 where a G-->A transition occurs. The prevalence of the mutation is 1% to 2% in white populations, and the mutation is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis and myocardial infarction. We report ...
Du X J - - 1998
Cardiac ischemia and anoxia induce massive norepinephrine (NE) release, which is mediated by a reverse operation of uptake-1 and can be suppressed by uptake-1 inhibitors. We studied effects of uptake-1 inhibitors on incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF%) and myocardial contracture in perfused rat hearts under ischemic or anoxic conditions. NE ...
Rudas G - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of echogenic debris in the spinal subarachnoid space of neonates at risk for progressive ventricular dilatation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Spinal sonography was performed on 15 neonates with severe intracranial hemorrhage (n = 10) or bacterial meningitis (n = 5). ...
Amano Y - - 1998
We report two cases of infarcts of the spinal cord with contrast enhancement of the cauda equina on MRI. As enhancement of the infarcted spinal cord waned, that of cauda equina was definite. These appearances suggest disruption of the blood-tissue barrier and possibly hyperaemia of cauda equina following infarcts of ...
Ho P C - - 1998
Ipecac, an over-the-counter emetic agent, has been a drug of choice for abuse by patients with eating disorders. Its alkaloid emetine has been associated with serious cardiac toxicity; however, the dose effect has not been well established. We present a patient with anorexia and bulimia nervosa who ingested ipecac chronically ...
Lentz S R - - 1998
Hyperhomocysteinemia is now recognized as a common risk factor for thrombotic vascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and venous thrombosis. Studies of cultured cells in vitro indicate that homocysteine has prothrombotic effects on the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. An association between moderate hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular dysfunction was confirmed ...
Espínola-Zavaleta Nilda Gladys - - 1998
We present the case of a patient with a biventricular myocardial infarction induced by cocaine and a large left and a smaller right ventricular apical thrombus. Serial multiplane transesophageal echocardiography was used to document the morphological course of the thrombi during anticoagulation therapy over a period of 6 weeks.
Meyer T - - 1998
This report describes the simultaneous manifestation of ischemic heart disease and nephrotic syndrome in a 37-year-old woman presenting with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome, such as facial and peripheral edema accompanied by proteinuria and hyperlipidemia, and onset of severe retrosternal pain developed within 24 h. Coronary angiography ...
Scobie B A - - 1998
This paper reports two patients with catastrophic complications after marathon-type running not hitherto documented. The first, who collapsed with acute abdominal pains, was found at surgery to have infarction of the omentum and later, after a second laparotomy, acute oedematous pancreatitis. The second patient, who collapsed semi-comatose with hyperthermia, developed ...
Bhuiyan M S - - 1998
We report a case of paraplegia in the immediate postoperative period following right bilobectomy for carcinoma of the lung. An epidural catheter had been inserted following induction of anaesthesia and an infusion of bupivacaine 0.15% was used for postoperative pain relief. Magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal any spinal or ...
Puurunen M - - 1998
In a prospective study on healthy middle-aged men, high level of antibodies to prothrombin implied a risk of myocardial infarction. The possible mechanism(s) of these antibodies in coronary thrombosis are not known. Because prothrombin belongs to the kringle proteins and shares structural homology with a fibrinolytic kringle protein plasminogen, we ...
Faig J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Acute spontaneous spinal cord syndromes often remain etiologically ambiguous despite extensive diagnostic efforts. In the previous literature five cases are described with acute spinal cord syndromes interpreted as spinal cord ischemic strokes because of association with vertebral body infarctions on MRI. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Three cases are presented, and the ...
Heavner J E - - 1998
Isolated hearts from two strains of rats bred for sensitivity or resistance to amygdala kindling that also exhibit, in vivo, differential sensitivity to the cardiotoxicity of cocaine were studied. The goal was to determine if the differential cardiotoxic sensitivity was due, at least in part, to intrinsic strain-dependent differences in ...
Tacker W A - - 1998
We investigated in sheep, non-thoracotomy extraction of leads which had been chronically implanted in the right atrium (RA), coronary sinus/great cardiac vein (CS/GCV) and right ventricle (RV) for atrial implantable defibrillation. Clinical success of extraction as well as gross and histologic findings in the heart are reported. Six of nine ...
Hermanns B - - 1998
Thrombosis is a common complication in polycythemia often causing death. In coronary artery occlusion, thrombosis due to hyperviscosity and thrombocytosis is mostly discussed as the origin of the infarction. We discuss the case of a 30-year-old male patient, with polycythemia, who died of myocardial infarction. On autopsy the vessels showed ...
Wharton R H - - 1997
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have excessive appetite with the ability to consume large quantities of food. Absence of vomiting and a high pain threshold are considered manifestations of the disorder. We present 6 patients with PWS with acute dramatic gastric distention. In 3 young adult women with vomiting and ...
Galetta S L - - 1997
We report an elderly patient with aggressive steroid-refractory giant cell arteritis manifesting as myelopathy and bilateral visual loss while on treatment. Pathologically, spinal cord infarction was observed and was due to extensive necrotizing granulomatous arteritis of spinal arteries. Spinal cord damage in giant cell arteritis is rare. One prior autopsy ...
Norrsell H - - 1997
AIMS: Spinal cord stimulation has been used in the treatment of intractable angina pectoris since the beginning of the 1980s. This study was designed to investigate whether the documented anti-ischaemic effects of spinal cord stimulation are mediated through a decrease in sympathetic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with a ...
Grellner W - - 1997
Before an exhumation the question of its possible success usually arises. This paper aims to act as an aid by providing comprehensive lists ("expectation catalogues") of morphological and toxicological findings with their corresponding postmortem intervals. All organ systems are included. The results are based on the retrospective evaluation of 46 ...
Forbes T J - - 1997
We have observed six patients with life-threatening superior vena caval or pulmonary thrombosis after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt. With the use of a case control study we sought to identify perioperative risk factors for this thrombotic complication. Medical records of six patients with cavopulmonary thrombosis and those of 24 patients ...
Fuster V - - 1997
Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of coronary atherosclerosis has remarkably changed in the last few years. The types of atherosclerotic lesions, the mechanisms of progression of coronary atherosclerosis with plaque instability and disruption, and the subsequent thrombotic phenomenon leading to acute coronary syndromes are now better understood. Therapeutic strategies leading ...
Yao S S - - 1997
We describe a case of cocaine-associated acute myocardial infarction managed by cardiac catheterization and intracoronary thrombolysis. Based on this and other reported cases, it appears that an invasive approach to the management of cocaine-associated acute myocardial infarction is advantageous over intravenous thrombolysis. Such a strategy would define the pathophysiology of ...
Hoffman R S - - 1997
Cocaine remains the most common cause of illicit drug-related visits to emergency departments, 40% of which result from chest pain. It is estimated that over half of the 64,000 patients evaluated annually for cocaine-associated chest pain will be admitted to hospitals for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia or infarction, at ...
Cockings J G - - 1997
"On the street", the more expensive illegal psychostimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamine, may be mixed with or substituted for cheaper drugs such as ephedrine-with added risk to the user. We report diffuse myocardial injury in a 25-year-old man who presented with pulmonary oedema after intravenously injecting himself with ephedrine, ...
Bauer L O - - 1997
The present study evaluated smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) function in 36 cocaine-dependent patients, with or without a paternal history of alcoholism, and 12 nondrug-dependent normal volunteers. None of the subjects in either group met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, or delusional, major affective, or schizotypal personality disorders. None possessed ...
Lee W C - - 1997
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is considered as an ominous prognostic sign and indicates the need for urgent surgical intervention. It has been associated with a wide variety of abdominal catastrophes, but the commonest and most serious one is infarcted bowel. This disease entity is difficult to be detected by ...
Pitts W R - - 1997
As cocaine abuse has become widespread, it has been associated with various cardiovascular complications, including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Cocaine's principal effects on the cardiovascular system are mediated via alpha-adrenergic stimulation and include (1) an increase in the determinants of myocardial oxygen demand (heart rate and ...
Galasko G I - - 1997
Cocaine usage goes back thousands of years, to the times of the Incas. Over the past 20 years, its use has increased dramatically, especially in America, and adverse cardiovascular reactions to the drug have begun to be reported. The first report of myocardial infarction temporally related to the recreational use ...
Rauch A E - - 1997
The hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare yet frequently fatal disorder of unknown etiology characterized by markedly elevated eosinophil counts and subsequent multiple organ failure due presumably to eosinophil-derived protein toxicity. We describe the laboratory and anatomic findings in a 15-year-old female with extraordinarily high circulating levels of eosinophil major ...
Williams M J - - 1997
A young man suffered an acute inferior myocardial infarction following clinical use of cocaine as topical anesthesia. Coronary angiography showed occlusion of both the posterior descending and posterolateral arteries which was resistant to intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin and verapamil, a finding consistent with thrombotic occlusion. A subsequent angiogram 3 months ...
Nakamura M - - 1997
The aim of the present study is primarily to re-examine an animal model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and arterial thrombosis, developed by Constantinides and his colleagues in the 1960s, in both heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits and normal rabbits because they did not study these rabbits. The groups in this study ...
Núñez B D - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute and chronic administration of cocaine could induce myocardial infarction. Twenty-five minipigs were studied before and 4 months after balloon angioplasty of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and balloon denudation of the left circumflex artery (LCx). Minipigs received cocaine ...
Hollander J E - - 1997
PURPOSE: To identify clinical criteria predictive of underlying coronary artery disease in patients with cocaine-associated myocardial infarction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective cross-sectional study design at 29 acute care hospitals, we identified 70 patients with cocaine-associated myocardial infarction who had a determination of the presence or absence of coronary ...
Richards I S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Cocaine and ethanol use is widespread in our society and is not uncommon in pregnant women. Previous work has demonstrated that acute exposure to cocaine produced significant effects on the configuration of human fetal myocardial action potentials and contractility in vitro. It has been hypothesized that these target-specific effects ...
Fineschi V - - 1997
A quantification of different forms of acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial leukocytic infiltrates and myocardial fibrosis was accomplished in 26 chronic cocaine abusers who died of cocaine intoxication and compared to 45 normal subjects who died from head trauma and 38 who died of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The findings were: absence ...
Kleerup E C - - 1997
Some habitual crack cocaine smokers who deny IV drug abuse show decreased pulmonary transfer of carbon monoxide (DCO). We speculated that repeated elevations in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) might cause pulmonary capillary damage and result in a lowered DCO, or that the reduction could be due to anoxic lung injury ...
Siepmann M - - 1997
A 39-year-old man who was known to have Behçet's syndrome suffered an acute posterior-wall myocardial infarction. The infarction occurred 13 years after the onset of the Behçet's disease, which had been marked by recurrent chorioretinitis and thrombosis of the retinal veins of both eyes. Coronary arteriography showed occlusion of the ...
Williams R G - - 1996
To review the data on pharmacology, pathophysiology and treatment of cocaine toxicity, with particular relevance to the heart and cardiovascular system. Published epidemiology, laboratory and clinical studies on the pharmacology, electrophysiology and pathophysiology of cocaine toxicity and its treatment. Cocaine toxicity-related morbidity and mortality are frequent due to the potent ...
LoVecchio F - - 1996
Cocaine-induced myocardial infarct is a medical emergency with increasing prevalence. The efficacy of thrombolytics in patients with cocaine-induced infarcts has not been well studied. This report describes the case of a patient who presented with presumed cocaine-induced myocardial infarct. The patient was treated with intravenous thrombolysis and developed an intraventricular ...
Bapat V N - - 1996
Coronary sinus thrombosis was found at autopsy of a boy who had undergone intracardiac repair of tetrology of Fallot. During the operation persistent left superior vena cava was cannulated through the right atrium via the coronary sinus. There was also evidence of myocardial infarction in the region of the interventricular ...
Little J W - - 1996
Five patients with spinal cord infarction underwent electrophysiologic evaluation. Two subjects with complete paralysis had absent compound muscle action potentials (M-responses), suggesting complete loss of lower motoneurons (LMN). Three subjects with incomplete cord infarction had preserved M-responses, reduced voluntary recruitment and abnormally slow motor-unit firing rates during maximal effort, suggesting ...
Kenyon L C - - 1996
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is usually benign and self-limited. However, particularly in the immunosuppressed host, serious central nervous system complications may occur, including encephalitis, myelitis, and cerebral vascular occlusion. We report the case of a 57-year-old male with AIDS, who rapidly developed a sixth cranial nerve palsy and progressive myelopathy. ...
Gurley M B - - 1996
PURPOSE: To report our experience with transfemoral direct venous thrombolysis and angioplasty to treat central venous and dural sinus occlusion. The cases presented are rare examples of internal jugular occlusion associated with sigmoid sinus thrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two middle-aged, symptomatic female patients were diagnosed with sigmoid sinus and internal ...
Ehrbar H U - - 1996
We describe two patients who had acute myocardial infarctions during episodes of Capnocytophaga canimorsus sepsis. C. canimorsus is associated with severe infection in patients who are immunocompromised; one of these patients had undergone splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease 11 years earlier, and the other consumed significant amounts of alcohol regularly. Both ...
Waller B F - - 1996
Approximately 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction do not have atherosclerotic coronary artery disease but have other causes for their luminal narrowing. The third part of this three-part review of nonatherosclerotic causes of coronary narrowing focuses on coronary vasculitis, infectious diseases, Kawasaki's disease, metabolic disorders, metastatic disease, and substance ...
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