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Results 401 - 450 of 2143
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Blankstein Ron - - 2008
This article begins with a brief overview of the therapeutic agents used in the treatment of heart failure, with a special emphasis on pharmacologic agents that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The discussion then builds upon the basic pathophysiology concepts introduced earlier in this issue to explain how therapies commonly ...
Hoenig Michel R - - 2008
Recent studies revealed an exceedingly high mortality with diastolic heart failure that was previously regarded as relatively benign compared to systolic heart failure. Prominent risk factors for diastolic heart failure are increasing age, hypertension and diabetes. These risk factors are associated with coronary microvascular rarefaction and resultant decreased coronary flow ...
Pitt Bertram B University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2008
Aldosterone blockade is recommended for patients with congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction; however, the perceived risk of hyperkalemia may limit implementation of this therapeutic approach. This subanalysis examined the relationship between eplerenone, serum potassium (K(+)), and clinical outcomes in the Eplerenone Post-Acute ...
Arya Arash - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal drug and device therapy, frequent hospitalisations due to decompensated heart failure remain an issue. Early detection of decompensation could prevent hospitalisation in patients with congestive heart failure. The recently introduced Home Monitoring functionality of implanted devices is a promising new telecardiology technique which provides information on the ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2009
A large number of patients who present with signs or symptoms of heart failure (HF) do not have evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. As a result, HF in the presence of normal or preserved ejection fraction, or diastolic HF, is increasingly recognized as a health care challenge. Guidelines have ...
Velavan Periaswamy - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with short term mortality in hospitalised patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND: Hospitalisation is frequent in patients with heart failure and is associated with a high mortality. METHODS: The Euro Heart Failure survey collected data from patients with suspected heart failure. We searched this data for ...
Popjes Eric - - 2008
Heart failure is one of the most common medical problems faced by patients and clinicians. It has the potential for high morbidity and mortality, and its overall financial cost to society is enormous. Management of heart failure is often difficult and time consuming, and is sometimes frustrating. The usual signs ...
Goebel Jason A - - 2008
Chronic heart failure poses an enormous health care burden to the United States and other developed countries. Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) accounts for nearly half of the morbidity and expense of treating this disease. Most patients presenting with ADHF have symptomatic vascular congestion. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, are the ...
Aneja Ashish - - 2008
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Hyperglycemia seems to be central to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy and to trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli that result in myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition. These processes are thought to be ...
Konstam Marvin A - - 2008
In patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, angiotensin receptor blockers have been found to reduce mortality and morbidity and to prevent or reverse left ventricular remodelling, compared to optimized background treatment. In light of these data, The Heart failure Endpoint evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan ...
Bartha Eva - - 2008
Increased activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic myocardial dysfunction. We have demonstrated the protective effect of PARP inhibitors against postinfarction myocardial remodeling and heart failure. The primary aim of our recent work was to compare the effect and efficacy of ...
Dahl Peter - - 2008
The most recognizable features of hyperthyroidism are those that result from the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on the heart and cardiovascular system: decreased systemic vascular resistance and increased resting heart rate, left ventricular contractility, blood volume, and cardiac output. Although these measures of cardiac performance are enhanced in hyperthyroidism, the ...
de Pouvourville Gérard G Health Economics, ESSEC, avenue Bernard-Hirsch, BP 50105, 95021 Cergy-Pontoise cedex, France. - - 2008
The Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) randomized clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of eplerenone, a new aldosterone antagonist diuretic, with standard treatment versus standard treatment alone in the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular-related hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure after an acute ...
Wertman Brett M - - 2008
Heart failure is a major public health problem and is increasing in incidence throughout the industrialized world. Despite recent advances in pharmacotherapy, the overall mortality remains high and largely unchanged. Ultrafiltration has received increased attention in the treatment of acute decompensated congestive heart failure, and recent clinical trials suggest its ...
Costantino Giorgio - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics of patients referred to our heart failure outpatient clinic with those of patients enrolled in clinical trials on heart failure pharmacological treatment. Thus, we estimated the proportion of patients admitted to our heart failure outpatient clinic who would have ...
Coletta Alison P - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the Heart Rhythm Society meeting in San Francisco, USA and the Heart Failure Association meeting of the European Society of Cardiology which was held in Milan, Italy in June ...
Parissis John T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Calcium sensitizers belong to a new class of cardiac enhancers that stimulate cardiac contractility without causing intracellular calcium overload or increasing myocardial oxygen demand. Levosimendan, the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical practice, produces greater hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement in patients with acute heart failure than traditional ...
Matthews Jennifer Cowger - - 2008
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in the setting of cardiomyopathy, ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but therapeutic clinical trials examining RV failure as a primary outcome are lacking. This review focuses on the ontologic, morphologic, and microscopic differences between the right and left ventricles. It ...
Shirani Jamshid - - 2008
Left ventricular remodeling is a key determinant of the clinical course and outcome of systolic heart failure. The myocardial renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been closely linked to the major maladaptive cellular and molecular changes that accompany left ventricular remodeling. Direct inhibition of various components of the RAS, such as the ...
Amir Ruthie E - - 2008
PURPOSE: Angiotensin II, which plays a crucial role in the myocardial remodeling process of heart failure, is generated via the angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase pathways. We studied angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase-1 polymorphisms in patients with systolic heart failure and the correlation with clinical status and left ventricular function. METHODS: We ...
Silverberg Donald S - - 2009
It has recently been recognized that many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are anemic. The anemia is very often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The more severe the anemia the more severe the CHF, with higher mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization rate. The only way to prove that the ...
Göhler Alexander - - 2009
For economic evaluations of chronic heart failure (CHF) management strategies, utilities are not currently available for disease proxies commonly used in Markov models. Our objective was to estimate utilities for New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification and number of cardiovascular rehospitalizations. EuroQol 5D data from the Eplerenone Post-acute Myocardial Infarction ...
Bestetti Reinaldo B - - 2008
The treatment of chronic heart failure secondary to Chagas disease has been based on extrapolation of data achieved in the treatment of non-Chagas disease heart failure. Because beta-blockers decrease the incidence of sudden cardiac death in non-Chagas disease heart failure and sudden cardiac death occurs preferentially in patients with mild ...
Hemnes A R - - 2008
The primary challenge in the care of the patient with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular dysfunction with concomitant right heart failure. Right heart function is closely tied to survival in this disease, and there is a growing interest in the study of this unique structure. While echocardiography ...
O'Callaghan D S - - 2008
At least two thirds of patients with chronic severe left heart disease have associated pulmonary hypertension, and mortality associated with biventricular failure is >two-fold higher compared with isolated left ventricular failure. This review considers and discusses emerging concepts and strategies from recent studies of specific treatments in populations with pulmonary ...
Spiraki Christina - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to measure the quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure, who make up the majority of admissions to an acute hospital cardiology unit. METHODS: The study was undertaken in the General Hospital of Agios Nikolaos, Crete, and recruited ...
Tocci Giuliano - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Heart failure represents a major cause of disease burden worldwide and is expected to further rise in the coming decades. Hypertension is the clinical condition most frequently associated to heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the incidence of heart failure compared to coronary heart diseases and stroke in recent ...
Armstrong Paul W - - 2008
Congestive heart failure comprises a major public health problem destined to grow enormously over the next decade. Paradoxically, and in contrast to acute coronary disease, acute heart failure has been relatively understudied. Current standards of care involve the use of intravenous diuretics and vasodilators; inotropic agents have been restricted to ...
Weeks Sarah G - - 2008
Nesiritide is an effective therapy in decreasing symptoms and left ventricular filling pressure in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Health Canada has recently approved this agent for the management of this patient population. The clinical trials to date using nesiritide for the management of decompensated heart failure have been ...
Graham H K HK Unit of Cardiac Physiology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. - - 2008
The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), which preserves the geometry and integrity of the myocardium, is a dynamic structure whose component proteins are maintained by a finely controlled homeostatic balance between deposition and degradation. One of the key targets in cardiology is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms which mediate pathological ...
Alsaddique Ahmed A - - 2008
Diastolic dysfunction is assuming more importance as it is increasingly evident that it can be solely responsible for heart failure. Although many comprehensive studies pertinent to diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure have been recently published, there is a paucity of information on diastolic dysfunction appearing in the postoperative cardiac ...
Nakamura Kenta - - 2008
The lymphatic vasculature is essential to fluid, protein and cellular transport, and to immune responsiveness. The last decade has witnessed a virtual renaissance of investigation into the function of the lymphatic microvasculature, prompting re-consideration of its role in the genesis and progression of cardiovascular pathology. The lymphatic microvasculature of the ...
Del Monte Federica - - 2008
End-stage heart failure is characterized by a number of abnormalities at the cellular level, which include changes in excitation-contraction coupling, alterations in contractile proteins and activation/deactivation of signaling pathways. Even though many of these changes are adaptive to the high workload and stress in heart failure, a significant number of ...
Werner Christian M - - 2008
Cardiovascular disease represents a continuum that starts with risk factors such as hypertension and progresses to atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and ultimately to chronic heart failure (CHF) and premature death. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) has turned out ...
Schweigmann U - - 2008
Acute heart failure is life threatening in adults and in the pediatric population. It represents the final pathway of complex physiological mechanisms that vary with age and underlying diseases. Strategies for treatment of heart failure should integrate to an concept of stepwise approach to heart failure. Evolving therapies, that are ...
Oxberry Stephen G - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify current management options for dyspnoeic people with chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimization of chronic heart failure treatment is important for symptom control and survival. This review therefore includes recent advances in cardiac treatment as well as interventions directed solely at dyspnoea management although dyspnoea ...
Picchio F M - - 2008
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome which presents similarities and differences between children and adults; in pediatric age the spectrum of causes of heart failure is wide and congenital heart defects are the most common etiology. Volume and pressure overload on a ''normal myocardium'' is the classical physiological pattern while ...
Kirk J Douglas - - 2008
Emerging concepts in the short term management of acute heart failure have fostered changes in therapeutic targets and the expectations of emergency department and in-hospital treatment options. Investigators and clinicians are now reconsidering how intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropes commonly used to alleviate congestion and restore hemodynamic stability should be ...
Ho Jennifer E - - 2008
Acute decompensated heart failure accounts for more than 1 million hospitalizations in the USA every year. Currently, the most common treatment for symptom relief is the use of loop diuretics, despite recent concerns for potential adverse effects. With the growing understanding of the role of neurohormonal dysregulation in the pathophysiology ...
Farmakis Dimitrios - - 2008
Increased synthesis of arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a critical role in fluid retention and hyponatremia in patients with heart failure. The AVP receptor antagonists constitute a new class of agents that are promising in the management of hyponatremia and congestion. Three of these agents--conivaptan, tolvaptan, and lixivaptan--have been studied in ...
Guazzi Marco - - 2008
Treatment of heart failure (HF) is a challenging task. An impaired nitric oxide pathway contributes to several abnormal cardiac and vascular phenotypes typical of the failing cardiovascular system. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is a new therapeutic strategy for overexpressing nitric oxide signaling by increasing the availability of cyclic guanosine monophosphate ...
Parish Roy C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To summarize findings regarding the association of inflammatory processes with chronic heart failure (HF). DATA SOURCES: We conducted PubMed/MEDLINE searches (1966-January 2008) of primary literature using the following key words: ACE inhibitors, allopurinol, angiotensin-receptor antagonists, cardiomyopathy, chemokines, cytokines, diuretics, heart failure, inflammation, interleukins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, immunotherapy, medications used ...
Cleland John G F - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the American College of Cardiology. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. CARISMA investigated the use of implantable loop recorders ...
Fares Wassim H - - 2008
Despite the increased mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), its management has been based primarily on anecdotal experiences and physiologic assumptions rather than on prospective randomized controlled trials. The data on diuretics have been conflicting. Routine use of inotropes in ADHF has been clearly associated ...
Cogliandro Tiziana - - 2008
Thalassemia major is an inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in a chronic hemolytic anemia. Transfusion therapy together with elevated gastrointestinal absorption of iron determines iron overload, which causes most of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. Heart complications represent the leading cause of mortality in this disease, although, because ...
Kirkpatrick James N - - 2008
Echocardiography represents a convenient, portable and noninvasive method to provide important anatomic and physiologic information to inform the management of heart failure patients. Traditional echo assessments include diagnostic, etiologic and prognostic data from ventricular size, geometry and performance. Newer echocardiographic techniques are receiving greater utilization, however, and promise to further ...
Rondinini Lorenzo - - 2008
AIM: Heart failure in the elderly population represents a complex clinical situation associated with frequent hospitalizations and numerous comorbidities. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a domiciliary-based nurse-led strategy in a group of very elderly patients affected by heart failure who were regularly seen at an outpatient ...
Harinstein Matthew E - - 2008
This report describes the normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction and resolution of signs and symptoms of chronic and severe heart failure in both male and female patients (mean age 54 years) treated with standard medical therapy. These observations were made in 11 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy treated in ...
Allen Larry A LA Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2008
Despite advancements in medical therapy, morbidity and mortality remain high. Surgical treatment of heart failure has been the subject of renewed focus, with a particular emphasis on applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to the evaluation of surgical therapies. The purpose of this review is to discuss emerging surgical therapies ...
Triggle C R - - 2008
Ivabradine has proven therapeutic efficacy for cardiac ischaemia and, until proved otherwise, is a very specific inhibitor of the cardiac sinoatrial node I(f) current. In the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Drouin et al. demonstrated that chronic treatment of the human apoB-100 transgene dyslipidaemic mouse with ivabradine ...
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