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Results 401 - 450 of 2211
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Haddad François - - 2009
The importance of right ventricular (RV) function in cardiovascular disease and cardiac surgery has been recognized for several years. RV dysfunction has been shown to be a significant prognostic factor in heart failure, congenital heart disease, valvular disease, and cardiac surgery. In the first of our two articles, we will ...
Borlaug Barry A - - 2009
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major public health problem in the United States. However, in contrast to systolic heart failure, there are little data to guide treatment decisions in HFpEF, and no therapies have been shown to improve outcome in these patients. This review explores what ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2009
Aldosterone is an adrenal hormone that regulates sodium, fluid, and potassium balance. Jerome Conn first described the syndrome of autonomous and excessive aldosterone secretion or "primary aldosteronism." Contrary to the historical belief, recent studies indicate that primary aldosteronism is a common cause of hypertension with a prevalence of 5-10% among ...
Møller Søren - - 2009
Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek to secure perfusion of vital organs. In ...
Alba Ana C - - 2009
Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of heart failure. Its prevalence has increased mainly owing to the improved survival of patients after acute myocardial infarction. In patients with heart failure, the presence of coronary heart disease has been shown to be independently associated with worsened long-term outcomes, including ...
Coletta Alison P - - 2009
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure presented at the Heart Failure Society of America and the American Heart Association meetings in 2008. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may change in the final publication. ...
Dorn Gerald W - - 2009
The heart diseases that account for a large amount of morbidity and mortality in the developed world (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and heart failure) are phenotypically heterogeneous disorders. It has been suspected for many years that genetics may have an important role in these diseases and their poor outcome. ...
Heymans Stephane S Experimental & Molecular Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
The increasing prevalence of heart failure poses enormous challenges for health care systems worldwide. Despite effective medical interventions that target neurohumoral activation, mortality and morbidity remain substantial. Evidence for inflammatory activation as an important pathway in disease progression in chronic heart failure has emerged in the last two decades. However, ...
Lavine Kory J KJ Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Developmental Biology, St Louis, MO 63110, - - 2009
Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of heart failure and is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Therapies used for the treatment of this disease aim to restore blood flow to severely narrowed or occluded coronary arteries by either catheter-based or surgical means. Although these strategies prove ...
Palaniyandi Suresh Selvaraj - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) afflicts about 5 million people and causes 300,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. An integral part of the pathogenesis of HF is cardiac remodelling, and the signalling events that regulate it are a subject of intense research. Cardiac remodelling is the sum of responses ...
Konishi Masanori - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Few reports regarding the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are available. The clinical characteristics of 194 consecutive ADHF patients with abrupt onset of symptoms were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with acute coronary syndromes including acute myocardial infarction, acute pneumonia, severe valvular disease, and ...
Martín Miguel - - 2009
Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefit of trastuzumab in women with breast cancer. However, a small but not insignificant proportion of patients have experienced trastuzumab-associated cardiotoxicity during these trials. This phenomenon is generally characterized by an asymptomatic reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or, less often, congestive ...
Hodges Pamela - - 2009
Heart failure is a disease of epidemic proportions in the United States affecting almost 6 million people. This heart failure overview includes a brief description of the etiology of this extremely prevalent coronary artery disease. Myocardial (ventricular) remodeling is described as being either physiological or pathological. Patients must initially be ...
Yilmaz Mehmet Birhan - - 2009
Severe heart failure represents a major source of morbidity and mortality. Poor right ventricular function is an independent prognostic marker for mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. In this study, levosimendan (L) and dobutamine (D) in patients with severe chronic biventricular failure were compared. Forty consecutive patients, who were ...
Nigmatullina Razina R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It is well established that the serotonergic system (SS) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of serotonin and its inter-relation with the sympathoadrenal system (SAS) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is poorly understood. METHODS: Utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we determined ...
Aessopos A - - 2009
Thalassemia intermedia (TI) presents with a clinical phenotype ranging between the severe, transfusion-dependent TM and the asymptomatic carrier state. Cardiovascular complications represent the primary cause of mortality both in TM and in TI. Several factors have been reported to interfere in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular abnormalities in TI, including high ...
Carey Robert M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the world's leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Most affected individuals have primary hypertension, while the most common cause of secondary hypertension is primary aldosteronism (6-10%). PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM: Clinical manifestations include hypertension, hypokalemic alkalosis, renal dysfunction, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, muscle weakness, paresthesias, tetany and, ...
Szmit Sebastian - - 2009
Few systematic trials have studied metastatic tumors to the heart and there are currently no guidelines for the treatment of heart metastases and its associated symptoms. This article presents the first known case of effective pharmacological treatment of heart failure due to metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Due to ...
Aessopos A - - 2009
Cardiac disease remains the major cause of death in thalassemia major and iron overload is involved in heart failure development. Cardiac iron load and heart injury are evaluated by different means, among which CMR measurements remain the best method for estimation. In cases of heart iron overload, chelation treatment should ...
Kurt Ibrahim Halil - - 2009
Cardiac failure is among the most significant conditions associated with acute coronary syndrome. In ischemic heart disease, serious hemodynamic problems are reported in patients with left ventricular dysfunction during the acute phase despite mechanical revascularization. Several positive inotropic agents in addition to intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) are required to support ...
Ghosh Arjun K - - 2009
This report presents an interesting case of acute myocardial stunning secondary to catecholamine surge from a phaeochromocytoma. A 39-year-old British Asian man was admitted with chest pain, labile blood pressure, dynamic ECG changes and positive troponin I level. Echocardiogram showed severe global impairment of his left ventricular systolic function but ...
Sandek Anja - - 2009
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is now recognized as a multisystem disorder with increased sympathetic tone, hormonal derangements, an anabolic/catabolic imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic low-grade inflammation affecting various organ systems. Pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to play important roles in that context. There is increasing evidence for the gut to have a ...
Benard Ludovic - - 2009
Our understanding of the effects of aldosterone and its mechanisms has increased substantially in recent years, probably because of the importance of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists in several major cardiovascular diseases. Recent clinical studies have confirmed the benefits of MR antagonists in patients with heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction ...
Tousoulis D - - 2009
Despite substantial therapeutic advances, heart failure remains a syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality. The management of heart failure remains challenging despite the recent different therapeutic advances. The emergence of cardiac biomarkers as increasingly effective clinical tools suggests the potential of a new approach to the management of patients ...
Tagarakis Georgios I - - 2009
Acute heart failure is a common clinical problem faced in cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units. Levosimendan, an inotropic and vasodilating agent used widely in cases of acute heart failure for "cardiological" patients, has not gained global acceptance in its application for heart-operated ones. Herein, we are presenting ...
Orphanos George S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect of drugs used to treat cancer patients. Older chemotherapy drugs such as the anthracyclins and new targeted therapies, mainly trastuzumab, have been implicated in causing clinically significant cardiac dysfunction, which may be irreversible for many patients. The advent of a new category of ...
Follath Ferenc - - 2009
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major cause of hospitalizations. Severe dyspnea, pulmonary congestion and low cardiac output with peripheral vasoconstriction and renal hypoperfusion is a main form of clinical presentation. Most patients with acute worsening have a pre-existing decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF), but AHF may also occur as ...
Baguet Jean-Philippe - - 2009
The prevalence of heart failure is ever increasing around the world, particularly due to aging populations. Despite improvements in treatment over the last 20 years, the prognosis for heart failure remains poor. Among the treatments recommended for chronic heart failure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers are crucial, provided of ...
Joseph Susan M - - 2009
Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer ...
Srebot Vera - - 2009
Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, ...
Schrier Robert W - - 2009
The pathogenesis of cardiac failure involves activation of the neurohumoral axis including stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and nonosmotic vasopressin systems. While these responses are critical in maintaining arterial pressure, they are associated with renal vasoconstriction, as well as sodium and water retention. In advanced circumstances, renal ...
Hsu Daphne T - - 2009
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are known to improve clinical outcome and ventricular function in adults with heart failure. Infants with single-ventricle physiology show abnormalities in ventricular function as well as poor growth. The ability of an ACE inhibitor to preserve ventricular function and improve growth in these infants is ...
Fitchett David - - 2009
The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) have proven benefit in reducing cardiovascular events in patients at high risk. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have been demonstrated to have benefit in the management of heart failure and ...
Guthrie Robert R Department of Emergency Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA. - - 2009
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) overactivity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, a finding that may be explained by the key role of the RAAS in stimulating vascular and cardiac remodeling. Inhibition of RAAS activity with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been shown ...
De Ferrari Gaetano M GM Department of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. - - 2009
Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Experimentally, vagal stimulation (VS) is protective both during acute myocardial ischemia and in chronic heart failure. In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there ...
Dib Nabil N Clinical Cardiovascular Cell Therapy, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-1300, USA. - - 2009
The aim of this study was to test safety and feasibility of myoblast transplantation with the Biosense-NOGA (Diamond Bar, California) 3-dimensional-guided endomyocardial delivery system. Previous Phase-1 trials showed feasibility of epicardial injection of myoblasts. However, catheter-based delivery has several advantages: it can be applied on high-risk patients, the procedure can ...
Galli E - - 2010
Thyroid hormone (TH) has a fundamental role in cardiovascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological conditions, influencing cardiac contractility, heart rate (HR), diastolic function and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) through genomic and non-genomic mediated effects. In heart failure (HF) the main alteration of thyroid function is referred to as "low-triiodothyronine ...
Parissis John T - - 2009
Levosimendan is a new cardiac enhancer that exerts positive inotropic effects on the failing heart mediated by calcium sensitization of contractile proteins as well as peripheral vasodilatory effects mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth-muscle cells. Levosimendan is the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical ...
Teichman Sam L - - 2009
Relaxin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone that plays a central role in the hemodynamic and renovascular adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy. Triggering similar changes could potentially be beneficial in the treatment of patients with heart failure. The effects of relaxin include the production of nitric oxide, inhibition of ...
Hernandez Adrian F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a major public health burden with significant mortality and morbidity. Nesiritide is a recombinantly produced intravenous formulation of human B-type natriuretic peptide that promotes vasodilation and increases salt and water excretion, which results in reduced cardiac filling pressures. Prior studies have shown that ...
Psaltis Peter J - - 2009
Combined analysis of the electrical and mechanical function of the heart holds promise as a means of acquiring a better understanding of a variety of cardiac diseases that ultimately may lead to heart failure. The NOGA XP Cardiac Navigation System is a unique, nonfluoroscopic, catheter-based technology that achieves real-time acquisition ...
Rocchiccioli J Paul - - 2010
The diagnosis and management of heart failure remains challenging despite considerable clinical advances in recent decades. With greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome, a large number of candidate biomarkers have emerged and duly received scientific and clinical attention. These are frequently a measure of the degree of ...
Timmer Stefan A J - - 2009
Besides stimulating erythropoiesis, erythropoietin (EPO) exerts powerful proangiogenic and antiapoptotic effects. These erythropoiesis-independent effects are potentially useful as a supplement for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). EPO may improve microvascular capacity of ischemic myocardial tissue and could thereby (partially) restore myocardial function. In addition, EPO could protect cardiomyocytes ...
Silva Christiano Pereira - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a highly prevalent disease, the prognosis of which depends on different predictive factors. OBJECTIVE: Chagas disease is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether this condition also predicts poor outcome in acutely ...
Moukarbel George V - - 2008
Following acute myocardial infarction, patients are at increased risk of developing heart failure, which is more prevalent in those with reduced ventricular systolic function. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which occurs early after myocardial injury, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of subsequent cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. The ...
Coats Caroline J - - 2008
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with a wide spectrum of pathophysiologic consequences. Most cases are inherited and caused by sarcomeric protein gene mutations, although phenocopies are often encountered. Genomic research and family studies have improved our recognition of the disease and understanding of its natural history; however, tenuous ...
Kota Bindu - - 2008
Levosimendan increases the sensitivity of the cardiac fibrils to calcium, favorably affects hemodynamics in patients with heart failure. It is a positive inotrope and a peripheral vasodilator. The elimination half-life of the compound is about 1 hour. The drug decreases pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, increases cardiac output with the improvement ...
Shah Ravi V - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent parenteral, oral, and inhaled ...
Mak George - - 2008
Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). As studies have demonstrated close links between anemia and a poorer prognosis, there has been an interest in developing treatment strategies for this condition. Anemia is closely associated with disease severity and may be secondary to multiple modifiable causes; therefore, ...
Thadani Udho - - 2008
Despite the advances in pharmacotherapy for heart failure due to reduced left ventricular function, mortality still remains high and many patients are hospitalized over time due to worsening heart failure symptoms. There is some experimental evidence that vasoconstriction and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency in the vasculature play a role in ...
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