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Tagarakis Georgios I - - 2009
Acute heart failure is a common clinical problem faced in cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units. Levosimendan, an inotropic and vasodilating agent used widely in cases of acute heart failure for "cardiological" patients, has not gained global acceptance in its application for heart-operated ones. Herein, we are presenting ...
De Ferrari Gaetano M - - 2009
Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Experimentally, vagal stimulation (VS) is protective both during acute myocardial ischemia and in chronic heart failure. In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there ...
Orphanos George S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect of drugs used to treat cancer patients. Older chemotherapy drugs such as the anthracyclins and new targeted therapies, mainly trastuzumab, have been implicated in causing clinically significant cardiac dysfunction, which may be irreversible for many patients. The advent of a new category of ...
Follath Ferenc - - 2009
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major cause of hospitalizations. Severe dyspnea, pulmonary congestion and low cardiac output with peripheral vasoconstriction and renal hypoperfusion is a main form of clinical presentation. Most patients with acute worsening have a pre-existing decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF), but AHF may also occur as ...
Baguet Jean-Philippe - - 2009
The prevalence of heart failure is ever increasing around the world, particularly due to aging populations. Despite improvements in treatment over the last 20 years, the prognosis for heart failure remains poor. Among the treatments recommended for chronic heart failure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers are crucial, provided of ...
Joseph Susan M - - 2009
Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer ...
Srebot Vera - - 2009
Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, ...
Schrier Robert W - - 2009
The pathogenesis of cardiac failure involves activation of the neurohumoral axis including stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and nonosmotic vasopressin systems. While these responses are critical in maintaining arterial pressure, they are associated with renal vasoconstriction, as well as sodium and water retention. In advanced circumstances, renal ...
Hsu Daphne T - - 2009
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are known to improve clinical outcome and ventricular function in adults with heart failure. Infants with single-ventricle physiology show abnormalities in ventricular function as well as poor growth. The ability of an ACE inhibitor to preserve ventricular function and improve growth in these infants is ...
Fitchett David - - 2009
The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) have proven benefit in reducing cardiovascular events in patients at high risk. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have been demonstrated to have benefit in the management of heart failure and ...
Guthrie Robert R Department of Emergency Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA. - - 2009
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) overactivity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, a finding that may be explained by the key role of the RAAS in stimulating vascular and cardiac remodeling. Inhibition of RAAS activity with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been shown ...
Galli E - - 2010
Thyroid hormone (TH) has a fundamental role in cardiovascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological conditions, influencing cardiac contractility, heart rate (HR), diastolic function and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) through genomic and non-genomic mediated effects. In heart failure (HF) the main alteration of thyroid function is referred to as "low-triiodothyronine ...
Parissis John T - - 2009
Levosimendan is a new cardiac enhancer that exerts positive inotropic effects on the failing heart mediated by calcium sensitization of contractile proteins as well as peripheral vasodilatory effects mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth-muscle cells. Levosimendan is the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical ...
Teichman Sam L - - 2009
Relaxin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone that plays a central role in the hemodynamic and renovascular adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy. Triggering similar changes could potentially be beneficial in the treatment of patients with heart failure. The effects of relaxin include the production of nitric oxide, inhibition of ...
Hernandez Adrian F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a major public health burden with significant mortality and morbidity. Nesiritide is a recombinantly produced intravenous formulation of human B-type natriuretic peptide that promotes vasodilation and increases salt and water excretion, which results in reduced cardiac filling pressures. Prior studies have shown that ...
Psaltis Peter J - - 2009
Combined analysis of the electrical and mechanical function of the heart holds promise as a means of acquiring a better understanding of a variety of cardiac diseases that ultimately may lead to heart failure. The NOGA XP Cardiac Navigation System is a unique, nonfluoroscopic, catheter-based technology that achieves real-time acquisition ...
Rocchiccioli J Paul - - 2010
The diagnosis and management of heart failure remains challenging despite considerable clinical advances in recent decades. With greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome, a large number of candidate biomarkers have emerged and duly received scientific and clinical attention. These are frequently a measure of the degree of ...
Timmer Stefan A J - - 2009
Besides stimulating erythropoiesis, erythropoietin (EPO) exerts powerful proangiogenic and antiapoptotic effects. These erythropoiesis-independent effects are potentially useful as a supplement for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). EPO may improve microvascular capacity of ischemic myocardial tissue and could thereby (partially) restore myocardial function. In addition, EPO could protect cardiomyocytes ...
Silva Christiano Pereira - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a highly prevalent disease, the prognosis of which depends on different predictive factors. OBJECTIVE: Chagas disease is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether this condition also predicts poor outcome in acutely ...
Moukarbel George V - - 2008
Following acute myocardial infarction, patients are at increased risk of developing heart failure, which is more prevalent in those with reduced ventricular systolic function. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which occurs early after myocardial injury, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of subsequent cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. The ...
Coats Caroline J - - 2008
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with a wide spectrum of pathophysiologic consequences. Most cases are inherited and caused by sarcomeric protein gene mutations, although phenocopies are often encountered. Genomic research and family studies have improved our recognition of the disease and understanding of its natural history; however, tenuous ...
Kota Bindu - - 2008
Levosimendan increases the sensitivity of the cardiac fibrils to calcium, favorably affects hemodynamics in patients with heart failure. It is a positive inotrope and a peripheral vasodilator. The elimination half-life of the compound is about 1 hour. The drug decreases pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, increases cardiac output with the improvement ...
Shah Ravi V - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent parenteral, oral, and inhaled ...
Mak George - - 2008
Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). As studies have demonstrated close links between anemia and a poorer prognosis, there has been an interest in developing treatment strategies for this condition. Anemia is closely associated with disease severity and may be secondary to multiple modifiable causes; therefore, ...
Thadani Udho - - 2008
Despite the advances in pharmacotherapy for heart failure due to reduced left ventricular function, mortality still remains high and many patients are hospitalized over time due to worsening heart failure symptoms. There is some experimental evidence that vasoconstriction and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency in the vasculature play a role in ...
Dixon Megan B - - 2008
Tolvaptan is a selective arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(2) receptor blocker used to induce free water diuresis in the treatment of euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Currently the orally active medication is in the final stages prior to approval by the FDA for outpatient therapy. It appears to be safe and effective ...
Yip G W - - 2009
The pathological myocardial hypertrophy associated with hypertension contains the seed for further maladaptive development. Increased myocardial oxygen consumption, impaired epicardial coronary perfusion, ventricular fibrosis and remodelling, abnormalities in long-axis function and torsion, cause, to a varying degree, a mixture of systolic and diastolic abnormalities. In addition, chronotropic incompetence and peripheral ...
Fayssoil A - - 2010
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. Heart involvement is a classical complication in this disease and leads progressively to heart failure. Detecting latent myocardial involvement is essential in this disease because early use of drugs like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may delay the ...
Barclay J L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate preclinical adverse effects of ambient particulate air pollution and nitrogen oxides in patients with heart failure. METHODS: A cohort of 132 non-smoking patients living in Aberdeen, Scotland, with stable chronic heart failure were enrolled in a repeated-measures panel study. Patients with atrial fibrillation or pacemakers were excluded. ...
Coletta Alison P - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure presented at the European Society of Cardiology meeting which was held in Munich, Germany from 30th August to 3rd September 2008. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may ...
Ladeiras-Lopes Ricardo - - 2009
Diastole plays a central role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Its two main determinants, myocardial relaxation and passive properties of the ventricular wall, are nowadays regarded as physiological mechanisms susceptible of active modulation. Furthermore, diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (previously called diastolic heart failure) are two subjects of ...
Mal??k J - - 2009
More than 50 % of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated by chronic hemodialysis die from cardiovascular diseases, including congestive heart failure (CHF). The incidence of CHF is rising in both general and ESRD population. However, the mechanisms, which lead to the development of CHF in dialyzed patients, differ considerably. ...
Vivo Rey P - - 2008
Heralded as the oldest known cardiovascular drug, digoxin remains widely used today in the face of increasing rates in heart failure and atrial fibrillation despite the emergence of newer medications. Its hemodynamic, neurohormonal and electrophysiologic actions make it a suitable adjunctive, evidence-based therapy for the above conditions. Its narrow therapeutic ...
Unzek Samuel - - 2008
Despite innovative medications and devices, heart failure (HF) continues to be the leading cause for admission to hospitals in the United States in patients older than 65 years. Many trials have succeeded in improving survival and many have failed. In this article, the authors briefly review the past, describe the ...
Roongsritong Chanwit - - 2008
Severe diastolic dysfunction has important clinical implications in advanced systolic heart failure. The authors investigated whether a marker of fibrosis, serum carboxy-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (PICP) is a major determinant of diastolic function in 40 patients with heart failure and ejection fraction <35%. Patients with unstable heart failure ...
Russell Stuart D - - 2008
Despite improvements in medical therapy for heart failure, more than 250,000 people die in the United States as a result of heart failure each year. There are multiple risk factors and models that have been created to identify these people, yet there has not been a significant impact on outcomes ...
Crescenzi G - - 2008
This paper aims to address the mechanisms responsible for poor perioperative cardiac performance, analyzing the pathophysiology of heart failure and the main hemodynamic parameters (contractility, preload, afterload, systemic vascular resistance, and pulmonary artery pressure) used in diagnosing patients and assessing their response to therapy. It will also discuss potential therapeutic ...
van Bilsen Marc - - 2009
The failing heart is characterized by alterations in energy metabolism, including mitochondrial dysfunction and a reduction in fatty acid (FA) oxidation rate, which is partially compensated by an increase in glucose utilization. Together, these changes lead to an impaired capacity to convert chemical energy into mechanical work. This has led ...
Dhalla Naranjan S - - 2009
It is commonly held that cardiac remodelling, represented by changes in muscle mass, size, and shape of the heart, explains the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, this concept does not provide any clear information regarding the development of cardiac dysfunction in CHF. Extensive research has revealed that various ...
Louis Louis B LB - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical circulatory support is expanding the treatment of advanced heart failure. The number of heart transplantations performed worldwide remains fairly static, and medical therapy alone for end stage heart failure continues to have dismal results. This article presents the authors' opinion as to the current status, challenges, ...
Costanzo Maria Rosa - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congestion causes the majority of hospitalizations for heart failure and contributes to heart failure progression and mortality. Intravenous loop diuretics reduce the signs and symptoms of congestion. Loop diuretics, however, may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of deleterious effects on neurohormonal activation, electrolyte balance, ...
Nessler Jadwiga - - 2008
As a result of population ageing and improved medical care that contribute to better life expectancy, heart failure occurs more and more commonly in the elderly. In the USA approximately 80% of patients discharged from hospital with newly diagnosed heart failure are over 65 years of age, whereas 50% are ...
Shinde Abhijit A - - 2008
Heart failure can present clinically as primarily diastolic or systolic dysfunction or both. There is an increasing awareness that heart failure can occur in the presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction is frequently referred to as diastolic heart failure because ...
Blankstein Ron - - 2008
This article begins with a brief overview of the therapeutic agents used in the treatment of heart failure, with a special emphasis on pharmacologic agents that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The discussion then builds upon the basic pathophysiology concepts introduced earlier in this issue to explain how therapies commonly ...
Hoenig Michel R - - 2008
Recent studies revealed an exceedingly high mortality with diastolic heart failure that was previously regarded as relatively benign compared to systolic heart failure. Prominent risk factors for diastolic heart failure are increasing age, hypertension and diabetes. These risk factors are associated with coronary microvascular rarefaction and resultant decreased coronary flow ...
Pitt Bertram B University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2008
Aldosterone blockade is recommended for patients with congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction; however, the perceived risk of hyperkalemia may limit implementation of this therapeutic approach. This subanalysis examined the relationship between eplerenone, serum potassium (K(+)), and clinical outcomes in the Eplerenone Post-Acute ...
Arya Arash - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal drug and device therapy, frequent hospitalisations due to decompensated heart failure remain an issue. Early detection of decompensation could prevent hospitalisation in patients with congestive heart failure. The recently introduced Home Monitoring functionality of implanted devices is a promising new telecardiology technique which provides information on the ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2009
A large number of patients who present with signs or symptoms of heart failure (HF) do not have evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. As a result, HF in the presence of normal or preserved ejection fraction, or diastolic HF, is increasingly recognized as a health care challenge. Guidelines have ...
Velavan Periaswamy - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with short term mortality in hospitalised patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND: Hospitalisation is frequent in patients with heart failure and is associated with a high mortality. METHODS: The Euro Heart Failure survey collected data from patients with suspected heart failure. We searched this data for ...
Popjes Eric - - 2008
Heart failure is one of the most common medical problems faced by patients and clinicians. It has the potential for high morbidity and mortality, and its overall financial cost to society is enormous. Management of heart failure is often difficult and time consuming, and is sometimes frustrating. The usual signs ...
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