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Bhattacharya Syamal K - - 2009
The pathologic hypertrophy of hypertensive heart disease is related to the quality, not the quantity, of myocardium; the presence of fibrosis is inevitably linked to structural and functional insufficiencies with increased cardiovascular risk. Elevations in plasma aldosterone that are inappropriate relative to dietary sodium, or relative aldosteronism, are accompanied by ...
de Souza Vilarinho Karlos Alexandre - - 2010
Heart failure is a common and often fatal disease. Numerous animal models are used to study its aetiology, progression and treatment. This article aims to demonstrate two minimally invasive models of congestive heart failure in a rabbit model and a precise method to assess cardiac performance. Fifty New Zealand White ...
Gaasch William H - - 2009
The clinical manifestations and eventual outcomes of chronic heart failure (HF) are not closely related to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). This has contributed to the single syndrome hypothesis of HF that assumes a continuum, with the EF evolving and decreasing as the ventricle remodels and dilates. Such a ...
Scolletta Sabino - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome causing a huge burden in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical therapies for HF are aimed at suppressing the neurohormonal activation. However, novel therapies are needed for HF, independent of the neurohormonal axis, that can improve cardiac performance and prevent the progression of heart ...
Malyszko Jolanta - - 2011
Apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, is produced by white adipose tissue and also expressed in kidney and heart. Increasing evidence suggests a role for apelin in the pathology of the cardiovascular system. It was demonstrated that apelin may contribute to the pathophysiology of human chronic heart failure. Apelin locates at ...
Tsutsui Hiroyuki - - 2010
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). Compared to those with reduced EF, patients with HFPEF are older, more likely to be women, less likely to have coronary artery disease, and more likely to have ...
Swedberg Karl - - 2010
Elevated heart rate is a significant marker for mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Despite background treatment with a beta-blocker, many patients with heart failure and low ejection fraction maintain a heart rate above 70 b.p.m. Ivabradine reduces heart rate directly through inhibition of the I(f) ionic ...
Triposkiadis Filippos - - 2009
Heart failure is a syndrome characterized initially by left ventricular dysfunction that triggers countermeasures aimed to restore cardiac output. These responses are compensatory at first but eventually become part of the disease process itself leading to further worsening cardiac function. Among these responses is the activation of the sympathetic nervous ...
Porrello Enzo R - - 2009
Autophagic activity increases in the heart in response to a variety of stresses including hypertension, ischemia and neonatal starvation. Constitutive autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the heart, whereas unrestrained autophagic activity accentuates the maladaptive cardiac remodeling response to stress (e.g., hypertension) and may ...
Gradman Alan H - - 2009
In patients with hypertension, pressure overload leads to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic filling without systolic dysfunction. Presently, diastolic heart failure accounts for about 50% of the heart failure population. Fatigue, dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, and peripheral edema are common presenting complaints. As a group, patients ...
Zannad Faiez - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome with a broad spectrum of heterogeneous symptoms and signs resulting in a wide range of clinical expressions. The prevalence of HF is estimated to be 1-2% in developed countries, increasing with age. Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for patients older than ...
Shanmugam Ganesh - - 2009
Congestive heart failure as a consequence of ischemic heart disease is an increasing medical problem. Notwithstanding the huge advances in the medical and conventional surgical management of heart failure, eventual outcomes remain suboptimal. This 2 part article outlines the magnitude of the problem, the limitations of conventional therapies as they ...
Al Habeeb Waleed - - 2009
The ever expanding epidemic of end-stage heart failure represents one of the greatest challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine. With medical treatments hampered by significant limitations, physicians caring for patients with advanced heart disease have turned to cardiac transplantation and durable mechanical circulatory assist devices as definitive therapies. These advanced therapeutic ...
Molyneux Sarah L - - 2009
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for electron transport within the mitochondria and hence for ATP generation and cellular energy production. We recently demonstrated that plasma levels of CoQ10 are an independent predictor of survival in a cohort of 236 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) followed for a median of ...
Soukoulis Victor V Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) is a common, disabling, and costly disease. Despite major advances in medical therapy, morbidity and mortality remain high, in part because current pharmacological regimens may not fully address some unique requirements of the heart for energy. The heart requires a continuous supply of energy-providing substrates and amino ...
Chatterjee Kanu - - 2009
Hyponatremia is one of the newer and emerging risk factors for an adverse prognosis in chronic heart failure. Why decreased serum sodium is associated with worse prognosis remains unclear. It may reflect worsening heart failure and the deleterious effects of activation of neurohormones. The mechanism of hyponatremia in heart failure ...
Appel Jon M - - 2010
Anthracyclines are important in the treatment of numerous malignant diseases but the use is limited by a risk of heart failure (CHF). LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) measurements by radionuclide ventriculography with multiple gated acquisition (MUGA) is often used for cardiac monitoring. However, diastolic variables have been proposed as sensitive ...
Kempf Tibor - - 2009
The stress-responsive transforming growth factor-beta-related cytokine, growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), is emerging as a new biomarker in patients with cardiovascular disease. The circulating levels of GDF-15 are elevated and independently related to an adverse prognosis in acute coronary syndrome and left- or right-sided heart failure. GDF-15 adds significant prognostic information to ...
Richards A Mark - - 2009
A profusion of circulating candidate biomarkers in heart failure is currently being investigated. Although all will advance our insight into the pathophysiology of heart failure, their potential clinical utility will depend on satisfaction of three key criteria. Assays must be accessible, reliable, and affordable. Secondly, the marker must provide information ...
Tang W H Wilson - - 2009
There is broad adoption of various cardiac and noncardiac biomarkers in clinical practices across North America for the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Like any clinical condition, there are several overall objectives in biomarker testing: to establish or refute a diagnosis of heart failure and/or cardiac dysfunction; to understand ...
Gazit Avihu Z - - 2009
Prompt initiation of appropriate and intensive treatment in children with decompensated heart failure is crucial to avoid irreversible end-organ dysfunction. Initial management of these children includes transfer to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, basic hemodynamic monitoring, and establishment of intravenous access. Inotropic support should be instituted peripherally before obtaining ...
Burelle Yan - - 2010
While compelling evidence supports the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of heart failure, there is comparatively less information available on mitochondrial alterations that occur prior to failure. Building on our recent work with the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse heart, this review focuses on how early changes in mitochondrial ...
Royse Colin Forbes - - 2009
The haemodynamic state refers to the integration of myocardial and vascular systems, and involves both left and right hearts, and systolic and diastolic phases. The assessment of the haemodynamic state can be performed with echocardiography, and provides a higher level of diagnosis than conventional pressure- and flow-based monitoring. Whilst hypotension ...
Tamargo Juan - - 2009
Acute heart failure represents a major public health problem due to its high prevalence, high rates of mortality and readmissions and significant healthcare costs. Patients with AHF and low cardiac output represent a small subgroup of patients with very high mortality rates that require inotropic support to improve cardiac systolic ...
Szabó Tibor - - 2009
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is of constantly growing importance regarding incidence, prevalence and social and economic burden. The classical mere hemodynamic perception of CHF pathophysiology has been expanded towards a much more complex and inclusive approach combining neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic and immunological factors. With this advance, new parameters and targets ...
Morelli A - - 2009
Patients with heart failure undergoing non-cardiac surgery still have an unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Compromised myocardial physiologic reserves in combination with extensive surgery and anesthesia appear to play a crucial role in determining high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, several other mechanisms and pathways such as metabolic factors, ischemia-reperfusion ...
Ha Jong-Won - - 2009
Diastolic dysfunction, which is increasingly viewed as being influential in precipitating heart failure and determining prognosis, is often unrecognized and has therapeutic implications distinct from those that occur with systolic dysfunction. In this review, several therapeutic modalities including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and surgical approaches for primary diastolic dysfunction and heart failure ...
Augoustides John G T - - 2009
There has been significant progress in heart failure treatment; its stages are defined as a management platform for cardiovascular specialists. Surgical ventricular restoration adds no outcome advantage in ischemic heart failure over coronary artery bypass surgery alone. Novel medical therapies may include cytokine blockade and the vasodilator, relaxin. Although diastolic ...
Shafiq Moiz M MM Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida Health Science Center, Jacksonville, Florida, - - 2009
Fifty years after its discovery, aldosterone continues to stimulate interest as a therapeutic target. Early studies focused on aldosterone's actions on hypertension, the kidney, and electrolyte handling. More recently, its actions on the heart and cardiovascular system have become more apparent. Aldosterone causes cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and stimulates neurohormonal ...
Geens Jef H - - 2009
Testing and optimizing of surgical therapies for chronic heart failure (CHF) requires large animal models. CHF has been induced in several large animal species. Sheep have modest body mass increase and demonstrate docile behavior and are therefore a preferred species in research on surgical therapies for CHF METHODS: A literature ...
Goldraich Livia - - 2009
Advanced heart failure (HF) is becoming an increasingly challenging problem as more patients with this disease are living longer, yet experiencing its inexorable progression. Adding to this complex matter, there are different views on how to define advanced HF, whereby an acute decompensation episode does not necessarily indicate advanced disease. ...
Henriksen Jens H - - 2009
Cardiovascular complications of liver cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central-, splanchnic,- and peripheral circulation. Vasodilatation prevails, but vascular beds with various degrees of reduced and increased haemodynamic resistance are the results of massive activation of powerful homeostatic, regulatory systems. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and ...
Janardhanan Rajesh - - 2009
Progressive abnormalities of passive stiffness or active relaxation of the myocardium that impair ventricular filling during diastole may be an important contributor to the development of heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with ...
Urbonavicius Sigitas - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM). METHODS: We studied biopsies from 9 patients with stable chronic heart ...
Díez Javier - - 2009
Loop diuretics, such as torasemide and furosemide, are important agents in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Beneficial effects of torasemide immediate-release formulation beyond diuresis have been documented as the ability of this compound to inhibit myocardial synthesis and deposition of collagen type I in patients with chronic heart failure. ...
Castellano Graziella - - 2009
The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis regulates cardiac growth, stimulates myocardial contractility and influences the vascular system. The GH/IGF-1 axis controls intrinsic cardiac contractility by enhancing the intracellular calcium availability and regulating expression of contractile proteins; stimulates cardiac growth, by increasing protein synthesis; modifies systemic vascular resistance, ...
Bátkai Sándor - - 2009
Endocannabinoids are part of a bioactive lipid signaling system, not only in the central nervous system but also in various peripheral organs. Accumulating evidence implicates dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic or septic shock, heart failure and ...
Jameel Mohammad N MN Department of Cardiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, - - 2009
Clinical heart failure has been defined for a long time as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and signs including shortness of breath, cyanosis, ascites, and edema. However, in recent years, with the thought of promoting early diagnosis and heart-failure prevention, the concept of heart failure has often been defined simply ...
Kumar Adarsh - - 2009
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a mitochondrial coenzyme which is essential for the production of ATP. Being at the core of cellular energy processes it assumes importance in cells with high energy requirements like the cardiac cells which are extremely sensitive to CoQ10 deficiency produced by cardiac diseases. CoQ10 has thus ...
Palatini Paolo - - 2009
Heart rate is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen consumption and of cardiac work, and thus reduction of heart rate may represent an important strategy for the treatment of patients with a wide range of cardiac disorders. In addition, several experimental lines of research point to high heart rate as ...
Roberts Aled W - - 2009
The metabolic syndrome and its components, glucose intolerance, T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity are increasingly common. Patients with the metabolic syndrome have a higher prevalence of chronic heart failure (CHF) and, once diagnosed, CHF in such subjects is associated with a higher mortality than in those without this co-morbidity. However, ...
Freimark Dov - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive hospitalizations and poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the 5 year experience of a single-center CHF day care service, detect the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, and evaluate the safety of the treatments provided. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all patients admitted to the CHF ...
Sandek Anja - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognized as a multisystem disease with important comorbidities such as anemia, insulin resistance, autonomic dysbalance, or cardiac cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from these perturbations, increasing evidence points to alterations in intestinal morphology, permeability, and absorption function in patients with CHF. This ...
Douglas Pamela S - - 2009
In July of 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened experts in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, outcomes research, statistics, and clinical trials to develop recommendations for future randomized controlled trials of the use of imaging in: 1) screening the asymptomatic patient for coronary artery disease; 2) assessment of patients ...
Orso Francesco - - 2009
In the past 2 decades, there have been growing evidences that resting heart rate might be a marker of risk or even a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This article reviews current evidences concerning the relation between heart rate and patients' outcome in different clinical settings such as ...
Miani Daniela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization among the elderly. This study compares clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of octogenarians (OLD) with younger (YOUNG) patients in the Italian Survey on Acute Heart Failure (AHF). METHODS: A nationwide, prospective, observational study on AHF was done. Two hundred six Italian ...
Bush Erik W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Stresses such as chronic hypertension and myocardial infarction can trigger the heart to undergo a remodeling process characterized by myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte death and fibrosis, often resulting in impaired cardiac function and heart failure. Recent studies suggest key roles for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of pathological cardiac ...
Reil Jan-Christian - - 2009
Selective heart rate (HR) reduction by I(f)-channel inhibition is a recently developed pharmacological principle in cardiovascular therapy. Among these newly identified HR-lowering drugs, only ivabradine has now become approved for clinical use. I(f)-channel inhibition mainly reduces HR, thereby improving myocardial oxygen supply, energy balance, and cardiac function. Ivabradine was well ...
de Peuter Olav R - - 2009
Systolic heart failure is a common syndrome whose incidence is expected to increase. Several treatment modalities, such as beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, improve survival. Whether antithrombotic treatment is effective remains to be elucidated, although observations suggest a prothrombotic state in heart failure. This article focuses on this prothrombotic state ...
Mukherjee Debabrata - - 2009
Epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and hypertension is a major independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. The primary objective of the management of hypertension in patients with IHD is modification of the ...
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