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Morelli A - - 2009
Patients with heart failure undergoing non-cardiac surgery still have an unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Compromised myocardial physiologic reserves in combination with extensive surgery and anesthesia appear to play a crucial role in determining high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, several other mechanisms and pathways such as metabolic factors, ischemia-reperfusion ...
Ha Jong-Won - - 2009
Diastolic dysfunction, which is increasingly viewed as being influential in precipitating heart failure and determining prognosis, is often unrecognized and has therapeutic implications distinct from those that occur with systolic dysfunction. In this review, several therapeutic modalities including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and surgical approaches for primary diastolic dysfunction and heart failure ...
Augoustides John G T - - 2009
There has been significant progress in heart failure treatment; its stages are defined as a management platform for cardiovascular specialists. Surgical ventricular restoration adds no outcome advantage in ischemic heart failure over coronary artery bypass surgery alone. Novel medical therapies may include cytokine blockade and the vasodilator, relaxin. Although diastolic ...
Shafiq Moiz M MM Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida Health Science Center, Jacksonville, Florida, - - 2009
Fifty years after its discovery, aldosterone continues to stimulate interest as a therapeutic target. Early studies focused on aldosterone's actions on hypertension, the kidney, and electrolyte handling. More recently, its actions on the heart and cardiovascular system have become more apparent. Aldosterone causes cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and stimulates neurohormonal ...
Geens Jef H - - 2009
Testing and optimizing of surgical therapies for chronic heart failure (CHF) requires large animal models. CHF has been induced in several large animal species. Sheep have modest body mass increase and demonstrate docile behavior and are therefore a preferred species in research on surgical therapies for CHF METHODS: A literature ...
Goldraich Livia - - 2009
Advanced heart failure (HF) is becoming an increasingly challenging problem as more patients with this disease are living longer, yet experiencing its inexorable progression. Adding to this complex matter, there are different views on how to define advanced HF, whereby an acute decompensation episode does not necessarily indicate advanced disease. ...
Henriksen Jens H - - 2009
Cardiovascular complications of liver cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central-, splanchnic,- and peripheral circulation. Vasodilatation prevails, but vascular beds with various degrees of reduced and increased haemodynamic resistance are the results of massive activation of powerful homeostatic, regulatory systems. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and ...
Janardhanan Rajesh - - 2009
Progressive abnormalities of passive stiffness or active relaxation of the myocardium that impair ventricular filling during diastole may be an important contributor to the development of heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with ...
Urbonavicius Sigitas - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM). METHODS: We studied biopsies from 9 patients with stable chronic heart ...
Díez Javier - - 2009
Loop diuretics, such as torasemide and furosemide, are important agents in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Beneficial effects of torasemide immediate-release formulation beyond diuresis have been documented as the ability of this compound to inhibit myocardial synthesis and deposition of collagen type I in patients with chronic heart failure. ...
Castellano Graziella - - 2009
The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis regulates cardiac growth, stimulates myocardial contractility and influences the vascular system. The GH/IGF-1 axis controls intrinsic cardiac contractility by enhancing the intracellular calcium availability and regulating expression of contractile proteins; stimulates cardiac growth, by increasing protein synthesis; modifies systemic vascular resistance, ...
Jameel Mohammad N - - 2009
Clinical heart failure has been defined for a long time as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and signs including shortness of breath, cyanosis, ascites, and edema. However, in recent years, with the thought of promoting early diagnosis and heart-failure prevention, the concept of heart failure has often been defined simply ...
Bátkai Sándor - - 2009
Endocannabinoids are part of a bioactive lipid signaling system, not only in the central nervous system but also in various peripheral organs. Accumulating evidence implicates dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic or septic shock, heart failure and ...
Kumar Adarsh - - 2009
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a mitochondrial coenzyme which is essential for the production of ATP. Being at the core of cellular energy processes it assumes importance in cells with high energy requirements like the cardiac cells which are extremely sensitive to CoQ10 deficiency produced by cardiac diseases. CoQ10 has thus ...
Palatini Paolo - - 2009
Heart rate is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen consumption and of cardiac work, and thus reduction of heart rate may represent an important strategy for the treatment of patients with a wide range of cardiac disorders. In addition, several experimental lines of research point to high heart rate as ...
Roberts Aled W - - 2009
The metabolic syndrome and its components, glucose intolerance, T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity are increasingly common. Patients with the metabolic syndrome have a higher prevalence of chronic heart failure (CHF) and, once diagnosed, CHF in such subjects is associated with a higher mortality than in those without this co-morbidity. However, ...
Freimark Dov - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive hospitalizations and poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the 5 year experience of a single-center CHF day care service, detect the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, and evaluate the safety of the treatments provided. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all patients admitted to the CHF ...
Sandek Anja - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognized as a multisystem disease with important comorbidities such as anemia, insulin resistance, autonomic dysbalance, or cardiac cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from these perturbations, increasing evidence points to alterations in intestinal morphology, permeability, and absorption function in patients with CHF. This ...
Douglas Pamela S - - 2009
In July of 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened experts in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, outcomes research, statistics, and clinical trials to develop recommendations for future randomized controlled trials of the use of imaging in: 1) screening the asymptomatic patient for coronary artery disease; 2) assessment of patients ...
Orso Francesco - - 2009
In the past 2 decades, there have been growing evidences that resting heart rate might be a marker of risk or even a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This article reviews current evidences concerning the relation between heart rate and patients' outcome in different clinical settings such as ...
Miani Daniela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization among the elderly. This study compares clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of octogenarians (OLD) with younger (YOUNG) patients in the Italian Survey on Acute Heart Failure (AHF). METHODS: A nationwide, prospective, observational study on AHF was done. Two hundred six Italian ...
Bush Erik W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Stresses such as chronic hypertension and myocardial infarction can trigger the heart to undergo a remodeling process characterized by myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte death and fibrosis, often resulting in impaired cardiac function and heart failure. Recent studies suggest key roles for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of pathological cardiac ...
Reil Jan-Christian - - 2009
Selective heart rate (HR) reduction by I(f)-channel inhibition is a recently developed pharmacological principle in cardiovascular therapy. Among these newly identified HR-lowering drugs, only ivabradine has now become approved for clinical use. I(f)-channel inhibition mainly reduces HR, thereby improving myocardial oxygen supply, energy balance, and cardiac function. Ivabradine was well ...
de Peuter Olav R - - 2009
Systolic heart failure is a common syndrome whose incidence is expected to increase. Several treatment modalities, such as beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, improve survival. Whether antithrombotic treatment is effective remains to be elucidated, although observations suggest a prothrombotic state in heart failure. This article focuses on this prothrombotic state ...
Mukherjee Debabrata - - 2009
Epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and hypertension is a major independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. The primary objective of the management of hypertension in patients with IHD is modification of the ...
Kamalov German - - 2009
The clinical syndrome congestive heart failure (CHF) has its origins rooted in a salt-avid state mediated largely by effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In recent years, this cardiorenal perspective of CHF has taken on a broader perspective. One which focuses on a progressive systemic illness, whose major features include ...
Miller Alan B - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) accounts for approximately one half of all HF patients admitted with acute decompensated HF and carries a significant morbidity and mortality burden. This condition, however, has been largely understudied because it is difficult to diagnose, and management guidelines are still being discussed. ...
Douglas Pamela S - - 2009
In July of 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened experts in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, outcomes research, statistics, and clinical trials to develop recommendations for future randomized controlled trials of the use of imaging in: 1) screening the asymptomatic patient for coronary artery disease; 2) assessment of patients ...
Douglas Pamela S - - 2009
In July of 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened experts in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, outcomes research, statistics, and clinical trials to develop recommendations for future randomized controlled trials of the use of imaging in: 1) screening the asymptomatic patient for coronary artery disease; 2) assessment of patients ...
Szucs T D - - 2010
This analysis shows the economic benefit of antihypertensive treatment in patients 80 years of age or older from the perspective of the Swiss healthcare system. The cost-effectiveness analysis of antihypertensive treatment in the elderly was carried out applying the results of the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial study to ...
McIntyre Christopher W - - 2009
Hemodialysis (HD) patients are subject to an enormous excess of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This appears to be largely driven by factors that are different from those at play in the general population. Chronic HD patients are already primed by a large number of structural and functional peripheral vascular and ...
Sudano Isabella - - 2009
Angiotensin II plays an important role in the cardiovascular continuum starting with risk factors and progressing to atherosclerosis, target organ damage, and ultimately to heart failure, stroke, or death. Inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) represents a cornerstone for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. In patients with heart failure, ...
Cleland John G F - - 2009
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure presented at the American College of Cardiology meeting in 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. (123)I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy was a good ...
Ravandi Amir - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the effects of the activated RAS is target-organ damage, in part due to their effects on causing hypertension. Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with inhibitors has been shown to attenuate the pathological effects of the ...
Kahan A - - 2009
The majority of patients with SSc are believed to have subclinical primary cardiac involvement. Overt cardiac manifestations of SSc are associated with poor prognosis and can be difficult to manage. Primary myocardial disease, i.e. without systemic or pulmonary hypertension and without significant pulmonary or renal disease, is postulated to be ...
Turgut Okan - - 2010
Serum CA125, a high-molecular weight glycoprotein, is a tumor marker widely used for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer in clinical practice. Recently, increased serum CA125 values, in parallel with catecholamines and natriuretic peptides, have also been documented in patients with heart failure. As far as the ...
Poelzl Gerhard - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is associated with incident cardiovascular diseases and is a potential risk factor for disease mortality. We investigated the relevance of circulating GGT in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2000 to 2007 clinical and laboratory variables of 1033 consecutive outdoor patients with heart failure were ...
Pimentel Carlos Roberto Alves - - 2010
Sick Euthyroid Syndrome (SES) has been defined as low T(3) levels in the presence of normal TSH concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between heart failure functional classes (NYHA) and the presence of SES, as well as to estimate an index of myocardial function impairment ...
Sinatra Stephen T - - 2009
Congestive heart failure (CHF) and dilated cardiomyopathy are life-threatening conditions in which the heart muscle is so weak that effective pulsatile action is compromised. Pulmonary vascular congestion and swelling in the lower extremities as well as in the liver and lining of the gastrointestinal tract frequently cause overwhelming symptoms and ...
Styron Joseph F - - 2009
The authors' purpose was to determine 30- and 180-day readmission and mortality rates for acutely decompensated heart failure patients receiving nesiritide in the emergency department observation unit. The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of all patients admitted to the emergency department observation unit, stratified by nesiritide administration, from January 2002 ...
He Sheng-Wen - - 2009
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of anemia on the clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure (CHF) by a meta-analysis and systemic review of published literatures. Twenty published English-language articles were selected from Medline, PubMed, and ISI Database. Clinical data were extracted, pooled, and analyzed with ...
Fields Anjali V - - 2009
Pharmacologic intervention for the failing heart has traditionally targeted neurohormonal activation and ventricular remodeling associated with cardiac dysfunction. Despite the multitude of agents available for the treatment of heart failure, it remains a highly prevalent clinical syndrome with substantial morbidity and mortality, necessitating alternative strategies of targeted management. One such ...
Kumar Praneet - - 2009
Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) selectively hydrolyzes cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Inhibitors of PDE5 were originally developed to treat angina pectoris, and currently have multiple therapeutic indications, including erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Several lines of research have provided evidence to support various potential PDE5-dependent cellular mechanisms in the myocardium that are involved ...
Bax Jeroen J - - 2009
Heart failure is becoming the main clinical challenge in cardiology in the twenty-first century and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, several therapeutic options are available for heart failure patients, including medical therapy, revascularization, advanced cardiac surgery, device therapy, and cardiac transplantation. Future therapies are directed at cell ...
McDonald Michael A - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared with the left ventricle, studies of right ventricular failure as a distinct clinical entity have lagged behind. Evolving appreciation of the prognostic significance of right ventricular dysfunction in the heart failure population and advances in noninvasive imaging have provided the impetus for recent investigation into the ...
Eapen Zubin - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of heart failure is increasing due to an aging population and improved management of diseases that are precursors to ventricular dysfunction. The success of therapeutic advances has created a challenge for the next generation of investigational heart failure treatments because the mortality rate has decreased ...
Thohan Vinay - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diastolic heart failure (DHF) is the culmination of various cardiovascular insults, producing a proportionally greater alteration of diastolic performance, subtle reductions of systolic function and the clinical syndrome of heart failure. Over half of heart failure patients aged 65 years or older have DHF, which carries similar ...
Revenco Diana - - 2009
Abstract At present the prevalence of heart failure rises along with aging of the population. Current heart failure therapeutic options are directed towards disease prevention via neurohormonal antagonism (beta blockers angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers and aldosterone antagonists), symptomatic treatment with diuretics and digitalis and use of ...
Revenco Diana - - 2009
At present the prevalence of heart failure rises along with aging of the population. Current heart failure therapeutic options are directed towards disease prevention via neurohormonal antagonism (beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers and aldosterone antagonists), symptomatic treatment with diuretics and digitalis and use of biventricular pacing ...
Bansal Shweta - - 2009
Much has been learned about the pathophysiological state that underlies the development of increased total body volume and edema in left ventricular failure. Very little, however, is known about the mechanism underlying systemic hypervolemia in patients with isolated right ventricular dysfunction. In this manuscript, we describe our randomized clinical trial ...
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