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Results 201 - 250 of 2157
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Bronicki Ronald A - - 2010
This review focuses on right ventricular anatomy and function and the significance of ventricular interdependence in the response of the right ventricle to an increase in afterload. This is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiology of right ventricular failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as in other clinical ...
Stamos Thomas D - - 2010
Anemia is a relatively common finding in heart failure. Anemia in heart failure patients has been independently associated with reduced exercise tolerance, increased heart failure hospitalizations and increased all-cause mortality. Anemia would appear to be a reasonable treatment target for patients with heart failure. The review will discuss the potential ...
Poggio Rosana - - 2010
The risk of hyperkalaemia in patients with heart failure has increased in the past few years together with the evolution of pharmacological treatment for these patients. This significant change has been associated with the introduction of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and aldosterone antagonists. High ...
Haddad Francois - - 2010
Despite the recognition of a critical role of the right ventricle (RV) in many aspects of cardiovascular medicine, there has been surprisingly little interest in right ventricular-targeted imaging and therapeutic approaches. Compared with the left ventricle, the RV has a different embryologic origin, undergoes a dramatic change during the transition ...
Zhao Qiang - - 2010
This study was designed to investigate the effect of low-dose nesiritide on renal function and major cardiac events in patients with acute decompensated heart failure following acute myocardial infarction. Sixty patients were randomized into nesiritide (loading dose 0.5 microg/kg, maintenance dose 0.0075 microg/kg/min) and nitroprusside groups. Compared with the nitroprusside ...
Szmit Sebastian - - 2010
Trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction may be manageable and completely reversible with suitable cardiac medication, allowing optimal breast cancer treatment to continue. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman who developed severe systolic left ventricular failure with impaired contractility of the right ventricle, pulmonary hypertension, and clots in the left ventricular ...
Ali Mir Wasif - - 2010
Progressive left ventricular remodeling is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle with a change in the heart from an elliptical shape to a more spherical shape. This change is part of the unfavorable natural history in patients with heart failure. The CorCap Cardiac Support Device (Acorn Cardiovascular, St. Paul, ...
Mielniczuk Lisa M - - 2010
Admissions to hospital for acute decompensated heart failure continue to increase and represent a significant burden on both patients' and healthcare resources. The majority of these admissions are for the control of volume overload; however, standard treatment with intravenous diuretics is not always effective and can lead to increased renal ...
Ghali Jalal K - - 2010
Hypervolemia and hyponatremia resulting from activation of the neurohormonal system and impairment of renal function are prominent features of decompensated heart failure. Both conditions share many pathophysiologic and prognostic features and each has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. When both conditions coexist, therapeutic options are limited. This review ...
Kantor Paul F - - 2010
The current maintenance treatment for children with heart failure remains controversial: To a large extent, it is based on extrapolation of data derived from trials in adult populations. There are only a few randomized trials focused on the treatment of children with cardiac disease, especially in the subgroup with cardiomyopathy ...
Swynghedauw Bernard - - 2010
Integration of the relevant evolutionary paradigm in cardiology has not yet been fully achieved: In the past, heart failure (HF) was mainly ascribed to infections, and the origins of cardiac hypertrophy (CH) were regarded as mechanical. Recent changes in lifestyle have both reduced the incidence of infections and increased lifespan, ...
DeWald Tracy A - - 2010
Acute decompensated heart failure is a common clinical problem with associated poor outcomes. Over the last decade, attention to this area has greatly increased, with a focus on medical therapies that may safely offer improvement in acute symptoms and early outcomes. Previous therapies that focused on increased inotropy have generally ...
Cleland John G F - - 2010
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure presented at the annual meeting of the American Heart Association held in Orlando, Florida in 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may change in the final publication. ...
Ramani Gautam V GV University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, - - 2010
Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management ...
Vittorio Timothy J - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Impairment of flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery identifies peripheral endothelial dysfunction in subjects with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To further elucidate the interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms in the syndrome of CHF, we examined the association ...
De Keulenaer Gilles W - - 2010
In this review, we address clinical aspects and mechanisms of ventricular dysfunction induced by anticancer drugs targeted to the ErbB2 receptor. ErbB2 antagonists prolong survival in cancer, but also interfere with homeostatic processes in the heart. ErbB2 is a coreceptor for ErbB4, which is activated by neuregulin-1. This epidermal growth ...
Shah Ravi V - - 2010
Although renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have little demonstrable effect on mortality in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), some trials have suggested a benefit with regard to reduction in HF hospitalization. Here, we systematically review and evaluate prospective clinical studies of RAS inhibitors enrolling patients with HF-PEF, ...
Wong Dennis T - - 2010
To determine whether heart failure with preserved systolic function (HFPSF) has different natural history from left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). A retrospective analysis of 10 years of data (for patients admitted between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 2004, and with a study census date of 30 June 2005) routinely ...
Hoogwerf Byron J BJ Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. - - 2010
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of clinical conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Inhibition of the RAAS with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been shown to be effective in lowering ...
Xu Yabei - - 2010
Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), a cardioactive growth factor released from endothelial cells, is indispensable for cardiac development, structural maintenance, and functional integrity of the heart. In recent years, a growing number of studies have focused on NRG-1 and members of the ErbB family that serve as receptors for NRG-1 in order to ...
Sindelić Radomir - - 2010
Careful assessment of fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient outcomes. Volume status is frequently assessed by different hemodynamic variables that could be targeted as endpoints for fluid therapy and resuscitation. Goal directed fluid therapy is a method for correction ...
Sue Mariko - - 2010
Acromegaly is characterized by chronic hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) and is associated with increased mortality rate because of the potential complications such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, or malignancy, which are probably caused by the long-term exposure of tissues to excess GH, for at least 10 years, before diagnosis ...
Chaney Erin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Fluid retention in the face of an expanding extracellular fluid volume is a key contributing factor in the development and progression of heart failure. METHODS: We performed a review of clinical texts as well as a Medline investigation for the pathophysiology of fluid and sodium retention in heart failure. ...
Marchioli R - - 2010
Over the past 20 years, there has been significant progress in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) with consequent considerable development of both pharmacological and non pharmacological approaches. Despite improved therapeutic strategies, HF still remains burdensome in terms of mortality, quality of life, and hospitalization costs. A ...
McIntyre Chris W - - 2010
Chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients are already primed by a large number of structural and functional peripheral vascular and cardiac abnormalities to experience demand myocardial ischaemia. Transient myocardial ischaemia may lead to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that can persist after the return of normal perfusion. This prolonged dysfunction is known as ...
Lim Tae Joon - - 2010
Adverse events associated with sunitinib, such as cardiac toxicities, renal damage, and hemostatic complications, are well known. The authors report 3 cases in which patients experienced severe life-threatening complications after commencing sunitinib treatment. One patient developed heart failure with dilation of the left ventricle and decrease in the ejection fraction ...
Tagarakis Georgios I - - 2010
A great variety of inotropic agents with different effects on peripheral vascular resistance have been employed in the endeavor to treat heart failure after cardiac surgery. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and dobutamine belong to the first-line, widely used drugs recruited to support and improve ventricular performance, although none of these agents ...
Zile Michael R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that superimposing incremental continuous flow on pulsatile aortic flow (aortic flow therapy, AFT) yields an increase in cardiac output. This study examined whether improvement in this hemodynamic index is independent of changes in loading conditions and represents an improvement in cardiac performance. METHODS: The Multi-center Trial ...
Yuzefpolskaya Melana - - 2010
Heart failure due to systolic dysfunction has enormous global impact. Medical management based on an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease as well as its neurohormonal mechanisms has greatly advanced over the past 25 years. Below is a review of recent and emerging data on epidemiology and diagnosis of ...
Palazzuoli Alberto - - 2010
Despite its high prevalence and significant rates of associated morbidity and mortality, the syndrome of decompensated heart failure (HF) remains poorly defined and vastly understudied. HF is due to several mechanisms including pump dysfunction disorder, neurohormonal activation disorder, and salt-water retention disorder. The first step of the syndrome includes cardiac ...
Barry Seán P - - 2010
Our understanding of the molecular processes which regulate cardiac function has grown immeasurably in recent years. Even with the advent of β-blockers, angiotensin inhibitors and calcium modulating agents, heart failure (HF) still remains a seriously debilitating and life-threatening condition. Here, we review the molecular changes which occur in the heart ...
Mebazaa Alexandre - - 2010
Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include history of heart disease, compensated ...
Sandhu Ankur - - 2010
Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) with an incidence ranging from 4% to 55% depending on the studied population. Several studies have highlighted that the prevalence of anemia increases with worsening heart failure as reflected by New York Heart Association classification. Additionally, several epidemiological studies have ...
Kroon Paul A - - 2010
Red wine contains many compounds that may have therapeutic use, including resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxytrans-stilbene). Since resveratrol could be administered both in the diet and as a therapeutic agent, defining appropriate concentrations requires understanding of the pharmacokinetics. Resveratrol absorption is rapid but plasma concentrations are low as it is rapidly and efficiently ...
Kushnir Alexander - - 2010
According to the American Heart Association it is estimated that the United States will spend close to $39 billion in 2010 to treat over five million Americans suffering from heart failure. Patients with heart failure suffer from dyspnea and decreased exercised tolerance and are at increased risk for fatal ventricular ...
Uemura Kazunori K National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, Osaka 5658565, Japan. - - 2010
We have developed a novel automated drug delivery system for simultaneous control of systemic arterial pressure (AP), cardiac output (CO), and left atrial pressure (P(LA)) in acute heart failure. The circulatory equilibrium framework we established previously discloses that AP, CO, and P(LA) are determined by equilibrium of the mechanical properties ...
Qin Fuzhong - - 2010
Although it seems that reactive oxygen species contribute to chronic myocardial remodeling, questions remain about (1) the specific types of reactive oxygen species involved, (2) the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating specific cellular events, and (3) the cause-and-effect relationship between myocardial reactive oxygen species and the progression to ...
Desai Akshay S - - 2009
Multilevel inhibition of neurohormonal activation using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists is the cornerstone of modern heart failure treatment. Use of these agents in optimal doses is associated with significant improvements in heart failure-associated morbidity and mortality but also may increase serum potassium. Because potassium ...
Bhattacharya Syamal K - - 2009
The pathologic hypertrophy of hypertensive heart disease is related to the quality, not the quantity, of myocardium; the presence of fibrosis is inevitably linked to structural and functional insufficiencies with increased cardiovascular risk. Elevations in plasma aldosterone that are inappropriate relative to dietary sodium, or relative aldosteronism, are accompanied by ...
Westcott Katherine V - - 2009
After a myocardial infarct (MI), a variety of mechanisms contribute to progressive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Progressive activation of central sympathoexcitatory pathways appears to depend on a neuromodulatory pathway, involving local production of aldosterone and release of endogenous ouabain-like compounds ('ouabain') possibly from magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular ...
Freeman Lisa M - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac cachexia, the loss of lean body mass that affects a large proportion of patients with chronic heart failure, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of cardiac cachexia is complex and multifactorial, but recent studies are providing new information that is helping to clarify ...
Lainscak Mitja - - 2009
Cardiac biomarkers are very important in diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with heart failure. Although not meeting all criteria for an ideal biomarker, natriuretic peptides primarily have a diagnostic and prognostic role. Other routinely available and newly emerging biomarkers have a complementary role in patient management; thus multimarker ...
Kim Young-Sin - - 2009
There is convincing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in heart failure (HF), from the events that result in its inception through advanced disease. In particular, RAAS activation is one of the major pathways involved in maladaptive cardiac remodeling, a process that results in progressive cardiac ...
Volz Elizabeth M - - 2009
Systemic and pulmonary congestion is a central aspect of both acute and chronic heart failure and directly leads to many of the clinical manifestations of these syndromes. Therefore, diuretic therapy to treat congestion plays a fundamental role in heart failure management. However, although diuretics are the most common drugs prescribed ...
Lee Brian E - - 2009
Allopurinol as an effective inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) has been used for several decades for the treatment of patients with gout and hyperuricemia. Because the inhibition of XO limits the formation of radical oxygen species as well as uric acid (UA) production, allopurinol has been used experimentally ...
Teerlink John R - - 2009
Treatment with inotropic agents is one of the most controversial topics in heart failure. Initial enthusiasm, based on strong pathophysiological rationale and apparent empirical efficacy, has been progressively limited by results of controlled trials and registries showing poorer outcomes of the patients on inotropic therapy. The use of these agents ...
Teerlink John R - - 2009
Decreased systolic function is a central factor in the pathogenesis of heart failure, yet there are no safe medical therapies to improve cardiac function in patients. Currently available inotropes, such as dobutamine and milrinone, increase cardiac contractility at the expense of increased intracellular concentrations of calcium and cAMP, contributing to ...
de Souza Vilarinho Karlos Alexandre - - 2010
Heart failure is a common and often fatal disease. Numerous animal models are used to study its aetiology, progression and treatment. This article aims to demonstrate two minimally invasive models of congestive heart failure in a rabbit model and a precise method to assess cardiac performance. Fifty New Zealand White ...
Gaasch William H - - 2009
The clinical manifestations and eventual outcomes of chronic heart failure (HF) are not closely related to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). This has contributed to the single syndrome hypothesis of HF that assumes a continuum, with the EF evolving and decreasing as the ventricle remodels and dilates. Such a ...
Scolletta Sabino - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome causing a huge burden in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical therapies for HF are aimed at suppressing the neurohormonal activation. However, novel therapies are needed for HF, independent of the neurohormonal axis, that can improve cardiac performance and prevent the progression of heart ...
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