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Results 201 - 250 of 2136
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Sue Mariko - - 2010
Acromegaly is characterized by chronic hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) and is associated with increased mortality rate because of the potential complications such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, or malignancy, which are probably caused by the long-term exposure of tissues to excess GH, for at least 10 years, before diagnosis ...
Chaney Erin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Fluid retention in the face of an expanding extracellular fluid volume is a key contributing factor in the development and progression of heart failure. METHODS: We performed a review of clinical texts as well as a Medline investigation for the pathophysiology of fluid and sodium retention in heart failure. ...
Marchioli R - - 2010
Over the past 20 years, there has been significant progress in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) with consequent considerable development of both pharmacological and non pharmacological approaches. Despite improved therapeutic strategies, HF still remains burdensome in terms of mortality, quality of life, and hospitalization costs. A ...
McIntyre Chris W - - 2010
Chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients are already primed by a large number of structural and functional peripheral vascular and cardiac abnormalities to experience demand myocardial ischaemia. Transient myocardial ischaemia may lead to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that can persist after the return of normal perfusion. This prolonged dysfunction is known as ...
Lim Tae Joon - - 2010
Adverse events associated with sunitinib, such as cardiac toxicities, renal damage, and hemostatic complications, are well known. The authors report 3 cases in which patients experienced severe life-threatening complications after commencing sunitinib treatment. One patient developed heart failure with dilation of the left ventricle and decrease in the ejection fraction ...
Tagarakis Georgios I - - 2010
A great variety of inotropic agents with different effects on peripheral vascular resistance have been employed in the endeavor to treat heart failure after cardiac surgery. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and dobutamine belong to the first-line, widely used drugs recruited to support and improve ventricular performance, although none of these agents ...
Zile Michael R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that superimposing incremental continuous flow on pulsatile aortic flow (aortic flow therapy, AFT) yields an increase in cardiac output. This study examined whether improvement in this hemodynamic index is independent of changes in loading conditions and represents an improvement in cardiac performance. METHODS: The Multi-center Trial ...
Yuzefpolskaya Melana - - 2010
Heart failure due to systolic dysfunction has enormous global impact. Medical management based on an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease as well as its neurohormonal mechanisms has greatly advanced over the past 25 years. Below is a review of recent and emerging data on epidemiology and diagnosis of ...
Palazzuoli Alberto - - 2010
Despite its high prevalence and significant rates of associated morbidity and mortality, the syndrome of decompensated heart failure (HF) remains poorly defined and vastly understudied. HF is due to several mechanisms including pump dysfunction disorder, neurohormonal activation disorder, and salt-water retention disorder. The first step of the syndrome includes cardiac ...
Uemura Kazunori - - 2010
We have developed a novel automated drug delivery system for simultaneous control of systemic arterial pressure (AP), cardiac output (CO), and left atrial pressure (P(LA)) in acute heart failure. The circulatory equilibrium framework we established previously discloses that AP, CO, and P(LA) are determined by equilibrium of the mechanical properties ...
Barry Seán P - - 2010
Our understanding of the molecular processes which regulate cardiac function has grown immeasurably in recent years. Even with the advent of β-blockers, angiotensin inhibitors and calcium modulating agents, heart failure (HF) still remains a seriously debilitating and life-threatening condition. Here, we review the molecular changes which occur in the heart ...
Mebazaa Alexandre - - 2010
Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include history of heart disease, compensated ...
Sandhu Ankur - - 2010
Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) with an incidence ranging from 4% to 55% depending on the studied population. Several studies have highlighted that the prevalence of anemia increases with worsening heart failure as reflected by New York Heart Association classification. Additionally, several epidemiological studies have ...
Kroon Paul A - - 2010
Red wine contains many compounds that may have therapeutic use, including resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxytrans-stilbene). Since resveratrol could be administered both in the diet and as a therapeutic agent, defining appropriate concentrations requires understanding of the pharmacokinetics. Resveratrol absorption is rapid but plasma concentrations are low as it is rapidly and efficiently ...
Kushnir Alexander - - 2010
According to the American Heart Association it is estimated that the United States will spend close to $39 billion in 2010 to treat over five million Americans suffering from heart failure. Patients with heart failure suffer from dyspnea and decreased exercised tolerance and are at increased risk for fatal ventricular ...
Qin Fuzhong - - 2010
Although it seems that reactive oxygen species contribute to chronic myocardial remodeling, questions remain about (1) the specific types of reactive oxygen species involved, (2) the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating specific cellular events, and (3) the cause-and-effect relationship between myocardial reactive oxygen species and the progression to ...
Desai Akshay S - - 2009
Multilevel inhibition of neurohormonal activation using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists is the cornerstone of modern heart failure treatment. Use of these agents in optimal doses is associated with significant improvements in heart failure-associated morbidity and mortality but also may increase serum potassium. Because potassium ...
Bhattacharya Syamal K - - 2009
The pathologic hypertrophy of hypertensive heart disease is related to the quality, not the quantity, of myocardium; the presence of fibrosis is inevitably linked to structural and functional insufficiencies with increased cardiovascular risk. Elevations in plasma aldosterone that are inappropriate relative to dietary sodium, or relative aldosteronism, are accompanied by ...
Westcott Katherine V - - 2009
After a myocardial infarct (MI), a variety of mechanisms contribute to progressive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Progressive activation of central sympathoexcitatory pathways appears to depend on a neuromodulatory pathway, involving local production of aldosterone and release of endogenous ouabain-like compounds ('ouabain') possibly from magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular ...
Freeman Lisa M - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac cachexia, the loss of lean body mass that affects a large proportion of patients with chronic heart failure, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of cardiac cachexia is complex and multifactorial, but recent studies are providing new information that is helping to clarify ...
Lainscak Mitja - - 2009
Cardiac biomarkers are very important in diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with heart failure. Although not meeting all criteria for an ideal biomarker, natriuretic peptides primarily have a diagnostic and prognostic role. Other routinely available and newly emerging biomarkers have a complementary role in patient management; thus multimarker ...
Kim Young-Sin - - 2009
There is convincing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in heart failure (HF), from the events that result in its inception through advanced disease. In particular, RAAS activation is one of the major pathways involved in maladaptive cardiac remodeling, a process that results in progressive cardiac ...
Volz Elizabeth M - - 2009
Systemic and pulmonary congestion is a central aspect of both acute and chronic heart failure and directly leads to many of the clinical manifestations of these syndromes. Therefore, diuretic therapy to treat congestion plays a fundamental role in heart failure management. However, although diuretics are the most common drugs prescribed ...
Lee Brian E - - 2009
Allopurinol as an effective inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) has been used for several decades for the treatment of patients with gout and hyperuricemia. Because the inhibition of XO limits the formation of radical oxygen species as well as uric acid (UA) production, allopurinol has been used experimentally ...
Teerlink John R - - 2009
Treatment with inotropic agents is one of the most controversial topics in heart failure. Initial enthusiasm, based on strong pathophysiological rationale and apparent empirical efficacy, has been progressively limited by results of controlled trials and registries showing poorer outcomes of the patients on inotropic therapy. The use of these agents ...
Teerlink John R - - 2009
Decreased systolic function is a central factor in the pathogenesis of heart failure, yet there are no safe medical therapies to improve cardiac function in patients. Currently available inotropes, such as dobutamine and milrinone, increase cardiac contractility at the expense of increased intracellular concentrations of calcium and cAMP, contributing to ...
de Souza Vilarinho Karlos Alexandre - - 2010
Heart failure is a common and often fatal disease. Numerous animal models are used to study its aetiology, progression and treatment. This article aims to demonstrate two minimally invasive models of congestive heart failure in a rabbit model and a precise method to assess cardiac performance. Fifty New Zealand White ...
Gaasch William H - - 2009
The clinical manifestations and eventual outcomes of chronic heart failure (HF) are not closely related to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). This has contributed to the single syndrome hypothesis of HF that assumes a continuum, with the EF evolving and decreasing as the ventricle remodels and dilates. Such a ...
Scolletta Sabino - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome causing a huge burden in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical therapies for HF are aimed at suppressing the neurohormonal activation. However, novel therapies are needed for HF, independent of the neurohormonal axis, that can improve cardiac performance and prevent the progression of heart ...
Malyszko Jolanta - - 2011
Apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, is produced by white adipose tissue and also expressed in kidney and heart. Increasing evidence suggests a role for apelin in the pathology of the cardiovascular system. It was demonstrated that apelin may contribute to the pathophysiology of human chronic heart failure. Apelin locates at ...
Tsutsui Hiroyuki - - 2010
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). Compared to those with reduced EF, patients with HFPEF are older, more likely to be women, less likely to have coronary artery disease, and more likely to have ...
Swedberg Karl - - 2010
Elevated heart rate is a significant marker for mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Despite background treatment with a beta-blocker, many patients with heart failure and low ejection fraction maintain a heart rate above 70 b.p.m. Ivabradine reduces heart rate directly through inhibition of the I(f) ionic ...
Triposkiadis Filippos - - 2009
Heart failure is a syndrome characterized initially by left ventricular dysfunction that triggers countermeasures aimed to restore cardiac output. These responses are compensatory at first but eventually become part of the disease process itself leading to further worsening cardiac function. Among these responses is the activation of the sympathetic nervous ...
Porrello Enzo R - - 2009
Autophagic activity increases in the heart in response to a variety of stresses including hypertension, ischemia and neonatal starvation. Constitutive autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the heart, whereas unrestrained autophagic activity accentuates the maladaptive cardiac remodeling response to stress (e.g., hypertension) and may ...
Gradman Alan H - - 2009
In patients with hypertension, pressure overload leads to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic filling without systolic dysfunction. Presently, diastolic heart failure accounts for about 50% of the heart failure population. Fatigue, dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, and peripheral edema are common presenting complaints. As a group, patients ...
Zannad Faiez - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome with a broad spectrum of heterogeneous symptoms and signs resulting in a wide range of clinical expressions. The prevalence of HF is estimated to be 1-2% in developed countries, increasing with age. Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for patients older than ...
Shanmugam Ganesh - - 2009
Congestive heart failure as a consequence of ischemic heart disease is an increasing medical problem. Notwithstanding the huge advances in the medical and conventional surgical management of heart failure, eventual outcomes remain suboptimal. This 2 part article outlines the magnitude of the problem, the limitations of conventional therapies as they ...
Al Habeeb Waleed - - 2009
The ever expanding epidemic of end-stage heart failure represents one of the greatest challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine. With medical treatments hampered by significant limitations, physicians caring for patients with advanced heart disease have turned to cardiac transplantation and durable mechanical circulatory assist devices as definitive therapies. These advanced therapeutic ...
Molyneux Sarah L - - 2009
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for electron transport within the mitochondria and hence for ATP generation and cellular energy production. We recently demonstrated that plasma levels of CoQ10 are an independent predictor of survival in a cohort of 236 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) followed for a median of ...
Soukoulis Victor V Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2009
Heart failure (HF) is a common, disabling, and costly disease. Despite major advances in medical therapy, morbidity and mortality remain high, in part because current pharmacological regimens may not fully address some unique requirements of the heart for energy. The heart requires a continuous supply of energy-providing substrates and amino ...
Chatterjee Kanu - - 2009
Hyponatremia is one of the newer and emerging risk factors for an adverse prognosis in chronic heart failure. Why decreased serum sodium is associated with worse prognosis remains unclear. It may reflect worsening heart failure and the deleterious effects of activation of neurohormones. The mechanism of hyponatremia in heart failure ...
Appel Jon M - - 2010
Anthracyclines are important in the treatment of numerous malignant diseases but the use is limited by a risk of heart failure (CHF). LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) measurements by radionuclide ventriculography with multiple gated acquisition (MUGA) is often used for cardiac monitoring. However, diastolic variables have been proposed as sensitive ...
Kempf Tibor - - 2009
The stress-responsive transforming growth factor-beta-related cytokine, growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), is emerging as a new biomarker in patients with cardiovascular disease. The circulating levels of GDF-15 are elevated and independently related to an adverse prognosis in acute coronary syndrome and left- or right-sided heart failure. GDF-15 adds significant prognostic information to ...
Richards A Mark - - 2009
A profusion of circulating candidate biomarkers in heart failure is currently being investigated. Although all will advance our insight into the pathophysiology of heart failure, their potential clinical utility will depend on satisfaction of three key criteria. Assays must be accessible, reliable, and affordable. Secondly, the marker must provide information ...
Tang W H Wilson - - 2009
There is broad adoption of various cardiac and noncardiac biomarkers in clinical practices across North America for the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Like any clinical condition, there are several overall objectives in biomarker testing: to establish or refute a diagnosis of heart failure and/or cardiac dysfunction; to understand ...
Gazit Avihu Z - - 2009
Prompt initiation of appropriate and intensive treatment in children with decompensated heart failure is crucial to avoid irreversible end-organ dysfunction. Initial management of these children includes transfer to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, basic hemodynamic monitoring, and establishment of intravenous access. Inotropic support should be instituted peripherally before obtaining ...
Burelle Yan - - 2010
While compelling evidence supports the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of heart failure, there is comparatively less information available on mitochondrial alterations that occur prior to failure. Building on our recent work with the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse heart, this review focuses on how early changes in mitochondrial ...
Royse Colin Forbes - - 2009
The haemodynamic state refers to the integration of myocardial and vascular systems, and involves both left and right hearts, and systolic and diastolic phases. The assessment of the haemodynamic state can be performed with echocardiography, and provides a higher level of diagnosis than conventional pressure- and flow-based monitoring. Whilst hypotension ...
Tamargo Juan - - 2009
Acute heart failure represents a major public health problem due to its high prevalence, high rates of mortality and readmissions and significant healthcare costs. Patients with AHF and low cardiac output represent a small subgroup of patients with very high mortality rates that require inotropic support to improve cardiac systolic ...
Szabó Tibor - - 2009
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is of constantly growing importance regarding incidence, prevalence and social and economic burden. The classical mere hemodynamic perception of CHF pathophysiology has been expanded towards a much more complex and inclusive approach combining neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic and immunological factors. With this advance, new parameters and targets ...
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