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Results 1951 - 2000 of 2265
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Alderman M H - - 1992
Despite substantial progress in cardiovascular disease prevention, stroke and myocardial infarction remain the leading causes of death throughout the industrialized world. Treatment of high blood pressure, while contributing importantly to this progress, remains inefficient and less than optimally effective, particularly in regard to coronary artery disease events. Therapeutic intervention in ...
Dzau V J - - 1992
At the cellular and molecular level the transition to heart failure is a complex process that involves structural adaptation, not only of the heart, but of peripheral vasculature and renal tissues as well. Recent studies have suggested that autocrine, paracrine, and circulating biologically active mediators activate events that result in ...
Katz A M - - 1992
Understanding of heart failure has developed through 3 paradigms involving organ, cell, and gene. The first views heart failure as an abnormality of organ (pump) function leading to salt and water retention and vasoconstriction. Therapy to correct these circulatory abnormalities is well accepted and effective. The second considers heart failure ...
Sharpe N - - 1992
Ventricular remodeling denotes structural changes that occur in ventricular chamber size, wall thickness, and composition following myocardial damage. Following acute coronary occlusion, there are various factors to consider at different times that may contribute to subsequent ventricular dilation. Early infarct expansion and later healing may be accompanied by compensatory hypertrophy ...
Singh S - - 1992
This study is a prospective, double-masked, randomized, clinical trial to determine the effect of anti-arrhythmic drug therapy on mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia. Patients will be assigned to receive either amiodarone or placebo. Eligible patients include those with ischemic and nonischemic congestive heart failure (New ...
Oakley C M - - 1992
If the failing left ventricle could be given an effective push, other approaches to the treatment of heart failure would not be needed. We have inotropes only for short-term parenteral use. We have no safe inotrope for chronic oral use. The effect of digitalis is only feeble and the phosphodiesterase ...
Carew B D - - 1992
SOLVD was a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial whose initial sample size goal was to randomize 6100 participants into two concurrent trials: treatment and prevention. The objective was to determine if participants with severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 35%, with congestive heart failure (2569) and participants ...
White H D - - 1992
Despite extensive clinical experience the role of digoxin is still not well defined. In patients with atrial fibrillation digoxin is beneficial for ventricular rate control. For patients in sinus rhythm and heart failure the situation is less clear. Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic:toxic ratio and concentrations are affected by a ...
Remme W J - - 1992
During the last decades heart failure has become a syndrome of major concern. Despite a decline in the occurrence of coronary artery disease and improved treatment of systemic hypertension, its primary aetiologic factors, the incidence of heart failure has been ever increasing. It is estimated that in the U.S.A. and ...
Cohn J N - - 1992
Nitrates exert hemodynamic and possibly nonhemodynamic effects that result in reduced cardiac filling pressures, increased cardiac output, reduced pulmonary vascular pressures, and improvement in symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure. Combined with hydralazine, chronic oral administration of isosorbide dinitrate has been demonstrated to improve survival when added ...
Bonow R O - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To define the mechanisms underlying left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure and normal systolic function and to identify the patients at risk for this syndrome. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were selected that describe the clinical observations of congestive heart failure with normal systolic function and that ...
Pitt B - - 1992
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are widely used in patients with severe heart failure on the basis of the significant improvement in mortality in the CONSENSUS-I trial in patients with Class IV heart failure. Recent data from the 5-year clinical trial Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) suggest a role ...
Kantner T R - - 1992
Despite improved understanding of both disease mechanisms and the quality of care, congestive heart failure (CHF) remains a serious clinical problem. The traditional treatments, diuretics and digitalis, continue to play a major role in the management of many patients with CHF; however, in the last decade, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ...
Parmley W W - - 1992
Congestive heart failure is a syndrome common in the United States, especially in elderly patients. The most common etiology is coronary artery disease. A number of general factors contribute to the heart failure syndrome, including loss of muscle, decreased myocardial contractility, pressure or volume overload, or restricted filling. All of ...
Ventura H O - - 1992
In the past 50 years, an increased understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with the development of heart failure has produced a more precise treatment of this syndrome. The effects of the agents used for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure have been summarized in this article and ...
Abrams J - - 1992
The organic nitrates have remarkably diverse actions that are or should be beneficial in patients with ischemic heart disease. These drugs are effective in all the important ischemic syndromes. Preliminary data in patients with acute infarction suggest that the drugs may be truly cardioprotective, resulting in improved mortality. This review ...
Bangdiwala S I - - 1992
The Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) comprises 2 double-blind, randomized clinical trials to test improved survival by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, with or without congestive heart failure. Patients entering the trials may be a highly selected subset of the population of such patients; those ...
Teo K K - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this review was to address the following question: based on the best available evidence, what should be the current medical management of congestive heart failure (CHF)? DATA SOURCES: The major sources for this review were from searches of the English language literature, including computer and ...
Roberti R R - - 1992
Chagas disease is a leading cause of heart failure in Latin America. Sudden death occurs in approximately 40% of patients with heart failure due to Chagas disease. We report a single blind, cross-over trial of prolonged treatment with captopril and placebo in 18 Chagas disease patients with class IV NYHA ...
Packer M - - 1992
Because physicians have traditionally considered heart failure to be a hemodynamic disorder, they have described the syndrome of heart failure using hemodynamic concepts and have designed treatment strategies to correct the hemodynamic derangements of the disease. However, although hemodynamic abnormalities may explain the symptoms of heart failure, they are not ...
Packer M - - 1992
Therapeutic approaches to the management of heart failure have traditionally focused on shortterm hemodynamic and symptomatic goals, but present evidence suggests that most therapeutic decisions have long-term consequences. Treatment may change the rate of disease progression, modify the need for additional therapy, influence the number of hospitalizations, and alter the ...
Yusuf S - - 1992
Despite major advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) have been increasing in recent years. As the average age of the population increases, the prevalence of CHF is expected to continue to increase. The number of deaths in which ...
Ferguson D W - - 1992
A pathophysiologic hallmark of heart failure is neurohormonal excitation, a prominent feature of which is activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Studies from our laboratories demonstrate that clinical heart failure is characterized by marked increases in efferent sympathetic neural outflow to muscle; the magnitude of this sympatho-excitation parallels the degree ...
Tisdale J E - - 1992
Although digitalis preparations have been in use for greater than 200 years, it is only within the last 2 decades that the central hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects occurring over several hours following intravenous administration of digoxin have been investigated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Although digoxin has been ...
Houston M C - - 1992
Antihypertensive therapy should be directed toward reduction of all end-organ damage including congestive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and chronic renal failure. The Subsets of hypertension approach is based on pathophysiology, hemodynamics, risk factor reduction for end-organ damage, concomitant diseases and problems, demographics, ...
Crozier I - - 1992
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and digoxin may be used in the management of heart failure. Digoxin increases myocardial contractility in vitro, and has a modest but durable beneficial effect in congestive heart failure due to impaired left ventricular systolic function. ACE inhibitors have clear beneficial effects in all grades ...
Pitt B - - 1992
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical, biochemical, electrophysiological, and hemodynamic abnormalities. During the past two decades, numerous drugs have been employed in the treatment of this complex syndrome, and many agents have been shown to improve symptoms and ventricular function in patients with ...
Kleber F X - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Neurohormonal activation has major impact on the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. The Munich Mild Heart Failure Trial was designed to test the hypothesis that interference with the renin-angiotensin system by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition favourably influences the natural history of heart failure. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 170 patients, median ...
Flapan A D - - 1992
Thirty-two patients with chronic cardiac failure underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring on 2 separate occasions: 20 patients before and during treatment with captopril, and 12 acting as controls. Heart rate variability was calculated by counting the number of times successive RR interval differences were greater than 50 ms (this measurement ...
Aronow W S - - 1992
Digitalis should be used for slowing a rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter unassociated with the preexcitation syndrome. Digitalis may be used to convert paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm. Patients with the tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome should receive maintenance doses of digitalis after pacemaker implantation. Digitalis should not ...
Opie L H - - 1992
The use of calcium antagonists for postinfarct cardioprotection remains controversial. Several major trials have failed to show benefit, despite positive expectations based on promising experimental data. A clue to the problem with the calcium antagonists was provided by the diltiazem trial, in which an adverse effect in the presence of ...
Lindpaintner K - - 1992
Possible cardioprotective effects are one of the most intriguing aspects of the expanding spectrum of clinical indications for the use of converting-enzyme inhibitors. Among them, the prevention of postinfarction ventricular remodeling--a deleterious process leading to eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and, eventually, to congestive heart failure--has attracted particular interest and attention. This ...
Widimský J - - 1992
The prognosis of patients with advanced left heart failure is fairly dismal. It was not until recently that studies were conducted demonstrating the poor prognosis can be modulated by drug therapy. Of the many vasodilators tested, positive data have emerged only from trials of high-dose nitrates with hydralazine and, most ...
Struthers A D - - 1992
ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) have now been shown to improve symptoms and survival in patients with mild, moderate and severe chronic heart failure. Their mechanism of action is thought to be a combination of RAAS suppression and augmentation of bradykinin and prostaglandins. Although ACE inhibitors improve hemodynamics post myocardial infarction, we ...
Hansen J F - - 1992
Experimental studies have demonstrated that the 3 calcium antagonists nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil have a comparable effect in the prevention of myocardial damage during ischaemia. Secondary prevention trials after acute myocardial infarction, which aimed at improving survival and preventing reinfarction, nevertheless demonstrated pronounced differences between the 3 drugs. Nifedipine had ...
Sato T - - 1992
The clinical efficacy of enalapril was investigated in 21 patients with severe heart failure. For each subject, the following parameters were compared before and one month after enalapril maintenance treatment. NYHA functional class, Killip's class, cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), left ventricular (LV) function estimated by echocardiography and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography, ...
Ball S G - - 1992
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are now widely used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They are clearly as effective as other conventional antihypertensive agents in reducing blood pressure and combined with diuretics seem likely to transform current management of chronic heart failure. Myocardial infarction remains the major cause ...
Taylor S H - - 1992
During recent years, understanding of the basic pathology, pathophysiology, and morbid risk of ischemic heart disease has increased immensely, but a wide gulf still exists between such knowledge and its practical application to the individual patient. Although the treatment of ischemic heart disease continues to pose many dilemmas for the ...
Stevenson L W - - 1992
Over the past 25 years, the concept of circulation in heart failure has evolved from that of a simple circuit with a weak pump and high pressures to a complex integrated system of cellular modification, cardiac compensation and systemic neurohumoral responses. The original model of cardiac afterload as the systemic ...
Gueron M - - 1992
Scorpion envenomation is a common medical problem and life hazard in many countries of the world. Scientific investigations have addressed the interrelationship between the stimulatory effects of the venom on the autonomic nervous system and adrenals and the subsequent effects of released transmitters on the cardiovascular system. A number of ...
Coats A J - - 1992
The high prevalence and poor prognosis of heart failure are a major concern. Hospitalization for heart failure accounts for a major proportion of health-care expenditure. A number of large clinical trials have been initiated to assess therapeutic strategies to improve prognosis for patients with this condition. Results from one of ...
Young J B - - 1991
Heart failure has become a major worldwide public health problem. Several million patients suffer with this malady and large epidemiologic studies have documented mortality that can be in excess of 50% at 5 years. Furthermore, morbidity is great with this disease and hospitalizations are increasing yearly. Attention must be placed ...
Brunelli C - - 1991
Congestive heart failure is a syndrome with multiple causes and manifestations. While rheumatic heart disease and hypertension are in decline, coronary artery disease is the leading cause in patients referred for evaluation of heart failure. Decrease in cardiac contractility and general neurohormonal activation, which trigger alterations in mechanical and biochemical ...
Pepine C J - - 1991
L-carnitine has an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. These molecules are carried to the mitochondrion after binding with L-carnitine. Fatty acids are oxidated in the mitochondrion only after binding with L-carnitine. Clinical experience suggests that this drug may have an important role in the treatment of several ...
Kleber F X - - 1991
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition slowed the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) in 170 patients who were randomly assigned to either captopril or placebo in the Munich Mild Heart Failure Trial. The two major end points were progression from New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes I, II, or III ...
Gupta S C - - 1991
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Symptoms and signs of CHF in the elderly often differ from those in younger patients. Careful attention to these subtle differences helps in detection of concomitant illnesses that mimic or mask heart failure. The therapeutic ...
Smith T W - - 1991
The ideal therapeutic strategy would be to reverse the underlying cause of cardiac dysfunction, such as hypertension or valvular disease, while removing or minimizing those concurrent conditions or factors that tend to exacerbate symptoms. For most patients, vasodilator therapy has been shown to reduce mortality in moderate to advanced CHF.
Forman D E - - 1991
Digoxin is commonly used to treat congestive heart failure. Digoxin augments ventricular systolic performance, but does not benefit patients whose congestive heart failure is caused by poor diastolic function. We studied 47 elderly nursing home patients who were receiving long-term digoxin therapy. The left ventricular ejection fractions were measured using ...
Johnson J A - - 1991
The available literature on the evaluation of diastolic function, the importance of diastolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of therapeutic agents on diastolic dysfunction are summarized. The normal cardiac cycle consists of two components: systole (contraction; ventricular emptying) and diastole (dilation; ventricular filling). Recent studies have ...
Warren S E - - 1991
The clinical syndrome of congestive heart failure can result from inadequate myocardial contraction (systolic myocardial failure), from pseudo-heart failure due to circulatory overload, or from failure of the ventricles to fill at low pressure (diastolic myocardial failure). The presence of systolic or diastolic heart failure is most precisely defined by ...
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