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Graham H K HK Unit of Cardiac Physiology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. - - 2008
The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), which preserves the geometry and integrity of the myocardium, is a dynamic structure whose component proteins are maintained by a finely controlled homeostatic balance between deposition and degradation. One of the key targets in cardiology is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms which mediate pathological ...
Alsaddique Ahmed A - - 2008
Diastolic dysfunction is assuming more importance as it is increasingly evident that it can be solely responsible for heart failure. Although many comprehensive studies pertinent to diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure have been recently published, there is a paucity of information on diastolic dysfunction appearing in the postoperative cardiac ...
Nakamura Kenta - - 2008
The lymphatic vasculature is essential to fluid, protein and cellular transport, and to immune responsiveness. The last decade has witnessed a virtual renaissance of investigation into the function of the lymphatic microvasculature, prompting re-consideration of its role in the genesis and progression of cardiovascular pathology. The lymphatic microvasculature of the ...
Del Monte Federica - - 2008
End-stage heart failure is characterized by a number of abnormalities at the cellular level, which include changes in excitation-contraction coupling, alterations in contractile proteins and activation/deactivation of signaling pathways. Even though many of these changes are adaptive to the high workload and stress in heart failure, a significant number of ...
Werner Christian M - - 2008
Cardiovascular disease represents a continuum that starts with risk factors such as hypertension and progresses to atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and ultimately to chronic heart failure (CHF) and premature death. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) has turned out ...
Schweigmann U - - 2008
Acute heart failure is life threatening in adults and in the pediatric population. It represents the final pathway of complex physiological mechanisms that vary with age and underlying diseases. Strategies for treatment of heart failure should integrate to an concept of stepwise approach to heart failure. Evolving therapies, that are ...
Oxberry Stephen G - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify current management options for dyspnoeic people with chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimization of chronic heart failure treatment is important for symptom control and survival. This review therefore includes recent advances in cardiac treatment as well as interventions directed solely at dyspnoea management although dyspnoea ...
Picchio F M - - 2008
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome which presents similarities and differences between children and adults; in pediatric age the spectrum of causes of heart failure is wide and congenital heart defects are the most common etiology. Volume and pressure overload on a ''normal myocardium'' is the classical physiological pattern while ...
Kirk J Douglas - - 2008
Emerging concepts in the short term management of acute heart failure have fostered changes in therapeutic targets and the expectations of emergency department and in-hospital treatment options. Investigators and clinicians are now reconsidering how intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropes commonly used to alleviate congestion and restore hemodynamic stability should be ...
Ho Jennifer E - - 2008
Acute decompensated heart failure accounts for more than 1 million hospitalizations in the USA every year. Currently, the most common treatment for symptom relief is the use of loop diuretics, despite recent concerns for potential adverse effects. With the growing understanding of the role of neurohormonal dysregulation in the pathophysiology ...
Farmakis Dimitrios - - 2008
Increased synthesis of arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a critical role in fluid retention and hyponatremia in patients with heart failure. The AVP receptor antagonists constitute a new class of agents that are promising in the management of hyponatremia and congestion. Three of these agents--conivaptan, tolvaptan, and lixivaptan--have been studied in ...
Guazzi Marco - - 2008
Treatment of heart failure (HF) is a challenging task. An impaired nitric oxide pathway contributes to several abnormal cardiac and vascular phenotypes typical of the failing cardiovascular system. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is a new therapeutic strategy for overexpressing nitric oxide signaling by increasing the availability of cyclic guanosine monophosphate ...
Parish Roy C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To summarize findings regarding the association of inflammatory processes with chronic heart failure (HF). DATA SOURCES: We conducted PubMed/MEDLINE searches (1966-January 2008) of primary literature using the following key words: ACE inhibitors, allopurinol, angiotensin-receptor antagonists, cardiomyopathy, chemokines, cytokines, diuretics, heart failure, inflammation, interleukins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, immunotherapy, medications used ...
Cleland John G F - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the American College of Cardiology. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. CARISMA investigated the use of implantable loop recorders ...
Fares Wassim H - - 2008
Despite the increased mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), its management has been based primarily on anecdotal experiences and physiologic assumptions rather than on prospective randomized controlled trials. The data on diuretics have been conflicting. Routine use of inotropes in ADHF has been clearly associated ...
Cogliandro Tiziana - - 2008
Thalassemia major is an inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in a chronic hemolytic anemia. Transfusion therapy together with elevated gastrointestinal absorption of iron determines iron overload, which causes most of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. Heart complications represent the leading cause of mortality in this disease, although, because ...
Kirkpatrick James N - - 2008
Echocardiography represents a convenient, portable and noninvasive method to provide important anatomic and physiologic information to inform the management of heart failure patients. Traditional echo assessments include diagnostic, etiologic and prognostic data from ventricular size, geometry and performance. Newer echocardiographic techniques are receiving greater utilization, however, and promise to further ...
Rondinini Lorenzo - - 2008
AIM: Heart failure in the elderly population represents a complex clinical situation associated with frequent hospitalizations and numerous comorbidities. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a domiciliary-based nurse-led strategy in a group of very elderly patients affected by heart failure who were regularly seen at an outpatient ...
Harinstein Matthew E - - 2008
This report describes the normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction and resolution of signs and symptoms of chronic and severe heart failure in both male and female patients (mean age 54 years) treated with standard medical therapy. These observations were made in 11 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy treated in ...
Allen Larry A LA Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2008
Despite advancements in medical therapy, morbidity and mortality remain high. Surgical treatment of heart failure has been the subject of renewed focus, with a particular emphasis on applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to the evaluation of surgical therapies. The purpose of this review is to discuss emerging surgical therapies ...
Triggle C R - - 2008
Ivabradine has proven therapeutic efficacy for cardiac ischaemia and, until proved otherwise, is a very specific inhibitor of the cardiac sinoatrial node I(f) current. In the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Drouin et al. demonstrated that chronic treatment of the human apoB-100 transgene dyslipidaemic mouse with ivabradine ...
Celik Turgay - - 2009
Cellular cardiomyoplasty is an investigational technique that may have the potential to reduce myocardial infarct size and improve cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, experience with this approach is still limited to a few small trials, some of which were not blinded or had other design problems. ...
Hernandez Adrian F - - 2008
Heart failure is a common and serious disorder affecting more than 5 million patients in the United States. Although clinical trials have shown that several therapies improve outcomes, translation of evidence into practice is imperfect. This "quality chasm" ultimately leads to lost opportunities for decreasing morbidity and mortality. As more ...
Dhar Sunil - - 2008
Heart failure is a highly prevalent condition, particularly among elderly adults and women. In diastolic heart failure-or heart failure with normal ejection fraction-left ventricular systolic function is preserved. Although diastolic heart failure is clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from systolic heart failure, echocardiography can reveal a preserved ejection fraction with abnormal ...
Levy Wayne C - - 2008
This article reviews the results of observational statin use in clinical trials of patients who have systolic heart failure, in post-myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction, and in cardiac device trials. This article shows a consistent benefit of statins on mortality (approximately 25%) in heart failure patients of both ischemic ...
Abel E Dale - - 2008
The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its strong association with cardiovascular disease have resulted in unprecedented interest in understanding the effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system. A consistent, but puzzling clinical observation is that obesity confers an increased susceptibility to the development of cardiac disease, while ...
York Kaki M - - 2009
Heart failure affects millions of Americans and new diagnosis rates are expected to almost triple over the next 30 years as our population ages. Affective disorders including clinical depression and anxiety are common in patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, the presence of these disorders significantly impacts quality of life, ...
Pantos Constantinos - - 2008
Recent research has revealed novel actions of thyroid hormone (TH) on the heart which may be of important physiological and therapeutic relevance. TH, apart from its "classical" actions on cardiac contractility and heart rhythm, appears to regulate various intracellular signaling pathways related to stress responses and cardiac remodelling. Accumulating experimental ...
Beitelshees Amber L - - 2010
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with ACE inhibitors has been a cornerstone of heart failure therapy for over 15 years. More recently, further blockade of RAAS with aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been studied. While these therapies have certainly improved outcomes in the treatment of heart ...
Nass Robert D - - 2008
In an attempt to compensate for compromised hemodynamics in heart failure, neurohumoral mechanisms are activated that trigger fundamental changes in gene expression and in protein processing, trafficking and post-translational regulation, resulting in myocyte hypertrophy. Unfortunately, over time these changes become maladaptive, predisposing to myocyte loss, chamber dilatation, interstitial hyperplasia and ...
Meltzer Joseph S - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure and cardiovascular disease are common causes of morbidity and mortality, contributing to many ICU admissions. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with the development and worsening of chronic heart failure. Nutritional and metabolic support may improve outcomes in critically ill patients with heart failure. This review ...
Gauthier Nadine - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospitalization and mortality rates associated with heart failure are persistently high. This is due partly to aging of the population but mostly to delayed progress in the pharmacological treatment of decompensated heart failure. We will review the current recommendations and most recent advancement in the pharmacological treatment ...
Anselm Anjali H - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As heart failure continues to carry significant morbidity and mortality it is crucial to pursue new lines of therapy. Addressing sleep apnea, which is highly prevalent in these patients, offers just such an avenue. We discuss how sleep apnea may contribute to the propagation of heart failure, ...
Jackowski Leslie - - 2008
Heart failure is a common reason for general practice encounters. It affects 4% of Australians aged 45 years or over with the prevalence increasing from about 1% at age 50-59 years to more than 50% at 84 years of age and over. Patients with heart failure are increasingly managed in ...
Mudd James O - - 2008
Heart failure, or congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot supply the body's tissues with enough blood. The result is a cascade of changes that lead to severe fatigue, breathlessness and, ultimately, death. In the past quarter century, much progress has been made in understanding the ...
Anand Inder S - - 2008
Although considerable progress has been made in the pharmacologic and device management of chronic heart failure in recent decades, heart failure patients continue to remain symptomatic, with high hospitalization and mortality rates. A number of novel agents, including endothelin antagonists and tumor-necrosis factor blockers, have recently failed to improve the ...
El-Menyar Ayman A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Myocardial dysfunction has been associated with inflammation and cytokine modulation. OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to understand the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology and management of myocardial dysfunction. METHODS: Heart failure has been revisited with revision of the pertinent published articles in the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of ...
- - 2008
Discharge instructions for heart failure patients, pneumococcal screening, ACE inhibitor at discharge still areas of concern. Requiring a standard process for continual quality measurement, reporting, and improvement has contributed to improvement. Processes are not yet 'ingrained in facilities and systems and process redesign'; the right things don't happen in 'all ...
Erling Peter - - 2008
As clinicians' knowledge about congestive heart failure (CHF) improves, so does the ability to treat and monitor patients with this condition. Initiating effective treatment at an early stage of cardiac disease may prevent or delay progression of CHF, thereby enabling the most favorable long-term outcome. This paper focuses on the ...
Margossian Renee - - 2008
The spectrum of causes of pediatric heart failure is broad and differs significantly from that seen in most adult patients. Left-to-right shunts and outflow obstruction lesions are responsible for a large number of pediatric cases of heart failure. Most of these are now treated successfully with surgery or catheter intervention. ...
Mezzani Alessandro - - 2008
In chronic heart failure patients, the increase of peak VO(2)observed after a period of aerobic training is currently attributed more to peripheral (skeletal muscle) than central (heart) adaptations. This paper reviews the current scientific evidence regarding the existence or the absence of significant training-induced adaptations of peak cardiac output and ...
Erling Peter - - 2008
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a relatively common condition in dogs. Diagnostic and treatment strategies continue to evolve as researchers explore the pathophysiology and develop a better understanding of this syndrome. Unfortunately, however, the morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure remain high. This article focuses on the pathophysiology of ...
Zannad Faiez - - 2008
Specific criteria have been established to define the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in cardiovascular clinical trials, but there is not a consistent definition for heart failure. Heart failure events appear to occur at a rate that is similar to stroke and MI in trials of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, ...
Iyengar Srinivas - - 2008
The current treatment paradigm for heart failure revolves around the central theory of neurohormonal antagonism. With the success of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition, beta-blockade, and aldosterone antagonism in heart failure, alternative areas of the hormonal cascade have been targeted for potential benefits. Two such agents, neutral endopeptidase inhibitors and endothelin antagonists, have ...
Pitt Bertram - - 2008
Aldosterone blockade has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality in patients who have severe heart failure because of systolic left ventricular dysfunction (SLVD) and those who have heart failure and SLVD post-myocardial infarction. Aldosterone blockade also may be beneficial in patients who have New York Heart Association class ...
Howlett Jonathan G - - 2008
Anemia is increasingly recognized as a common, important and treatable condition in patients with congestive heart failure. Despite increasing knowledge of anemia, as well as its co-association with chronic renal disease, advanced New York Heart Association class and worse prognosis, there are very few evidence-based recommendations for treatment. The use ...
Marín-García José - - 2008
A number of observations have shown that mitochondria are at the center of the pathophysiology of the failing heart and mitochondrial-based oxidative stress (OS), myocardial apoptosis, and cardiac bioenergetic dysfunction are implicated in the progression of heart failure (HF), as shown by both clinical studies and animal models. In this ...
Westenbrink, Berend Daan
Anemia is common in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and related to impaired survival. The etiology of anemia in CHF-patients is often unknown. We hypothesized that dysregulation of erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis by the kidney or an altered sensitivity of the bone marrow to EPO might represent causes specific for CHF. ...
Bolte, Craig Steven
The hypothesis of this dissertation was that alteration in either the expression or signaling of myocardial kappa or delta opioid receptors plays a critical role in the initiation or exacerbation of heart failure. To evaluate this hypothesis, myocardial opioid receptor function was evaluated in hamster models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Bio14.6) ...
Newton, Phillip J.
Heart failure is a cause of significant burden to both individuals and society. Individuals live with a disease where there is a decline in physical functioning, the experience of a range of symptoms including breathlessness and pain, frequent hospitalisations and death. The frequent hospital admissions that are usually precipitated by ...
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