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Timmer Stefan A J - - 2009
Besides stimulating erythropoiesis, erythropoietin (EPO) exerts powerful proangiogenic and antiapoptotic effects. These erythropoiesis-independent effects are potentially useful as a supplement for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). EPO may improve microvascular capacity of ischemic myocardial tissue and could thereby (partially) restore myocardial function. In addition, EPO could protect cardiomyocytes ...
Silva Christiano Pereira - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a highly prevalent disease, the prognosis of which depends on different predictive factors. OBJECTIVE: Chagas disease is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether this condition also predicts poor outcome in acutely ...
Moukarbel George V - - 2008
Following acute myocardial infarction, patients are at increased risk of developing heart failure, which is more prevalent in those with reduced ventricular systolic function. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which occurs early after myocardial injury, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of subsequent cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. The ...
Coats Caroline J - - 2008
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with a wide spectrum of pathophysiologic consequences. Most cases are inherited and caused by sarcomeric protein gene mutations, although phenocopies are often encountered. Genomic research and family studies have improved our recognition of the disease and understanding of its natural history; however, tenuous ...
Kota Bindu - - 2008
Levosimendan increases the sensitivity of the cardiac fibrils to calcium, favorably affects hemodynamics in patients with heart failure. It is a positive inotrope and a peripheral vasodilator. The elimination half-life of the compound is about 1 hour. The drug decreases pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, increases cardiac output with the improvement ...
Shah Ravi V - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent parenteral, oral, and inhaled ...
Mak George - - 2008
Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). As studies have demonstrated close links between anemia and a poorer prognosis, there has been an interest in developing treatment strategies for this condition. Anemia is closely associated with disease severity and may be secondary to multiple modifiable causes; therefore, ...
Thadani Udho - - 2008
Despite the advances in pharmacotherapy for heart failure due to reduced left ventricular function, mortality still remains high and many patients are hospitalized over time due to worsening heart failure symptoms. There is some experimental evidence that vasoconstriction and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency in the vasculature play a role in ...
Dixon Megan B - - 2008
Tolvaptan is a selective arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(2) receptor blocker used to induce free water diuresis in the treatment of euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Currently the orally active medication is in the final stages prior to approval by the FDA for outpatient therapy. It appears to be safe and effective ...
Yip G W - - 2009
The pathological myocardial hypertrophy associated with hypertension contains the seed for further maladaptive development. Increased myocardial oxygen consumption, impaired epicardial coronary perfusion, ventricular fibrosis and remodelling, abnormalities in long-axis function and torsion, cause, to a varying degree, a mixture of systolic and diastolic abnormalities. In addition, chronotropic incompetence and peripheral ...
Fayssoil A - - 2010
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. Heart involvement is a classical complication in this disease and leads progressively to heart failure. Detecting latent myocardial involvement is essential in this disease because early use of drugs like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may delay the ...
Barclay J L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate preclinical adverse effects of ambient particulate air pollution and nitrogen oxides in patients with heart failure. METHODS: A cohort of 132 non-smoking patients living in Aberdeen, Scotland, with stable chronic heart failure were enrolled in a repeated-measures panel study. Patients with atrial fibrillation or pacemakers were excluded. ...
Coletta Alison P - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure presented at the European Society of Cardiology meeting which was held in Munich, Germany from 30th August to 3rd September 2008. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may ...
Ladeiras-Lopes Ricardo - - 2009
Diastole plays a central role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Its two main determinants, myocardial relaxation and passive properties of the ventricular wall, are nowadays regarded as physiological mechanisms susceptible of active modulation. Furthermore, diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (previously called diastolic heart failure) are two subjects of ...
Mal??k J - - 2009
More than 50 % of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated by chronic hemodialysis die from cardiovascular diseases, including congestive heart failure (CHF). The incidence of CHF is rising in both general and ESRD population. However, the mechanisms, which lead to the development of CHF in dialyzed patients, differ considerably. ...
Vivo Rey P - - 2008
Heralded as the oldest known cardiovascular drug, digoxin remains widely used today in the face of increasing rates in heart failure and atrial fibrillation despite the emergence of newer medications. Its hemodynamic, neurohormonal and electrophysiologic actions make it a suitable adjunctive, evidence-based therapy for the above conditions. Its narrow therapeutic ...
Unzek Samuel - - 2008
Despite innovative medications and devices, heart failure (HF) continues to be the leading cause for admission to hospitals in the United States in patients older than 65 years. Many trials have succeeded in improving survival and many have failed. In this article, the authors briefly review the past, describe the ...
Roongsritong Chanwit - - 2008
Severe diastolic dysfunction has important clinical implications in advanced systolic heart failure. The authors investigated whether a marker of fibrosis, serum carboxy-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (PICP) is a major determinant of diastolic function in 40 patients with heart failure and ejection fraction <35%. Patients with unstable heart failure ...
Russell Stuart D - - 2008
Despite improvements in medical therapy for heart failure, more than 250,000 people die in the United States as a result of heart failure each year. There are multiple risk factors and models that have been created to identify these people, yet there has not been a significant impact on outcomes ...
Crescenzi G - - 2008
This paper aims to address the mechanisms responsible for poor perioperative cardiac performance, analyzing the pathophysiology of heart failure and the main hemodynamic parameters (contractility, preload, afterload, systemic vascular resistance, and pulmonary artery pressure) used in diagnosing patients and assessing their response to therapy. It will also discuss potential therapeutic ...
van Bilsen Marc - - 2009
The failing heart is characterized by alterations in energy metabolism, including mitochondrial dysfunction and a reduction in fatty acid (FA) oxidation rate, which is partially compensated by an increase in glucose utilization. Together, these changes lead to an impaired capacity to convert chemical energy into mechanical work. This has led ...
Dhalla Naranjan S - - 2009
It is commonly held that cardiac remodelling, represented by changes in muscle mass, size, and shape of the heart, explains the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, this concept does not provide any clear information regarding the development of cardiac dysfunction in CHF. Extensive research has revealed that various ...
Louis Louis B LB - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical circulatory support is expanding the treatment of advanced heart failure. The number of heart transplantations performed worldwide remains fairly static, and medical therapy alone for end stage heart failure continues to have dismal results. This article presents the authors' opinion as to the current status, challenges, ...
Costanzo Maria Rosa - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congestion causes the majority of hospitalizations for heart failure and contributes to heart failure progression and mortality. Intravenous loop diuretics reduce the signs and symptoms of congestion. Loop diuretics, however, may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of deleterious effects on neurohormonal activation, electrolyte balance, ...
Nessler Jadwiga - - 2008
As a result of population ageing and improved medical care that contribute to better life expectancy, heart failure occurs more and more commonly in the elderly. In the USA approximately 80% of patients discharged from hospital with newly diagnosed heart failure are over 65 years of age, whereas 50% are ...
Shinde Abhijit A - - 2008
Heart failure can present clinically as primarily diastolic or systolic dysfunction or both. There is an increasing awareness that heart failure can occur in the presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction is frequently referred to as diastolic heart failure because ...
Blankstein Ron - - 2008
This article begins with a brief overview of the therapeutic agents used in the treatment of heart failure, with a special emphasis on pharmacologic agents that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The discussion then builds upon the basic pathophysiology concepts introduced earlier in this issue to explain how therapies commonly ...
Hoenig Michel R - - 2008
Recent studies revealed an exceedingly high mortality with diastolic heart failure that was previously regarded as relatively benign compared to systolic heart failure. Prominent risk factors for diastolic heart failure are increasing age, hypertension and diabetes. These risk factors are associated with coronary microvascular rarefaction and resultant decreased coronary flow ...
Pitt Bertram B University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2008
Aldosterone blockade is recommended for patients with congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction; however, the perceived risk of hyperkalemia may limit implementation of this therapeutic approach. This subanalysis examined the relationship between eplerenone, serum potassium (K(+)), and clinical outcomes in the Eplerenone Post-Acute ...
Arya Arash - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal drug and device therapy, frequent hospitalisations due to decompensated heart failure remain an issue. Early detection of decompensation could prevent hospitalisation in patients with congestive heart failure. The recently introduced Home Monitoring functionality of implanted devices is a promising new telecardiology technique which provides information on the ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2009
A large number of patients who present with signs or symptoms of heart failure (HF) do not have evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. As a result, HF in the presence of normal or preserved ejection fraction, or diastolic HF, is increasingly recognized as a health care challenge. Guidelines have ...
Velavan Periaswamy - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with short term mortality in hospitalised patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND: Hospitalisation is frequent in patients with heart failure and is associated with a high mortality. METHODS: The Euro Heart Failure survey collected data from patients with suspected heart failure. We searched this data for ...
Popjes Eric - - 2008
Heart failure is one of the most common medical problems faced by patients and clinicians. It has the potential for high morbidity and mortality, and its overall financial cost to society is enormous. Management of heart failure is often difficult and time consuming, and is sometimes frustrating. The usual signs ...
Goebel Jason A - - 2008
Chronic heart failure poses an enormous health care burden to the United States and other developed countries. Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) accounts for nearly half of the morbidity and expense of treating this disease. Most patients presenting with ADHF have symptomatic vascular congestion. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, are the ...
Aneja Ashish - - 2008
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Hyperglycemia seems to be central to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy and to trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli that result in myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition. These processes are thought to be ...
Konstam Marvin A - - 2008
In patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, angiotensin receptor blockers have been found to reduce mortality and morbidity and to prevent or reverse left ventricular remodelling, compared to optimized background treatment. In light of these data, The Heart failure Endpoint evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan ...
Bartha Eva - - 2008
Increased activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic myocardial dysfunction. We have demonstrated the protective effect of PARP inhibitors against postinfarction myocardial remodeling and heart failure. The primary aim of our recent work was to compare the effect and efficacy of ...
Dahl Peter - - 2008
The most recognizable features of hyperthyroidism are those that result from the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on the heart and cardiovascular system: decreased systemic vascular resistance and increased resting heart rate, left ventricular contractility, blood volume, and cardiac output. Although these measures of cardiac performance are enhanced in hyperthyroidism, the ...
de Pouvourville Gérard G Health Economics, ESSEC, avenue Bernard-Hirsch, BP 50105, 95021 Cergy-Pontoise cedex, France. - - 2008
The Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) randomized clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of eplerenone, a new aldosterone antagonist diuretic, with standard treatment versus standard treatment alone in the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular-related hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure after an acute ...
Wertman Brett M - - 2008
Heart failure is a major public health problem and is increasing in incidence throughout the industrialized world. Despite recent advances in pharmacotherapy, the overall mortality remains high and largely unchanged. Ultrafiltration has received increased attention in the treatment of acute decompensated congestive heart failure, and recent clinical trials suggest its ...
Costantino Giorgio - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics of patients referred to our heart failure outpatient clinic with those of patients enrolled in clinical trials on heart failure pharmacological treatment. Thus, we estimated the proportion of patients admitted to our heart failure outpatient clinic who would have ...
Coletta Alison P - - 2008
This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the Heart Rhythm Society meeting in San Francisco, USA and the Heart Failure Association meeting of the European Society of Cardiology which was held in Milan, Italy in June ...
Parissis John T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Calcium sensitizers belong to a new class of cardiac enhancers that stimulate cardiac contractility without causing intracellular calcium overload or increasing myocardial oxygen demand. Levosimendan, the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical practice, produces greater hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement in patients with acute heart failure than traditional ...
Matthews Jennifer Cowger - - 2008
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in the setting of cardiomyopathy, ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but therapeutic clinical trials examining RV failure as a primary outcome are lacking. This review focuses on the ontologic, morphologic, and microscopic differences between the right and left ventricles. It ...
Shirani Jamshid - - 2008
Left ventricular remodeling is a key determinant of the clinical course and outcome of systolic heart failure. The myocardial renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been closely linked to the major maladaptive cellular and molecular changes that accompany left ventricular remodeling. Direct inhibition of various components of the RAS, such as the ...
Amir Ruthie E - - 2008
PURPOSE: Angiotensin II, which plays a crucial role in the myocardial remodeling process of heart failure, is generated via the angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase pathways. We studied angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase-1 polymorphisms in patients with systolic heart failure and the correlation with clinical status and left ventricular function. METHODS: We ...
Silverberg Donald S - - 2009
It has recently been recognized that many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are anemic. The anemia is very often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The more severe the anemia the more severe the CHF, with higher mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization rate. The only way to prove that the ...
Göhler Alexander - - 2009
For economic evaluations of chronic heart failure (CHF) management strategies, utilities are not currently available for disease proxies commonly used in Markov models. Our objective was to estimate utilities for New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification and number of cardiovascular rehospitalizations. EuroQol 5D data from the Eplerenone Post-acute Myocardial Infarction ...
Bestetti Reinaldo B - - 2008
The treatment of chronic heart failure secondary to Chagas disease has been based on extrapolation of data achieved in the treatment of non-Chagas disease heart failure. Because beta-blockers decrease the incidence of sudden cardiac death in non-Chagas disease heart failure and sudden cardiac death occurs preferentially in patients with mild ...
Hemnes A R - - 2008
The primary challenge in the care of the patient with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular dysfunction with concomitant right heart failure. Right heart function is closely tied to survival in this disease, and there is a growing interest in the study of this unique structure. While echocardiography ...
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