Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2143
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Celik Turgay - - 2009
Cellular cardiomyoplasty is an investigational technique that may have the potential to reduce myocardial infarct size and improve cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, experience with this approach is still limited to a few small trials, some of which were not blinded or had other design problems. ...
Hernandez Adrian F - - 2008
Heart failure is a common and serious disorder affecting more than 5 million patients in the United States. Although clinical trials have shown that several therapies improve outcomes, translation of evidence into practice is imperfect. This "quality chasm" ultimately leads to lost opportunities for decreasing morbidity and mortality. As more ...
Dhar Sunil - - 2008
Heart failure is a highly prevalent condition, particularly among elderly adults and women. In diastolic heart failure-or heart failure with normal ejection fraction-left ventricular systolic function is preserved. Although diastolic heart failure is clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from systolic heart failure, echocardiography can reveal a preserved ejection fraction with abnormal ...
Levy Wayne C - - 2008
This article reviews the results of observational statin use in clinical trials of patients who have systolic heart failure, in post-myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction, and in cardiac device trials. This article shows a consistent benefit of statins on mortality (approximately 25%) in heart failure patients of both ischemic ...
Abel E Dale - - 2008
The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its strong association with cardiovascular disease have resulted in unprecedented interest in understanding the effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system. A consistent, but puzzling clinical observation is that obesity confers an increased susceptibility to the development of cardiac disease, while ...
York Kaki M - - 2009
Heart failure affects millions of Americans and new diagnosis rates are expected to almost triple over the next 30 years as our population ages. Affective disorders including clinical depression and anxiety are common in patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, the presence of these disorders significantly impacts quality of life, ...
Pantos Constantinos - - 2008
Recent research has revealed novel actions of thyroid hormone (TH) on the heart which may be of important physiological and therapeutic relevance. TH, apart from its "classical" actions on cardiac contractility and heart rhythm, appears to regulate various intracellular signaling pathways related to stress responses and cardiac remodelling. Accumulating experimental ...
Beitelshees Amber L - - 2010
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with ACE inhibitors has been a cornerstone of heart failure therapy for over 15 years. More recently, further blockade of RAAS with aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been studied. While these therapies have certainly improved outcomes in the treatment of heart ...
Nass Robert D - - 2008
In an attempt to compensate for compromised hemodynamics in heart failure, neurohumoral mechanisms are activated that trigger fundamental changes in gene expression and in protein processing, trafficking and post-translational regulation, resulting in myocyte hypertrophy. Unfortunately, over time these changes become maladaptive, predisposing to myocyte loss, chamber dilatation, interstitial hyperplasia and ...
Meltzer Joseph S - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure and cardiovascular disease are common causes of morbidity and mortality, contributing to many ICU admissions. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with the development and worsening of chronic heart failure. Nutritional and metabolic support may improve outcomes in critically ill patients with heart failure. This review ...
Gauthier Nadine - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospitalization and mortality rates associated with heart failure are persistently high. This is due partly to aging of the population but mostly to delayed progress in the pharmacological treatment of decompensated heart failure. We will review the current recommendations and most recent advancement in the pharmacological treatment ...
Anselm Anjali H - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As heart failure continues to carry significant morbidity and mortality it is crucial to pursue new lines of therapy. Addressing sleep apnea, which is highly prevalent in these patients, offers just such an avenue. We discuss how sleep apnea may contribute to the propagation of heart failure, ...
Jackowski Leslie - - 2008
Heart failure is a common reason for general practice encounters. It affects 4% of Australians aged 45 years or over with the prevalence increasing from about 1% at age 50-59 years to more than 50% at 84 years of age and over. Patients with heart failure are increasingly managed in ...
Mudd James O - - 2008
Heart failure, or congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot supply the body's tissues with enough blood. The result is a cascade of changes that lead to severe fatigue, breathlessness and, ultimately, death. In the past quarter century, much progress has been made in understanding the ...
Anand Inder S - - 2008
Although considerable progress has been made in the pharmacologic and device management of chronic heart failure in recent decades, heart failure patients continue to remain symptomatic, with high hospitalization and mortality rates. A number of novel agents, including endothelin antagonists and tumor-necrosis factor blockers, have recently failed to improve the ...
El-Menyar Ayman A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Myocardial dysfunction has been associated with inflammation and cytokine modulation. OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to understand the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology and management of myocardial dysfunction. METHODS: Heart failure has been revisited with revision of the pertinent published articles in the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of ...
- - 2008
Discharge instructions for heart failure patients, pneumococcal screening, ACE inhibitor at discharge still areas of concern. Requiring a standard process for continual quality measurement, reporting, and improvement has contributed to improvement. Processes are not yet 'ingrained in facilities and systems and process redesign'; the right things don't happen in 'all ...
Erling Peter - - 2008
As clinicians' knowledge about congestive heart failure (CHF) improves, so does the ability to treat and monitor patients with this condition. Initiating effective treatment at an early stage of cardiac disease may prevent or delay progression of CHF, thereby enabling the most favorable long-term outcome. This paper focuses on the ...
Margossian Renee - - 2008
The spectrum of causes of pediatric heart failure is broad and differs significantly from that seen in most adult patients. Left-to-right shunts and outflow obstruction lesions are responsible for a large number of pediatric cases of heart failure. Most of these are now treated successfully with surgery or catheter intervention. ...
Mezzani Alessandro - - 2008
In chronic heart failure patients, the increase of peak VO(2)observed after a period of aerobic training is currently attributed more to peripheral (skeletal muscle) than central (heart) adaptations. This paper reviews the current scientific evidence regarding the existence or the absence of significant training-induced adaptations of peak cardiac output and ...
Erling Peter - - 2008
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a relatively common condition in dogs. Diagnostic and treatment strategies continue to evolve as researchers explore the pathophysiology and develop a better understanding of this syndrome. Unfortunately, however, the morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure remain high. This article focuses on the pathophysiology of ...
Zannad Faiez - - 2008
Specific criteria have been established to define the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in cardiovascular clinical trials, but there is not a consistent definition for heart failure. Heart failure events appear to occur at a rate that is similar to stroke and MI in trials of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, ...
Iyengar Srinivas - - 2008
The current treatment paradigm for heart failure revolves around the central theory of neurohormonal antagonism. With the success of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition, beta-blockade, and aldosterone antagonism in heart failure, alternative areas of the hormonal cascade have been targeted for potential benefits. Two such agents, neutral endopeptidase inhibitors and endothelin antagonists, have ...
Pitt Bertram - - 2008
Aldosterone blockade has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality in patients who have severe heart failure because of systolic left ventricular dysfunction (SLVD) and those who have heart failure and SLVD post-myocardial infarction. Aldosterone blockade also may be beneficial in patients who have New York Heart Association class ...
Howlett Jonathan G - - 2008
Anemia is increasingly recognized as a common, important and treatable condition in patients with congestive heart failure. Despite increasing knowledge of anemia, as well as its co-association with chronic renal disease, advanced New York Heart Association class and worse prognosis, there are very few evidence-based recommendations for treatment. The use ...
Marín-García José - - 2008
A number of observations have shown that mitochondria are at the center of the pathophysiology of the failing heart and mitochondrial-based oxidative stress (OS), myocardial apoptosis, and cardiac bioenergetic dysfunction are implicated in the progression of heart failure (HF), as shown by both clinical studies and animal models. In this ...
Westenbrink, Berend Daan
Anemia is common in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and related to impaired survival. The etiology of anemia in CHF-patients is often unknown. We hypothesized that dysregulation of erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis by the kidney or an altered sensitivity of the bone marrow to EPO might represent causes specific for CHF. ...
Bolte, Craig Steven
The hypothesis of this dissertation was that alteration in either the expression or signaling of myocardial kappa or delta opioid receptors plays a critical role in the initiation or exacerbation of heart failure. To evaluate this hypothesis, myocardial opioid receptor function was evaluated in hamster models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Bio14.6) ...
Newton, Phillip J.
Heart failure is a cause of significant burden to both individuals and society. Individuals live with a disease where there is a decline in physical functioning, the experience of a range of symptoms including breathlessness and pain, frequent hospitalisations and death. The frequent hospital admissions that are usually precipitated by ...
Cotter Gad - - 2008
Despite significant advancement in chronic heart failure (HF), no breakthroughs have occurred in the last 2 decades in our understanding of the pathophysiology, classification, and treatment of acute HF (AHF). Traditional thinking, which has been that this disorder is a result of gradual fluid accumulation on a background of chronic ...
Petersen John W - - 2008
Impaired cardiac contractility is a fundamental component of the heart failure syndrome, initiating the cycle of vasoconstriction, neurohormonal and inflammatory activation, and adverse ventricular remodeling that leads to heart failure progression. Based on this core paradigm, drugs that increase cardiac contractility (positive inotropes) are theoretically appealing as a heart failure ...
Fragasso Gabriele - - 2008
Alterations of cardiac metabolism can be present in several cardiac syndromes. Heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have ...
Li Wei - - 2008
The syndrome of heart failure in adult non-congenital heart disease patients includes myocardial disease and ventricular dysfunction. In the presence of congenital abnormalities the cause of heart failure is often multi-factorial and can be a result of the underlying anomaly, surgical intervention, or ventricular dysfunction. Despite the possible clinical similarities, ...
Raij Leopoldo - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) has multiple protective effects for regulating the cardiovascular and renal systems. The major functions include endothelium-dependent relaxation, anti-inflammatory effects, as well as antihypertrophic and antithrombotic activities. Many of the activities mediated by NO are systematically antagonized by angiotensin-II (Ang II), a vasconstrictor peptide. Studies described in the ...
Pingitore Alessandro - - 2008
Interest in the role of thyroid hormones (TH) in heart failure is steadily increasing due to evidence for a physiological, homeostatic role of TH and the effects of altered TH metabolism on the cardiovascular system, particularly in presence of heart failure. Experimental studies have shown that altered TH metabolism modifies ...
Little William C - - 2008
A reduced left ventricular ejection fraction measured by echocardiography in a patient with clinical features of heart failure demonstrates that the patient has a cardiac abnormality and that the clinical picture is, in fact, due to heart failure. As such, a reduced ejection fraction (< 0.30 or 0.35) has been ...
Rea Mark E - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the hemodynamic alterations in the kidney which occur in heart failure and to understand the cardiovascular and renal mechanisms responsible for these alterations. Implications for the clinical management of heart failure will be delineated on the basis of the ...
Biria Mazda - - 2008
Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle is an increasingly recognized clinical entity that may in some cases cause overt congestive heart failure. Currently, treatment of these patients is based on limited studies in patients with symptomatic heart failure. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) drugs, which are primarily used for the treatment ...
Cotter Gad - - 2008
Hemodynamic monitoring has moved in the last few years from being the holy grail of evaluating patients with acute heart failure to being all but extinct. Recent studies have not demonstrated any sustained benefits from right heart catheterization, and some studies have even suggested harm due to adverse events related ...
Cygankiewicz Iwona - - 2008
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an increasingly widespread, costly and deadly disease, frequently named as epidemics of the 21 century. Despite advancement in modern treatment, mortality rate in CHF patients remains high. Therefore, risk stratification in patients with CHF remains one of the major challenges of contemporary cardiology. Electrocardiographic parameters ...
Kumar Rahul - - 2008
Many patients with acute heart failure have marked hypertension and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. In these patients, the heart failure usually does not result from transient systolic dysfunction or valvular abnormalities but rather results from diastolic dysfunction. Treatment of this condition includes control of hypertension, cautious diuresis, and, if ...
Susic Dinko - - 2008
Approximately 5 million people in the United States have heart failure. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that at least one half of patients who have clinically overt heart failure have diastolic heart failure (DHF), or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. DHF is characterized by concentric remodeling with normal left ventricular ...
Elkayam Uri - - 2008
Recent guidelines by the Heart Failure Society of America have recommended consideration for use of nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, or nesiritide in addition to diuretics to achieve hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement. This article reviews the results of previous studies evaluating the pharmacologic and clinical effects and safety profiles of these drugs in ...
van Dijk Sabine J - - 2008
Many changes in morphology, biochemical properties and myocyte function occur during development to heart failure. Most changes may be compensatory, yet unable to prevent cardiac dysfunction in the long run. This illustrates that it is important to carefully dissect the disease causing modifications from cardiac adaptation, in order to obtain ...
Iwatsubo Kousaku - - 2008
Heart failure is a major healthcare problem and leading cause of death in Western countries. Growing evidence has shown recent improvements in pharmacological therapy, such as receptor-regulating agents, in treating heart failure; however, the morbidity and mortality of heart failure is still high. More recent studies have suggested the presence ...
Kaye David M - - 2008
Heart failure is a major cardiovascular disease, characterized by considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite major advances in the pharmacotherapy of heart failure, the options for patients with severe end-stage symptoms remain limited. However, recent developments in the identification of the molecular basis for the progressive nature of heart failure have ...
Ohsaka Tsutomu - - 2008
The impact of guideline adherence on clinical outcomes in the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) has never been evaluated in Japan. We investigated outcomes in 92 consecutive CHF patients admitted to Kitasato University Hospital in 2004-2006 for HF exacerbation with a left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 40% ...
Bart Bradley A - - 2008
Heart failure is a condition that affects nearly 5 million people in the United States and costs the nation an estimated $35 billion a year. Although common, the condition presents treating clinicians with real challenges. There currently are few effective therapies for people with acute decompensated disease. As part of ...
Lemmens Katrien - - 2008
The rapidly evolving insights into the protective and modulatory function of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in the adult heart are discussed in this review. The actions of NRG-1 in the adult heart have begun to be elucidated following the unexpected clinical observation that trastuzumab can cause ventricular dysfunction and increases the risk ...
Rossinen Juhani - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although weakly supported by scientific evidence, according to guidelines the use of inotropes in acute heart failure is indicated in the presence of hypoperfusion refractory to fluid resuscitation. AIMS: We examined the characteristics of the inotrope-treated patients, as well as, their in-hospital mortality. The frequency and dosing of inotropic ...
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