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Schlitt Axel - - 2009
Phospholipid transferprotein (PLTP) mediates both net transfer and exchange of phospholipids between different lipoproteins. Although many studies have investigated the role of PLTP in atherogenesis, the role of PLTP in atherosclerotic diseases is unclear. We investigated the association of serum PLTP activity with the incidence of a combined endpoint (myocardial ...
Toth Peter P - - 2008
Low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are highly prevalent and are recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and restenosis after coronary stenting) and mortality. HDL plays an important role in modulating atherogenesis, although its functions are varied and complex ...
Sawabe Motoji - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The presence of discordances between common carotid and coronary atherosclerosis in the same individual has not been previously reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: The subjects of the present study were 1,518 consecutive autopsy cases at a general geriatric hospital. All were aged 60 years or older (821 men, 697 women) ...
Ratner Robert E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors that may favorably impact the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: APPROACH is a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone with the insulin secretagogue glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients ...
Ferrières Jean - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Early use of high-dose statins in acute coronary artery disease is controversial. Our aim was to use the French registry of Acute ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) to analyse patterns of statin prescription during the acute phase of myocardial infarction, and to identify factors associated with prescription strategies. ...
Iatan Iulia - - 2008
The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) gene codes for a cellular phospholipid and cholesterol transporter that mediates the initial and essential step in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis: the formation of nascent HDL particles. Mutations at the ABCA1 gene locus cause severe familial HDL deficiency and, in the homozygous form, cause ...
Remaley Alan T - - 2008
HDL-replacement therapy is a promising new treatment strategy involving the acute administration of HDL to rapidly stabilize patients at imminent risk for developing a myocardial infarction, such as those with acute coronary syndrome. This review will first focus on the anti-atherogenic mechanisms for HDL, such as the stimulation of the ...
Iwata Atsushi - - 2008
Although many clinical studies have evaluated plaque growth in response to positive or negative remodeling in coronary arteries using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), little is known about the associations between metabolic factors and coronary plaque growth or remodeling. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 100 consecutive patients with stable angina who ...
Casas J P JP Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University College London, London, - - 2008
Modestly elevated baseline concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase protein, are associated with the long-term risk of coronary heart disease in general populations, whilst the major acute phase response of CRP following myocardial infarction is associated with death and cardiac complications. The pathogenic and clinical significance of ...
Wilensky Robert L - - 2008
Increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) activity is associated with increased risk of cardiac events, but it is not known whether Lp-PLA(2) is a causative agent. Here we show that selective inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) with darapladib reduced development of advanced coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic swine. Darapladib markedly inhibited plasma ...
Giraldez Roberto R - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the benefit of intensive lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is dependent on baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). BACKGROUND: Aggressive LDL-C reduction with statins improves cardiovascular outcomes in acute and chronic coronary heart disease (CHD). The importance of baseline LDL-C is unclear. METHODS: We compared 2-year ...
Ye D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in HDL cholesterol metabolism. Leucocytes, including monocyte-derived macrophages in the arterial wall synthesize and secrete CETP, but its role in atherosclerosis is unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) on ...
Johnson Colleen - - 2008
The Treating to New Targets (TNT) study demonstrated that intensive atorvastatin therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations well below recommended target levels provides an incremental clinical benefit in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This post hoc analysis of the TNT study was conducted to investigate whether this benefit ...
Zinn Andrew - - 2008
This article is designed for the general cardiologist, endocrinologist, and internist caring for patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease. Despite the burden of coronary disease in diabetics, little is known about the impact of commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents on cardiovascular outcomes. As the untoward effects of insulin resistance ...
Lamb Hildo J - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the technique and clinical applications of myocardial and hepatic H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study myocardial and hepatic triglyceride content, in relation to changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids induced by nutritional interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Progressive caloric restriction induces a dose-dependent increase in myocardial triglyceride ...
Woerndle Richard H - - 2008
Despite several decades of research and phenomenal advances in technology and therapeutics, sepsis remains a catastrophic enigma. As a frequent cause of death, sepsis now rivals acute myocardial infarction. The longstanding therapeutic principles of early antibiotics use and supportive care have been difficult to improve upon. The authors conducted a ...
Virani Salim S - - 2008
Preoperative statins have been associated with decreased mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting. Data are limited on whether these benefits extend to patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery. We examined whether preoperative statins decrease morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing isolated cardiac valve surgery. In a retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive ...
Tabata Minoru - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to have pleiotropic effects in addition to their lipid-lowering properties. Some studies have shown the beneficial effect of preoperative statins on operative outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the effect of preoperative statins in patients without coronary artery disease ...
Tousoulis Dimitris - - 2008
It is widely accepted that statin treatment improves survival in patients with myocardial infarction. Evidence also suggests that aggressive statin treatment is superior than standard dose during the post-infarction period. However, the exact mechanisms are still not well understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play a key role in vascular homeostasis, ...
Katz Stuart D - - 2008
Based on the findings of retrospective studies, there has been growing interest in the potential therapeutic benefits of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy in patients with heart failure. The first published prospective randomized study of statins in heart failure patients did not demonstrate improved clinical outcomes (death and ...
Werkö Lars - - 2008
A personal account of the diet-cholesterol-heart hypothesis during the last sixty years, from its start with Jeremiah Stamler and Ancel Keys, its rapid rise and progressive fall during the last years. It is pointed out that the clinical picture of a heart attack is not synonymous with atherosclerotic changes in ...
Colkesen Abdurrahman Yucel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we attempted to analyze the coronary artery lesion characteristics of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in young patients (aged less than 35 years). METHODS: We retrospectively surveyed 25 038 coronary angiography procedures, which were carried out at The Baskent University Adana Hospital from 1998 ...
Rietzschel Ernst R - - 2008
In contrast to the plethora of vasculopathies to which oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDL) can be linked, there are no data linking ox-LDL to myocardial (dys)function in the community. We tested whether ox-LDL, a marker of oxidative stress, was linked to early cardiac structural and functional damage in the general ...
Sabino Adriano Paula - - 2008
Although smoking and hypertension are classic risk factors for atherothrombotic diseases, the relationship of dyslipidemia and vascular diseases, other than myocardial infarction, is less clearly established, especially in young subjects. In the current study, a detailed analysis of the lipid and apolipoprotein profiles was conducted in young patients of ischemic ...
Tani Shigemasa - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Focal vasospasm is reportedly involved in a high incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as compared with diffuse vasospasm. No adequate studies have been conducted on the mechanism underlying the higher incidence of ACS involving focal vasospasm than of those involving diffuse vasospasm in patients with coronary spastic angina. ...
Polsani Venkateshwar R - - 2008
Managing dyslipidemia is an important part of the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction remains the primary lipid goal. Patients who have experienced an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at very high risk of recurrent adverse cardiovascular events. A growing body of literature supports ...
Toth P P - - 2008
Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease with a long asymptomatic phase. Disease progression can lead eventually to the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris and sudden cardiac death. While the disease is still in a subclinical stage, however, the presence of atherosclerosis can ...
Shaw Steven M - - 2009
HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors, or 'statins', have revolutionized the management of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Following 2 large acute coronary syndrome trials, additional clinical benefit outside their effect of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering was proposed. This concept was introduced following the observation of cardiovascular event rate reduction, ...
Kato Masaya - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous study has demonstrated that metabolic syndrome (MetS) can predict cardiovascular mortality in men, but the prediction was weak for women. In the present study predictors for multiple complex coronary lesions were investigated to clarify the impact of MetS in Japanese women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND ...
Kiani Adnan N - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The frequency of both subclinical and clinically evident atherosclerosis is greatly increased over healthy controls. We assessed cardiovascular risk factors present in patients with SLE at the baseline visit in a statin intervention trial ...
Bouzas-Mosquera Alberto - - 2009
A recent study suggested that statin therapy may prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following primary angioplasty. Our aim was to assess the effect of statins in this setting in a larger population. We evaluated 589 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary angioplasty at our institution. Contrast-induced nephropathy was ...
Molyneux Sarah L - - 2008
Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport pathway, and is also a lipid-soluble antioxidant. It is endogenously synthesised via the mevalonate pathway, and some is obtained from the diet. CoQ(10) supplements are available over the counter from health food shops and pharmacies. CoQ(10) deficiency has ...
Alsafwah Shadwan - - 2008
With the advent of effective antiatherosclerotic therapies, especially lipid lowering agents, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates associated with coronary atherosclerosis can be reduced. A growing body of evidence suggests such therapies can retard the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and with aggressive treatment regimens can cause regression. Antiatherosclerotic, and especially lipid ...
Andrié René P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a strong risk predictor of cardiovascular events, and tissue factor (TF) plays a central role in thrombus formation of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Aim of the present study was to quantify in situ CRP and TF in coronary atherectomy specimens associated with acute coronary syndromes ...
Shiomi M - - 2008
Inhibition of squalene synthesis could transform unstable, macrophage/lipid-rich coronary plaques into stable, fibromuscular plaques. We have here treated WHHLMI rabbits, a model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, with a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, lapaquistat acetate (TAK-475). Young male WHHLMI rabbits were fed a diet supplemented with lapaquistat acetate (100 ...
Lu Zongliang - - 2008
Results of well-controlled prospective clinical trials showed the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapies in the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) events in western populations, but they were not reported with a Chinese population. This multicenter study was conducted to determine the effects of Xuezhikang (XZK), a partially purified extract of red yeast ...
Liew Tze Vun - - 2008
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) represent an enormous disease burden, especially in the Western world, where they are one of the largest causes of mortality and morbidity. Patients suffering an acute coronary event are at very high risk of further coronary events, and although improvements in medical therapy over the past ...
Jones Peter H - - 2008
Statin therapy has reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality across the spectrum of atherosclerosis. The administration of statins has been demonstrated to be effective in primary and secondary prevention clinical trials evaluating patients with high and low risk-factor profiles. The presumed mechanism of benefit of hypolipidemic therapy in the prevention of ...
Fukuta Hidekatsu - - 2008
This article reviews the available evidence from observational studies concerning the effect of statin therapy in patients who have heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (diastolic heart failure). Observational studies suggest that statin therapy is associated with lower mortality in patients who have diastolic heart failure. These results emphasize ...
Coberley Carter - - 2008
Adherence to cardiovascular disease standards of care is critically important for minimizing the risk of mortality and morbidity for individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of cardiac disease management (DM) programs to assist members with their ...
Nagai Ryozo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The benefits of coronary risk modification through medication and other methods have been shown in many clinical studies. Recently, aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been shown to confer additive benefits in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it has not been shown in Japanese patients with ...
Sandesara Chirag M - - 2008
In vitro heart failure models indicate that statins may be antiarrhythmic, but the mechanisms by which statins are antiarrhythmic are not completely understood. Several retrospective and post hoc analysis studies also indicate that statins can be antiarrhythmic in heart failure populations, but this was not confirmed by a recent large ...
Kumar Amit - - 2008
Patients who have acute coronary syndrome complicated by heart failure have increased short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Besides the proven action in reducing cardiovascular events and mortality, statins also reduce the risk of developing heart failure after acute coronary syndrome. The pathways responsible for this benefit are likely a ...
Mathur Nitin - - 2008
The syndrome of heart failure is characterized by increased levels of circulating inflammatory mediators, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that statins may exert salutary effects in patients who have heart failure by virtue of their pleiotropic (non-lipid lowering) ...
Ballantyne Christie M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies using quantitative coronary angiography have demonstrated that statin therapy slows the progression of coronary stenoses in proportion to average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during therapy. However, no major statin monotherapy study has demonstrated either halted progression or regression of angiographic disease. A Study to Evaluate the Effect ...
Ding Chao - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that pretreatment with statin is effective in preventing arrhythmia, but its electrophysiological mechanism is unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the cardioprotective effects of simvastatin on reversing electrical remodeling in left ventricular myocytes of rabbit heart undergoing ischemia-reperfusion, so as to explore the ionic ...
Mannheim Dallit D Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2008
Circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) has emerged as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. However, the correlation between the plaque expression of Lp-PLA(2) and plaque oxidative stress, inflammation, and stability as well as the clinical presentation remains poorly defined, especially for cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, this study was performed to test ...
Howard-Alpe Georgina - - 2008
Statins are widely used in the prevention of atheromatous disease and its complications. While their lipid lowering effects are very important, there is increasing emphasis on the other effects of statins described as pleiotropic. These include atheromatous plaque stabilisation generally ascribed to their anti-inflammatory properties. It is increasingly clear that ...
Vrtovec Bojan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In retrospective studies, statin therapy has been related to decreased incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in heart failure. We sought to prospectively investigate a relation between atorvastatin therapy and SCD in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 110 patients with heart failure with ...
Braun Anne - - 2008
The most widely used mouse models for atherosclerosis are LDL receptor knockout (KO) mice and apolipoprotein E (apoE) KO mice fed standard chow diets or lipid-supplemented diets. Unfortunately, these do not usually exhibit myocardial infarction or other features of human cardiovascular disease such as occlusive coronary artery disease, cardiac dysfunction ...
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