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Pfohl M - - 1999
Acute myocardial infarction is associated with profound alterations in the plasma lipoprotein profile. The mechanism of these alterations is not clear, and both cholesterol biosynthesis up- and downregulation could possibly be a consequence of acute myocardial infarction. We determined plasma lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and lathosterol-which is regarded as an estimate ...
Sacks F M - - 1999
The plasma LDL concentration in firmly established as a cause of coronary heart disease. However, the efficacy of LDL lowering may reach a limit when it is brought well below average during treatment. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial compared pravastatin and placebo in patients who had experienced myocardial ...
Plehn J F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The role of lipid modification in stroke prevention is controversial, although increasing evidence suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibition may reduce cerebrovascular events in patients with prevalent coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the hypothesis that cholesterol reduction with pravastatin may reduce stroke incidence after myocardial infarction, we ...
Clemetson C A - - 1999
Vitamin C-deficiency is known to cause a disturbance of cholesterol metabolism. Suboptimal plasma ascorbic acid levels also cause increased blood histamine levels, which are exaggerated by sleep-lack and other forms of stress. Histaminemia causes separation of vascular endothelial cells. It is here suggested that the histaminemia of stress and ascorbate ...
Mooney A - - 1999
The statin trials in secondary and primary prevention have shown that lowering LDL cholesterol produces a reduction in coronary event rates of around 35%. The most common dyslipidaemia in MI survivors is mixed hyperlipidaemia rather than hypercholesterolaemia. New evidence from VA-HIT and BIPS suggests that relatively low levels of triglyceride ...
Mahajan A S - - 1999
The effect of yogic lifestyle on the lipid status was studied in angina patients and normal subjects with risk factors of coronary artery disease. The parameters included the body weight, estimation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and the cholesterol - HDL ratio. A baseline evaluation was done and then ...
Jaeger B R - - 1999
Cerebral and myocardial infarctions share common aspects of pathobiochemistry. The central problem is the oxygen supply of the infarcted region. To maintain this supply, H.E.L.P.-apheresis (Heparin-mediated Extracorporeal LDL/Fibrinogen Precipitation) has already proven beneficial in the prevention and therapy of myocardial infarction. Since H.E.L.P.-apheresis can lower significantly plasma viscosity and erythrocyte ...
Wijesinghe L D - - 1999
Raised serum total cholesterol (TC) is an accepted risk factor for both coronary and peripheral vascular disease and three landmark trials have shown the benefit of lowering TC using statins. Vascular surgeons tend to measure TC, but little is known about how they manage hypercholesterolaemia or whether they believe treatment ...
Saia F - - 1998
There are clear benefits in treating hypercholesterolaemia in patients with ischaemic heart disease, especially those with previous myocardial infarction. Following publication of trial evidence and treatment guidelines for hypercholesterolaemia, we investigated the current practice of the management of hypercholesterolaemia in patients with coronary artery disease referred for coronary angiography by ...
Guyton J R - - 1998
Niacin has been studied in 6 major clinical trials with cardiovascular endpoints. The Coronary Drug Project (CDP) was the largest of these trials and the only one to use niacin monotherapy affecting cardiovascular outcomes: recurrent myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular events were significantly decreased. After long-term (15 years) follow-up, total mortality ...
Mabuchi H - - 1998
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by severe hypercholesterolemia and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The lower the plasma cholesterol level, the more likely it is that CHD can be prevented or retarded; aggressive cholesterol-lowering therapies may be indicated for FH patients with CHD. This study describes the long-term (6 years) ...
Gidding S S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Because of the success of secondary prevention of coronary events by intense risk factor modification, a more precise measure of atherosclerosis in youth would have great clinical value both in the design of clinical trials for the demonstration of the usefulness of coronary disease prevention early in life and ...
Kornitzer M - - 1998
Most probably the decennia of the 1990s will be called the 'statin decennia' in the history of coronary heart disease prevention. Statins are effective, both in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, in middle-aged and older (< 76 years) men and women, in both diabetics and non-diabetics with ...
Pritzker L B - - 1998
Historically, a wide range of drugs have been used to treat hyperlipidemias. These include fibrates whose main action is to lower plasma triglycerides; bile-acid sequestering resins introduced to reduce plasma cholesterol; and more recently a family of statins designed to inhibit the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, HMG-CoA reductase. Early ...
Huse D M - - 1998
Currently, 6 hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are marketed in the United States (US). Given the wide variation in the prices and efficacy of statins, formal cost-effectiveness analysis may improve drug selection decisions. To assess the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart ...
Shepherd J - - 1998
The effectiveness of plasma cholesterol reduction therapy is no longer in question. Recent studies of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy demonstrate significant reductions in risks of mortality and coronary events in patients with existing coronary artery disease. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS) demonstrated the therapy's effectiveness as primary prevention ...
Castelli W P - - 1998
Our understanding of coronary artery disease risk and the atherosclerotic process has changed greatly in recent years. For example, it is now known that angiographically apparent coronary artery plaque is not the major cause of myocardial infarction (MI). Rather, it is unstable, soft plaque that cannot be seen angiographically that ...
Pedersen T R - - 1998
Although hyperlipidemia is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease, lipid-lowering agents were not used widely until recently because evidence was lacking that they could prolong life. In 1987, a large clinical trial, the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), was designed to test whether such therapy could decrease all-cause ...
Ruotolo G - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanisms by which bezafibrate retarded the progression of coronary lesions in the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT), we examined the relationships of on-trial lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions to the angiographic outcome measurements. BACKGROUND: BECAIT, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized serial angiographic trial of a fibrate ...
- - 1998
BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of cholesterol levels, cholesterol-lowering therapy reduces the risk of coronary events, but the effects on mortality from coronary heart disease and overall mortality have remained uncertain. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized trial, we compared the effects of pravastatin (40 ...
Lewis S J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A majority of all myocardial infarctions occur in patients who are 65 years of age or older and have average cholesterol levels, but little information is available on whether cholesterol lowering in such patients reduces the rate of recurrent cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pravastatin reduces the rate ...
Jankowski J - - 1998
1. In this study we compared the 500 MHz 1H-NMRs from native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. 2. The measurements revealed a characteristic pattern of three resonances in spectra from oxidized, but not from native low-density lipoprotein at 1.17 p.p.m., 1.18 p.p.m. and 1.20 p.p.m. (relative to 3-trimethylsilyl-[2,2,3, 3-2H4]-propionate).3.A quantitative comparison ...
Kitajima S - - 1998
In the present study we macroscopically examined a change in the distribution of coronary atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Rabbits were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 weeks, then replaced by a normal diet, and were sacrificed at 15, 24, 32 and 42 weeks after the start of the experiment. The ...
Faergeman O - - 1998
AIM: To assess differences in treatment of ischaemic heart disease in the Scandinavian countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) lasted 5.4 years and showed that death rates in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease were 30% lower in those treated with simvastatin to lower serum cholesterol ...
Khong T K - - 1998
Treatment with a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) following a myocardial infarction has been shown to reduce the incidence of subsequent coronary revascularisation, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. The majority (89%) of patients admitted to the coronary care unit of our hospital received a fasting cholesterol check as part of a ...
Wheeler D C - - 1998
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated beyond doubt that statins are effective in the prevention of acute coronary events. Critical analysis of these studies suggests that the benefits of statin therapy cannot be fully explained on the basis of reductions in plasma cholesterol levels. Accumulating knowledge of the actions of these ...
Herd J A - - 1998
Studies of lipid-modifying therapy show that inhibition of cholesterol synthesis is required in at least 2 sites-in hepatic cells and in cells located in the walls of coronary arteries-if the progression of coronary atherosclerosis is to be decreased in patients with relatively normal levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This ...
Farmer J A - - 1998
Little doubt remains about the value of lipid-lowering therapy since publication of the results of large, randomized, controlled trials that show decreased total, as well as coronary, mortality with the use of statins for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. All of the available statins are effective and ...
Gotto A M AM - - 1998
In recent years, a substantial body of evidence has emerged to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy in the prevention of coronary artery disease, and many physician groups have endorsed the management of dyslipidemia in at-risk patients. An important consideration in such endorsements has been the issue of the safety ...
Rubenfire M - - 1998
The Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines, published initially in 1988 and revised in 1993, are based on sentinel observations and early clinical trials in support of treating and preventing coronary artery disease by cholesterol lowering. With the conclusion of several large long-term trials using HMG CoA reductase inhibitors for primary ...
Stubbs P - - 1998
AIMS: Raised lipoprotein(a) concentrations are considered to be a risk factor for atherothrombotic diseases. We examined whether baseline concentrations were a risk factor for an adverse outcome in patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five hundred and nineteen patients admitted with suspected acute coronary syndromes were studied ...
Kutsumi Y - - 1998
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is one type of therapy currently being used for coronary artery disease; however, there has been no study to compare the effectiveness of this therapy with the effectiveness of other treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In ...
Aronow W S - - 1998
A prospective study of 500 consecutive persons (aged 60 years with Q-wave myocardial infarction admitted to a long-term health care facility) investigated the prevalence of the use of a lipid-lowering drug at the time of admission in persons with a fasting serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol >125 mg/dl measured the ...
van der Weijden T - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate and evaluate published data on cost effectiveness of cholesterol lowering interventions, and how this information could be interpreted in a rational approach of cholesterol management in general practice. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature. SETTING: No restriction on setting. MATERIALS: Papers reporting on the cost ...
Rifkind B M - - 1998
Much diverse evidence suggests that the plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol play a causal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Until recently, clinical trials of LDL lowering, while showing significant reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) rates, were not entirely convincing and left some questions ...
Oster G - - 1998
The first formal economic evaluation of a lipid-lowering intervention was conducted almost 20 years ago. The field exploded in the mid-1980s following the publication of findings from the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (LRC-CPPT), in which the bile-acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was reported to reduce the incidence of coronary ...
Farnier M - - 1998
Hyperlipidemia is recognized as one of the major risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Dietary therapy together with hypolipidemic drugs are central to the management of hyperlipidemia, which aims to prevent atherosclerotic plaque progression, induce regression, and so decrease the risk of ...
Straube R - - 1998
This paper reports 2 years' experience with lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) immunapheresis which was successfully handled on a now 40-year-old patient with familial Lp(a) hyperlipoproteinemia inducing severe coronary heart disease with 2 myocardial infarctions and diffuse coronary sclerosis. Continued treatment by Lp(a) immunabsorption with specific sheep antibodies reduced stenosis in coronary ...
Shepherd J - - 1998
Few areas in medicine offer such an impressive portfolio of evidence of clinical benefit as does the implementation of statins in the avoidance of coronary heart disease. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study and the Air Force Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study together have triggered a fundamental reappraisal of the ...
Masuoka H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: There is as yet no definite consensus on the predictive value of the various lipid profiles and fibrinolytic parameters that became available in clinical use recently for coronary artery disease. METHODS: Levels of lipoprotein(a), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), remnant-like particles cholesterol (RLP-C), tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), TPA inhibitor, antithrombin ...
Ariyo A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Previously reported data from the Physicians' Health Study indicate that there is no association between lipoprotein (a) level and subsequent risk of myocardial infarction among members of a large cohort of middle-aged men followed up prospectively for an average of 60.2 months. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether this null finding ...
Kovanen P T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications. We evaluated the predictive value of the levels of various serum immunoglobulin classes in middle-aged men at increased risk of myocardial infarction. METHODS: Using nested case-control design and logistic ...
Richter W O - - 1998
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is a potent treatment for patients with coronary heart disease and severe hereditary forms of LDL hypercholesterolemia not adequately responsive to drug treatment. Until now, the beneficial effect of aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol by LDL apheresis on the course of coronary heart disease has been ...
Dincić D - - 1998
Atherosclerotic changes on the coronary arteries are the basis of the ischemic heart disease. It is assumed that the initial changes in this process occur as a consequence of the lipid peroxidation in the vessel wall. We estimated this process through the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of ...
Castelli W - - 1998
There is a long history to our understanding of the biological basis of lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease and to the key epidemiological studies in this field. Building on a wealth of laboratory evidence explaining the role of cholesterol and lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, epidemiological studies have characterized associations ...
Mellwig K P - - 1998
A concomitant phenomenon of hypercholesterolemia is reduced coronary vasodilatation capacity due to disturbed endothelial function. Endothelial function can be partially or completely normalized by reducing cholesterol levels through drug therapy, but it is still unclear how rapidly this desired effect is achieved. An interval of between weeks and months has ...
Shepherd J - - 1998
The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), a placebo-controlled 5-year cohort study, demonstrated that the use of pravastatin decreased low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and associated risk of myocardial infarction. The rate of occurrence of coronary events, however, was similar across the four lowest quintiles of LDL reduction (23-41% ...
Ericsson C G - - 1998
Bezafibrate is a latest generation fibrate derivative that substantially reduces total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial over 5 years to assess the angiographic benefits of bezafibrate retard (400 mg. day (-1) ...
Smith S C SC - - 1998
More than 13 million individuals have coronary artery disease (CAD), and in approximately 2 million patients with congestive heart failure, CAD is the underlying cause. The cost of treating cardiovascular disease has spiraled, yet only a small percentage of the total cost is spent on preventive medical therapies and lifestyle ...
Buchwald H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In 1990, when the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) reported its in-trial results strongly supporting the conclusion that effective lipid modification reduces progression of atherosclerosis, the differences for the end points of overall mortality and mortality from atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (ACHD) did not reach ...
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