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Uehara Y - - 2000
Apart from ACE, various angiotensin II (Ang II)-forming serine proteinases (eg, chymase, kallikrein, and cathepsin G) are known to exist in human tissues, but their clinical significance or the regulatory mechanisms that control their activities are not well established. A recent clinical study has shown that chymase activity was significantly ...
Attebring M F - - 2000
This study evaluates the occurrence of various risk indicators, with particular emphasis on serum lipids one year after a coronary event (development of acute mycoardial infarction (AMI); exposure to either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), prior to and after presentation of the main results ...
Vuorio A F - - 1999
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is among the most common single-gene diseases and is due to mutations of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. In heterozygous FH, serum LDL-cholesterol level is elevated two- to threefold compared to unaffected individuals, men in particular are prone to premature atherosclerosis and early cardiac deaths. However, ...
Steinberg D - - 1999
In the more than 50 years since the founding of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association, medical science has moved from an era in which hypercholesterolemia, as it is now defined, was not believed to be abnormal to one in which controlling hypercholesterolemia is ...
Archbold R A - - 1999
Large randomized placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated that cholesterol lowering with statin therapy reduces the incidence of adverse cardiac events. Smaller angiographic studies have shown that coronary artery disease progression can be slowed and, in some cases, reversed by cholesterol-lowering interventions. These anatomical changes, however, are small and occur too slowly ...
Järvisalo M J - - 1999
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase (statins) may enhance vascular endothelial function independent of their cholesterol lowering effect. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed two groups of patients (age 55+/-7, mean+/-SD) with coronary artery disease that were matched for age, blood pressure and serum lipid levels. Group 1 ...
Stavenow L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of different levels of serum (s)-triglycerides in relation to s-cholesterol on the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A 6-13 (mean 10) year follow-up of 12,510 middle-aged men. Fasting s-triglycerides and s-cholesterol were measured at the screening examination. SETTING: Section of Preventive Medicine at ...
Fuster V - - 1999
This presentation describes the atherothrombotic processes leading to acute coronary syndromes based on the recent studies of vascular biology. It outlines the mechanism of action and the evolving impact of lipid-lowering therapy in stabilization and secondary prevention of such processes. The present understanding of the pathogenesis of each phase of ...
Aksoy M - - 1999
Previous studies have reported that high serum lipoprotein(a) levels may be responsible for total occlusion of the infarct-related artery via inhibition of intrinsic fibrinolysis during acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated whether this would result in a greater extent of myocardial necrosis and impaired left ventricular function in patients with high ...
Girod W G - - 1999
Hypercholesterolemia is a primary risk factor for atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. We subjected low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr -/-) and control (wild-type) mice to 30 minutes of myocardial ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarction per area at risk (AAR) was noted under baseline conditions to ...
Kajinami K - - 1999
The efficacy and safety of the therapeutic tool which directly removes LDL particles from circulation (LDL apheresis) has already been established for cholesterol-lowering in patients with refractory hypercholesterolemia, such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Several angiographic studies have demonstrated that regular LDL apheresis therapy had favorable effects on the progression of ...
Lomar AV - - 1999
We describe the case of a young HIV-positive patient undergoing three-drug antiretroviral therapy that included a protease inhibitor for 9 months, who was admitted to the hospital with an acute myocardial infarction. A coronary angiogram revealed occlusion caused by a thrombus in the proximal third of the anterior descending artery. ...
Tataru M C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of D-dimers show the extent of intravascular fibrinolysis of cross-linked fibrin. Higher concentrations of D-dimers are found in the plasma of arteriosclerosis patients with increased fibrin metabolism. The present study was performed in order to investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity of arteriosclerosis and ...
Yeo K R - - 1999
To investigate whether an interaction between diltiazem and the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin may enhance the cholesterol-lowering response to simvastatin in diltiazem-treated patients. One hundred and thirty-five patients attending the Sheffield hypertension clinic who started consecutively on simvastatin for primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease ...
Möhlenkamp S S Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905, - - 1999
An asymptomatic 36-year-old woman had high cholesterol levels due to heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC) and a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) but no other risk factors. Exercise testing showed no signs of ischemia. Conventional drug therapy did not lower lipid levels adequately. However, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, which ...
Arntz H R - - 1999
Treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or statins) lowers total and LDL cholesterol and decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. The absolute benefits are greater in patients with a higher baseline cardiovascular risk, so statins are particularly suited to secondary prevention. Although three large studies have shown convincingly that, in patients ...
Vrtovec B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Although a greater than normal intima-media thickness (IMT) has been found in older coronary patients, the data for younger patients are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine the carotid IMT in patients with premature myocardial infarction. METHODS: We measured IMT (common and internal carotid, carotid bifurcation) in 30 coronary patients, aged ...
Vaughan C J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The atheroma-retarding properties of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA) inhibitors, or "statins," in both the coronary and carotid arterial beds are well established. However, a growing body of recent data suggests that statins possess important adjunctive properties that may confer additional benefit beyond the retardation of atherosclerosis. In this ...
Wang T D - - 1999
Large-scale clinical trials have shown that long-term treatment with lipid-lowering therapy results in a significant reduction in the occurrence of heart failure among patients with coronary artery disease without previous evidence of congestive heart failure, suggesting dyslipidemia may have an adverse effect on left ventricular performance. To examine whether dyslipidemia ...
Ginsberg H N - - 1999
Recent publications, including new population-based studies and a meta-analysis of prospective, population-based studies, provide strong evidence for an elevated triglyceride level as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Pathophysiologic relationships between elevated triglyceride levels and both reduced high-density lipoprotein levels and an increase in the proportion of low ...
Kinlay S - - 1999
The recent clinical trials of lipid lowering have established the benefit of this therapy in men and women with, or at high risk for, cardiovascular disease. It is now thought that most of the reduction in the risk of clinical events is due to functional rather than anatomic changes in ...
Pasceri V - - 1999
The high frequency of premature atherosclerosis in patients with homocystinuria suggested the hypothesis of an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary heart disease. Experimental studies have shown that severe homocysteinemia has toxic effects on the endothelium and may alter haemostatic balance. Although case controls studies have suggested a significant association between ...
LaRosa J C - - 1999
Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the world. Emerging concepts of atherosclerosis imply that atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease, and cannot be definitively treated with local, anatomic interventions, such as coronary artery bypass graft surgery or angioplasty. Cholesterol lowering, on the other hand, has been ...
Rubins H B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Although it is generally accepted that lowering elevated serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with coronary heart disease is beneficial, there are few data to guide decisions about therapy for patients whose primary lipid abnormality is a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. METHODS: We ...
Wong M S - - 1999
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is formed when apolipoprotein(a) is linked to low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol via a single disulfide bond. It is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and raised concentrations are associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease. Singapore has a multi-racial population of 77% Chinese, 14% ...
- - 1999
(1) In primary prevention trials, pravastatin and lovastatin prevented myocardial infarction and had a positive risk-benefit ratio in men with LDL-cholesterol values exceeding 4.5 mmol/l (1.7 g/l). Cholestyramine and gemfibrozil also prevented myocardial infarction in men with more severe hypercholesterolaemia; while clofibrate had a negative risk-benefit ratio in patients with ...
Cullen P - - 1999
Calculating a person's chances of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) is not simple, as many risk factors interact in a complex fashion. Thus many markers, though significant in univariate comparisons, are no longer so when multivariate analysis is performed. Those factors contributing independently to risk can be identified only in ...
Pedersen T R - - 1999
Several randomized clinical trials using statins in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have demonstrated benefit, both in terms of retardation of the progression of signs of coronary atherosclerosis and in reduced morbidity and mortality rates. Three of these trials have examined the long-term effect of statins in patients ...
Pitt B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary revascularization is widely used in improving symptoms and exercise performance in patients with ischemic heart disease and stable angina pectoris. In this study, we compared percutaneous coronary revascularization with lipid-lowering treatment for reducing the incidence of ischemic events. METHODS: We studied 341 patients with stable coronary artery ...
Whitney E - - 1999
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in the United States. Fibrous plaques develop in 77% to 78% of men before age 30. The mean low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level in men aged 25 to 30 years is 117 mg/dL. In the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study, ...
Rekhraj S - - 1999
Plasma lipids play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent trial data support early identification of asymptomatic adults with high-risk lipid profiles for primary prevention of coronary heart disease. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been shown to reduce coronary events in both asymptomatic adults and those with ...
Duriez P - - 1999
Hypertriglyceridemia is now recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). A recent secondary prevention study of CAD with a statin suggested that it may be prudent to target fasting triglycerides to less than 150 mg/dL. Secondary prevention trials of CAD with drugs acting primarily on triglycerides ...
Dupuis J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol lowering reduces coronary events. One mechanism could be improvement of endothelial function. In line with this hypothesis, this study investigates whether cholesterol reduction can result in rapid improvement of endothelial function after acute coronary syndromes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina and total ...
Baller D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Early stages of coronary atherosclerosis are characterized by a mainly functional impairment of coronary vasodilator capacity under the impact of such risk factors as hypercholesterolemia. The goal of this study was to determine whether 6-month cholesterol-lowering therapy improves coronary flow reserve in patients with angina, reduced flow reserve despite ...
Kugiyama K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Remnant lipoproteins are atherogenic, but assays of remnants have not been available in routine clinical laboratories because of the lack of practical and validated methods. A simple and reliable method for such an assay, using an immunochemical approach, has recently been developed. This study prospectively examined whether remnant lipoprotein ...
Caligiuri G - - 1999
Myocardial infarction is linked to atherosclerosis, yet the sequence leading from silent coronary atherosclerosis to acute myocardial infarction has remained unclear. Here we show that hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-/- low density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice develop not only coronary atherosclerosis but also myocardial infarction. Exposure of mice to mental stress or hypoxia ...
Feder G G Department of General Practice and Primary Care, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London Hospital Medical School, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London E1 4NS. - - 1999
To determine whether postal prompts to patients who have survived an acute coronary event and to their general practitioners improve secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Randomised controlled trial. 52 general practices in east London, 44 of which had received facilitation of local guidelines for coronary heart disease. 328 patients ...
Harris W S - - 1999
Early studies in Greenland Eskimos stimulated interest in evaluating the effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on coronary artery disease. Subsequent studies showed a significant decrease in triglyceride levels in patients receiving high doses of fish oil containing DHA and EPA. Slight increases in LDL were also observed in patients receiving ...
Packard C J - - 1999
Further understanding of the causative link between plasma lipids and coronary heart disease will come from a deeper appreciation of the impact of lipoprotein heterogeneity on the processes of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. It is now widely appreciated that remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, IDL and specific LDL subfractions may have a ...
de Divitiis M - - 1999
Despite the strong evidence that cholesterol-lowering treatment is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, there is a great discrepancy between the results relating to prognosis and the ability of this treatment to induce regression of coronary atheromatous plaques. Since hypercholesterolemia causes a dysfunction in vascular ...
Kwon H M - - 1999
The external elastic lamina (EEL) serves as a barrier for cells and macromolecules between the media and adventitia in the vascular wall. We evaluated the morphological changes and quantitative assessments of the EEL architecture in the coronary circulation of pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Confocal microscopy analysis of ...
Moss A J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of coronary disease. We hypothesized that the presence of blood factors that reflect enhanced thrombogenic activity would be associated with an increased risk of recurrent coronary events during long-term follow-up of patients who have recovered from myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Rader D J - - 1999
Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease events. Data in animals indicate that increasing HDL cholesterol levels decreases progression of atherosclerosis. Some clinical trials suggest a benefit from increasing HDL cholesterol levels, but additional data in humans are needed. Nevertheless, ...
Kastelein J J - - 1999
Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies continues to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, despite major advances in the development of diagnostic methods and effective treatment, CHD remains the leading cause of mortality in the Western world. That cholesterol lowering is of major importance ...
Bo M - - 1999
We investigated the association of total serum cholesterol concentrations and subsequent overall and coronary mortality in 304 patients aged > or =65 discharged from hospital after acute myocardial infarction. There was no association between total cholesterol concentrations and mortality due to either coronary heart disease or to all causes in ...
- - 1999
In observational studies, prolonged lower blood total cholesterol levels - down at least to 3 mmol. l-1 - are associated with lower risks of coronary heart disease. Cholesterol-lowering therapy may, therefore, be worthwhile for individuals at high risk of coronary heart disease events irrespective of their presenting cholesterol levels. Observational ...
Zambon A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Small, dense LDL particles are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and predict angiographic changes in response to lipid-lowering therapy. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS) resulted in significant improvement in CAD. This study examines the relationship among LDL density, hepatic lipase (HL), and CAD ...
McCauley K M - - 1999
This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old male patient with a significant family history for hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease, who suffered an anterior lateral myocardial infarction. On admission, his electrocardiograms revealed the classic pattern of an anterior lateral acute myocardial infarction plus a left anterior hemiblock. His ...
McPherson R - - 1999
Data from a number of population-based primary prevention trials clearly indicate that reducing total serum cholesterol levels leads to a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and death. Similarly, for patients with coronary artery disease, reducing total serum cholesterol levels proved to be an effective secondary prevention strategy, leading to ...
Langtry H D - - 1999
Fluvastatin is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used to treat patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Since fluvastatin was last reviewed in Drugs, trials have shown its efficacy in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) events and death and have expanded knowledge of its effects in primary CHD prevention and its mechanisms ...
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