Search Results
Results 801 - 850 of 1467
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Bates E R - - 2000
Several studies shortly after the advent of coronary artery bypass surgery reported early atherosclerosis in saphenous vein grafts, and an association between dyslipidemia and graft occlusion. Lipid-lowering therapy in a number of trials resulted in reduced progression of atherosclerosis in vein grafts and fewer subsequent revascularization procedures. Presently, however, only ...
Miller M - - 2000
In the Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT), a 6% increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was associated with a 22% reduction in the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and death from coronary artery disease. A curvilinear correlation was demonstrated between incremental changes in HDL-C and outcome. ...
Boden W E - - 2000
The Framingham Heart Study found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was the most potent lipid predictor of coronary artery disease risk in men and women >49 years of age. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS), in which subjects were randomized to treatment with lovastatin or placebo, also reported ...
Arntz H R - - 2000
Secondary prevention of coronary heart disease by antilipidemic therapy beginning at > or =3 months after an acute coronary syndrome is well documented. The impact, however, of immediate initiation of antilipidemic therapy on coronary stenoses and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome is unknown. In our study, patients ...
Steinberg D - - 2000
In-vitro studies and animal model studies provide an ever-growing body of evidence, direct and indirect, that oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and/or related oxidative mechanisms play a role in atherogenesis. However, two recent, very large, carefully conducted clinical intervention trials using adequate doses of vitamin E demonstrated no effect on a ...
Emingil G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Well-known risk factors independently or combined participate in both myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to the acute thromboembolic events. The aim of the present ...
Feeman W E WE - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The only reason for treating dyslipidaemia is the prevention and/or stabilization of atherosclerosis. Angiographic stabilization/reversal of coronary atherosclerosis predicts a decrease in future atherosclerotic disease manifestations. METHODS: This paper reports on an analysis of eight angiographic trials that use therapy of dyslipidaemia in order to stabilize/reverse coronary atherosclerosis. The ...
Vanuzzo D - - 2000
We have examined the potential for cholesterol lowering in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease based on data from the European Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) study carried out in 1995-1996 in nine European centres (Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovenia ...
Bolibar I - - 2000
We studied the role of various markers of lipid metabolism, hemostasis and inflammation in a two year follow-up of 3,000 patients with angina pectoris, during which time 106 patients experienced myocardial infarction or sudden coronary death. Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I were ...
Tribouilloy C M - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for coronary events, stroke, and peripheral atherosclerotic disease. However, few data are available concerning the relationship between homocysteine level and severity of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis. We hypothesized in this multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) study that homocysteine level is a marker of ...
Horne B D - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The joint predictive value of lipid and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as a possible interaction between statin therapy and CRP, were evaluated for survival after angiographic diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia increases risk of CAD and myocardial infarction. For first myocardial infarction, the combination ...
Pethig K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Response to immunologic and nonimmunologic injury has been reported to initiate the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAVD). Although histopathologic examinations reveal signs of focal inflammation, little is known about the systemic inflammatory response in this accelerated coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Therefore, we investigated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) ...
Campeau L - - 2000
This article reviews the rationale for lipid lowering in patients who have coronary heart disease, and specifically for post-bypass patients. It has been well demonstrated that after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, atherosclerosis continues to progress in the native circulation and develops at an accelerated rate in saphenous vein bypass ...
Kritz H - - 2000
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus show increased atheroembolism and premature arterial events (stroke, myocardial infarction), but no increased venous thromboembolism. This paper describes an association of elevated lipoprotein(a), a decreased prostaglandin I(2)(PGI(2)) synthesis stimulating plasma factor, diminished PGI(2)-stability in plasma and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A. It is unclear ...
Ijem J - - 2000
There have been many recent articles published that emphasize the fact that cholesterol deposits are only one of many mechanisms through which acute coronary artery disease develops. Recently, a meta-analysis shows that only 14% of acute coronary events occur in stenotic lesions in coronary arteries that are greater than 70% ...
Waters D D - - 2000
Although several large, well-controlled trials with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) demonstrate the benefits of cholesterol lowering on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, these trials excluded patients with recent unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Thus, the potentially beneficial effects that may accrue from early statin therapy have not been apparent. ...
Forrester J S - - 2000
Acute coronary syndromes are caused by plaque rupture. The conventional strategy of prevention of plaque rupture has been driven by the "lipid hypothesis"--if lipid levels are optimized to target levels, the risk of coronary events is decreased. Indeed, the hypothesis has been validated by the dramatic success of statin therapy. ...
Sacks F M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Plasma triglyceride concentration has been an inconsistent independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, perhaps because of the metabolic heterogeneity among VLDL particles, the main carriers of triglycerides in plasma. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective, nested case-control study in the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial, a ...
Jacobson T A - - 2000
Since the publication of the second set of guidelines by the National Cholesterol Education Program, a solid body of data from landmark clinical studies has demonstrated that reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor ("statin") therapy sharply diminishes the risk for coronary artery disease. These ...
Koh K K - - 2000
Clinical trials of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy have demonstrated improvement in coronary atherosclerosis progression and reduction in risk of cardiovascular events. However, improvement in cardiovascular end-points is incompletely explained by the baseline or treated LDL cholesterol level. The beneficial effects of statins on clinical events may ...
Pradka L R - - 2000
Cholesterol-lowering and its relationship to acute coronary syndromes is the focus of this article. The pathophysiology of plaque formation and plaque rupture are briefly discussed as is the current thinking on the impact of cholesterol-lowering on these processes. How cholesterol affects endothelial function and plaque passivation (the complex process of ...
Rubins H B - - 2000
This paper reviews the clinical trial data that offer insight into the question of whether, and in what groups of people, triglycerides might be an appropriate therapeutic target for the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Two angiographic trials (the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial and the Bezafibrate Coronary ...
von Baeyer H - - 2000
Membrane differential filtration (MDF) (1,2) is a variety of cascade filtration. Three patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia and coronary heart disease (2 patients with foregoing myocardial infarction) were treated with MDF for a period of 14 years. The mean treatment interval was 21 days. The basic level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ...
Rye K A - - 2000
This study shows that phospholipid depletion has a major impact on the size and structure of spherical, reconstituted high density lipoproteins (rHDL) and their remodeling by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Spherical rHDL, 9.2 nm in diameter with a phospholipid/cholesteryl ester/unesterified cholesterol/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) (PL/CE/UC/A-I) molar ratio of 37.3/24.5/4.1/1.0, were ...
Sitruk-Ware R - - 2000
Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, ...
Diercks G F - - 2000
This study describes the rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial to determine whether treatment with fosinopril 20 mg/day and/or pravastatin 40 mg/ day will prevent cardiovascular and renal disease in nonhypertensive (RR <160/100 mm Hg and not using antihypertensive medication) and nonhypercholesterolemic (total cholesterol <8.0 or <5.0 mmol/L ...
Kaufmann P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Coronary vasomotor tone plays an important role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion and influences ischemic threshold significantly. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in the presence of coronary risk factors and is closely linked to the development of atherosclerosis affecting myocardial perfusion and decreasing ischemic threshold. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect ...
Jackson G - - 2000
Coronary heart disease is the major cause of death in the industrialised world. As the prevalence increases with advancing age, coronary heart disease will be a growing problem as the average age of the population increases. The cost of treatment following an acute coronary syndrome is considerable and there is ...
Rodríguez J F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In Puerto Rico, it has been established that although coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death, the population has a lower incidence of coronary disease than the continental United States. In addition, the severity of the disease is less aggressive in terms of a lower incidence of ...
Vita J A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Improved endothelial function may contribute to the beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared the effect of 6 months of simvastatin (40 mg/d) treatment with that of placebo on coronary endothelial vasomotor function in 60 patients with coronary artery disease. Simvastatin ...
Khan M A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the status of lipid peroxidation, both in control subjects and in coronary heart disease patients. METHODS: Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and malondialdehyde levels were determined in 46 patients with coronary heart disease and 50 age matched control healthy subjects. ...
Kahaly G J - - 2000
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is common, especially among elderly women. There is no clear evidence to date that SH causes clinical heart disease. However, mild thyroid gland failure, evidenced solely by elevation of the serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, may be associated with increased morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular disease, and subtly decreased ...
McGill H C HC - - 2000
The raised fatty streak (fatty plaque) is the gross term for the lesion intermediate between the juvenile (flat) fatty streak and the raised lesion of atherosclerosis. We measured the percentage of intimal surface involved with flat fatty streaks, raised fatty streaks, and raised lesions in the aortas and right coronary ...
- - 2000
Coronary heart disease patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, high triglyceride levels, or both are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but the clinical impact of raising HDL-C or decreasing triglycerides remains to be confirmed. In a double-blind trial, 3090 patients with a previous myocardial infarction or ...
Colquhoun D - - 2000
Unstable angina is a life-threatening disease. The overall incidence is estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% and, of those admitted to hospital, up to 5% die within the first six weeks. With such a high prevalence and poor prognosis, there is still a clear need for improved secondary preventive ...
Masuoka H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We designed the present study to evaluate the association of various lipid and fibrinolytic components with coronary artery stenosis with respect to the triglyceride (TG) level. METHODS: Levels of TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein-(a), uric acid, blood glucose, ...
Kaufmann P A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the impact of total cholesterol (TC) and its subfractions on coronary flow reserve (CFR), an index of the integrated function of the coronary circulation, in asymptomatic subjects. BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microcirculation has been reported in asymptomatic subjects with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Using oxygen-15-labeled ...
English K M - - 2000
AIMS: High androgen levels are presumed by many to explain the male predisposition to coronary artery disease. However, natural androgens inhibit male atherosclerosis(1). Our aim was to determine whether levels of androgens differ between men with and without coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety male subjects (60 with positive, ...
Cerne D - - 2000
We compared several "new" risk factors (autoantibodies to oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL), sialic acid content of LDL, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with "conventional" risk factors (apolipoprotein (apo) AI, AII and B, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides, and total, LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) for the presence and the extent ...
Arab L - - 2000
Considerable evidence suggests that lycopene, a carotenoid without provitamin A activity found in high concentrations in a small set of plant foods, has significant antioxidant potential in vitro and may play a role in preventing prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease in humans. Tomato products, including ketchup, tomato juice, and pizza ...
Dunne M W - - 2000
Mounting evidence supports the contention that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Recently a possible role for infectious microorganisms has gathered attention. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one possible pathogen. If C. pneumoniae is a target organism, antibiotics with antichlamydial activity may be able to ameliorate plaque instability. The WIZARD trial is a ...
Tataru M C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Recent findings provide evidence for the importance of inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein was elevated in patients with peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction compared to normal subjects. METHODS: In 1112 male and 299 female survivors of myocardial infarction (mean age +/- ...
Ganz D A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy has proven efficacy in reducing the rate of coronary and cerebrovascular events in patients 75 years of age or younger with a history of myocardial infarction. However, in patients older than 75 years of age, the efficacy and potential cost-effectiveness of statins ...
Aikawa M - - 2000
Thrombus formation at sites of atheromatous plaque disruption cause most acute coronary events such as myocardial infarction and unstable angina. Lesional macrophages and smooth muscle cells produce matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) and tissue factor (TF), the molecules likely contribute to plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Recent clinical studies have suggested that ...
Nakagomi A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in population studies and in patients with unstable coronary syndromes are predictive of future adverse events, including cardiac death and myocardial infarction, implicating inflammation in pathogenesis. Although CRP is considered a marker of inflammation, it induces monocyte tissue factor (TF) and may ...
Blumenthal R S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Statins are the most effective agents currently available for lowering plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and are the mainstay of therapy for hyperlipidemia. The statins are highly liver-selective, inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol. Several large, controlled clinical trials have ...
Choy P C - - 2000
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in North America. It is characterized by thickening of the coronary artery wall by the formation of plaques, resulting in reduced blood flow. Plaque rupture and the consequent thrombosis may lead to sudden blockage of arteries and causing stroke and heart attack. In ...
Sholter D E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the potential adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy on the cardiovascular system and to provide insight into the mechanisms of these effects. DATA SOURCES: Case reports and studies demonstrating adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy on the cardiovascular system were examined from a MEDLINE search. Animal data and in ...
Muhlestin J B - - 2000
The major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with coronary atherosclerosis is plaque rupture, which often results in one of the acute coronary syndromes: unstable angina, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), or Q-wave MI. Plaque rupture may be attributable to the thickness of the overlying fibrous cap; thinner plaques are more ...
Rosenson R S - - 2000
Cholesterol-lowering therapy has not been considered an important risk factor for stroke; however, lipid-lowering therapies reduce cerebrovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The basic mechanisms of cerebrovascular protection have emphasized reduced atheroemboli from the left ventricle and aortic arch, delayed carotid artery disease progression, stabilization of vulnerable ...
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