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Results 701 - 750 of 1470
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Simes J - - 2002
AIMS: To assess the effects of pravastatin on all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality and to compare the effects for patients with prior coronary heart disease with those for patients without, using pooled data from the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study, the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) ...
Kawaguchi Akito - - 2002
The ATHEROMA study is a prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled study in Japan to assess the changes of coronary atherosclerosis of patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) by cholesterol-lowering therapy (CLT) using pravastatin 10-20 mg per day for 3 years. The primary objective is to evaluate the changes in coronary ...
Ayanian John Z - - 2002
To assess use of cholesterol-lowering therapy and related beliefs among middle-aged adults after myocardial infarction. Telephone survey and administrative data. National managed-care company. Six hundred ninety-six adults age 30 to 64 surveyed in 1999, approximately 1 to 2 years after a myocardial infarction. Use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, beliefs about the ...
Aronow Herbert D - - 2002
The Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) study was the first trial to assess whether statins might be of clinical benefit in those with recently unstable coronary disease. MIRACL found that high-dose atorvastatin was safe and reduced the incidence of the composite endpoint, death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated ...
Malach Monte - - 2002
There is an obvious need to measure low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in all patients with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. The recent guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program have established the desired level for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for such patients at <100 mg/dL. However, several studies have demonstrated ...
Saito Yasushi - - 2002
The Chiba Lipid Intervention Program (CLIP) Study was designed to clarify the prognosis of Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients taking pravastatin for 5 years. Hypercholesterolemic patients (n = 2,529) with a total cholesterol level > or = 220 mg/dl and without histories of ischemic coronary heart disease and/or cerebral infarction were administered ...
Henkin Yaakov - - 2002
The aim of our study was to evaluate the lipoprotein changes that occur during acute coronary events, and to determine the lipoprotein threshold levels that identify patients who require future statin therapy. Lipoprotein levels were measured at admission, at 6 hours, the morning after admission, before discharge, and 3 months ...
Teo Koon K - - 2002
During the last decade, the development of the HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, commonly referred to as 'statins', has contributed greatly to cholesterol lowering therapy and cardiovascular risk reduction. These agents are well tolerated and efficacious. Data on nearly 30,000 patients from five long-term randomised, placebo-controlled trials of statins have clearly ...
Williams J Koudy - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Tibolone is used to prevent osteoporosis and to treat climacteric symptoms. The objectives of these studies were to measure and compare the effects of tibolone with hormone replacement therapy on coronary artery vascular reactivity and myocardial function and to relate these outcomes to treatment-induced plasma lipid/lipoprotein concentrations and atherosclerosis. ...
Colquhoun David M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is still the single major cause of death in our community despite the dramatic decline in prevalence over the past 20 years or so. The first presentation of CHD in up to 50% of patients is one of the acute coronary syndromes, either acute myocardial ...
Shepherd J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of hyperlipidemia to reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease was, prior to the statin era, disappointingly limited in its ability to yield the benefits expected from the strong relationship known to exist between serum cholesterol and coronary death. Three primary prevention trials, using clofibrate, cholestyramine and gemfibrozil, ...
Olsson Anders G - - 2002
Statins may act rapidly to reverse abnormalities of the arterial wall that may predispose to recurrent ischemic events after acute coronary syndromes. Such abnormalities are endothelial dysfunction, a local inflammatory response. and an exaggerated thrombogenic tendency. In one study almost 20,000 patients with first myocardial infarction were studied with regard ...
Athyros Vasilios G - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin is very effective in reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, there is no long-term survival study that evaluated this statin. PATIENTS-METHODS: To assess the effect of atorvastatin on morbidity and mortality (total and coronary) of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), 1600 consecutive patients were ...
Assmann Gerd - - 2003
Observational studies provide overwhelming evidence that a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level increases the risk of coronary events, both in healthy subjects and in patients with coronary heart disease. Based on in vitro experiments, several mechanistic explanations for the atheroprotective function of HDL have been suggested. However, few of these ...
Michalis L K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Low folate levels are related to increased risk for coronary artery disease in humans, while experimental work has shown that folate deficiency is thrombogenic. We hypothesized that relatively low folate levels are related to the development of acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: ...
Walter D H - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether statin therapy affects the association between preprocedural C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the risk for recurrent coronary events in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation as detected by elevated CRP levels predicts the risk of recurrent coronary events. The effect of inflammation ...
Colquhoun D M - - 2001
Nutraceuticals and specifically vitamins, oils and herbs are increasingly being taken by patients. Some supplements may improve cardiovascular outcome, most are unproved, and some could potentially cause harm. Marine lipid supplementation needs to be considered in all patients who have manifest coronary heart disease. For most supplements more data are ...
Brown B G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Both lipid-modifying therapy and antioxidant vitamins are thought to have benefit in patients with coronary disease. We studied simvastatin-niacin and antioxidant-vitamin therapy, alone and together, for cardiovascular protection in patients with coronary disease and low plasma levels of HDL. METHODS: In a three-year, double-blind trial, 160 patients with coronary ...
Forge B H BH West Gippsland Hospital, Warragul, VIC. - - 2001
To assess the effectiveness of current Australian guidelines for prescribing lipid-lowering drugs in identifying high-risk individuals in primary prevention of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease risk profiles were obtained for 280 consecutive patients dispensed lipid-lowering drugs in rural Victoria. Their 10-year absolute risk of coronary heart disease was determined ...
Gaw A - - 2001
Acute coronary syndromes contribute significantly to the patterns of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. A meta-analysis of the pathology of acute myocardial infarction has shown that 80-90% of episodes result from the rupture of small, unstable lesions that cause <70% diameter stenosis. Statins have been shown to stabilize the ...
Ahsan C H - - 2001
Three-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce coronary events and death in both primary and secondary prevention trials. In these trials benefit did not appear for years after randomization. It is noteworthy that these trials did not include patients with recent myocardial infarctions or unstable angina. It is well known that ...
Blake G J - - 2001
From the initial stages of leukocyte recruitment to diseased endothelium, to eventual rupture of unstable atheromatous plaque, pro-inflammatory mechanisms mediate key steps in atherogenesis and its complications. Lipid lowering, both with diet and statin therapy, has been shown to have favorable effects on inflammatory processes in atheromatous plaque. Several plasma ...
Pepys M B - - 2001
C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase reactant, has for some time contributed to both the diagnosis and management of a wide range of infective and inflammatory conditions. More recently with the advent of high sensitivity assays, the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease has been strengthened. "Elevated" CRP ...
Waters D D - - 2001
Remarkable therapeutic advances in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been made with antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy. However, these therapies alone do not appear to completely stabilize culprit lesions. Evidence from a variety of sources suggests that intensive cholesterol lowering with statins favorably influences culprit lesion stabilization in ...
Libby P - - 2001
In the past, we believed that atherosclerosis gradually and progressively led to the complete occlusion of an artery, thereby causing acute coronary events. However, we now understand that rupture of a nonstenotic, yet vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque frequently leads to an acute coronary syndrome. Rupture-prone plaques typically have a thin fibrous ...
Waters D D - - 2001
Cholesterol lowering with statins reduces coronary events in a primary-prevention setting and in patients with stable coronary disease. However, where the risk of a coronary event is highest, in the early months after an episode of unstable angina or non-Q-wave infarction, the effect of statin therapy has not been evaluated ...
Delanty N - - 2001
The beneficial effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in primary prevention of coronary artery disease in those with hypercholesterolaemia and in secondary prevention in those with established coronary vascular disease are now well known. A growing body of evidence suggests that statins also possess important additional clinical ...
Strong J P - - 2001
AIM: Describe the relationship between serum lipoproteins and the development of atherosclerosis in young subjects aged 15-34 years, and discuss the implications for prevention of coronary heart disease. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data from gross and microscopic evaluation of aorta and coronary arterial specimens as part of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis ...
Lalonde L - - 2001
Estimating the net benefits of dyslipidemia treatment is limited by the lack of comprehensive and standardized information on the preference for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. In a hospital-based study, we measured the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of healthy participants without dyslipidemia (n = 307) and with dyslipidemia (n ...
Mediene-Benchekor S - - 2001
In western countries, individuals with plasma lipid concentrations above a set threshold value are judged to be at risk of coronary heart disease. However, in Algeria, people tend to have lower lipid concentrations than those in the developed world, and might, therefore, be excluded from preventive strategies and denied treatment. ...
Campos H H Department of Nutrition, Bldg 2, Room 353A, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2001
Small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Animal models link large LDL to atherosclerosis. However, the strong association between small LDL and other risk factors, particularly triglyceride levels, impedes determining whether LDL size independently predicts CHD in humans. ...
Liuzzo G - - 2001
C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototype acute phase reactant and therefore a marker of systemic inflammation. In the last decades, accumulating data have demonstrated the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease. High CRP levels, measured by high-sensitivity methods, on admission have a short-term negative prognostic value ...
Pieper J A - - 2001
The death rate from coronary heart disease (CHD) declined by 25% in the United States during 1987-1997, but the actual number of deaths fell by only 9%. Modifiable risk factors for CHD include hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cigarette smoking, and diabetes. Several randomized clinical trials ...
Ansell B J - - 2001
Much has been learned about preventing and treating coronary heart disease (CHD) since publication of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel II (ATP II) guidelines in 1993. Even with the recent release of the ATP III guidelines, clinical decision making has become increasingly complex as a result ...
Chilton R J - - 2001
Until recently, arterial stenosis and occlusion due to buildup of atherosclerotic plaque were recognized as the primary causes of coronary heart disease (CHD). Currently, CHD is viewed as a lifelong process of endothelial inflammation, thrombosis, and plaque instability and rupture. Lifestyle modification is an important first step in prevention of ...
Jones S P - - 2001
A known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease and subsequent myocardial infarction is hypercholesterolaemia. The widespread nature of this phenomenon in the western world has led to the development of agents which reduce serum cholesterol levels. One such class of agents, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are very ...
Doggrell S A - - 2001
The development of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (the statins) has lead to important advances in the management of cardiovascular disease. There have several landmark mortality and morbidity clinical trials with the statins. The 4S (Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study) was the first large-scale randomised cholesterol-lowering trial to show a decrease in ...
Khurana P S - - 2001
Postmenopausal estrogen replacement, with or without progestin therapy, has a generally favorable impact on lipids, improves endothelial function, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These properties should favorably impact coronary risk; indeed, epidemiologic studies have consistently associated hormone replacement therapy with reduced coronary risk. Nonetheless, the Heart & Estrogen/progestin Replacement ...
Plana J C - - 2001
Lipid-lowering drugs, in particular statin treatments, have been shown to reduce the incidence of initial and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD) events within several years of initiating therapy. This effect can be clinically detected within the first 1 to 2 years in randomized trials. Recent observational and clinical trial data ...
Aronow W S - - 2001
Statin treatment of men and women age > or = 50 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypercholesterolemia reduces the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary events, coronary revascularization, stroke, and intermittent claudication. The target serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level is < 100 mg/dL in older patients with ...
Waters D D - - 2001
To date, 5 major randomized, placebo-controlled statin trials--the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study, West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study, Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial, Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease, and Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study--have convincingly shown that total mortality and major coronary events can be significantly reduced ...
Davies M J - - 2001
Atherosclerotic coronary disease develops over several decades and was once thought to be an inevitable, irreversible consequence of aging. Atherogenesis is an inflammatory response that occurs after injury to the endothelium. Thrombosis, because of either endothelial erosion or plaque disruption, precipitates acute coronary events. Effective lipid lowering with statins has ...
Foody J M - - 2001
Over the past several years, results of clinical trials of lipid lowering have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary atherosclerosis and ischemia. Evidence is accumulating that cholesterol lowering has potential anti-ischemic effects and may have immediate consequences that have a favorable impact on coronary events, possibly even acute ...
Gotto A M AM - - 2001
Lipid-lowering treatment with statins is effective for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in patients with either hypercholesterolemia or average cholesterol levels. Several clinical trials in progress will investigate the use of statins in entirely elderly or diabetic cohorts, and larger trials will continue to include significant numbers ...
Koga N - - 2001
Correlations between serum cholesterol levels and progression of coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis have been found in many recent studies. It has also been demonstrated that aggressive cholesterol-lowering therapy with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, a method of LDL elimination by extracorporeal circulation, is effective not only for coronary artery disease, but ...
Griffin J L - - 2001
Dystrophin, a protein associated with sarcolemma and cell membranes, is not expressed in sufferers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), or in the mdx mouse. DMD is a fatal disorder, with a significant proportion of fatalities associated with cardiac failure ( approximately 40% having dilated cardiomyopathy and >90% clinically significant cardiac ...
Yamamoto A - - 2001
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a congenital disorder of cholesterol metabolism, which is due to a deficiency in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. The homozygous form of FH is especially liable to coronary artery disease (CAD) in youth because of the very high LDL-cholesterol levels. It is resistant to drug therapy, and ...
Bjorkegren J - - 2001
The genes for apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein are expressed in mouse and human heart tissue. Why the heart would express these "lipoprotein assembly" genes has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that the beating mouse heart actually secretes spherical lipoproteins. Moreover, increased cardiac production of lipoproteins (e.g., in ...
Rauoof M A - - 2001
We assessed the reliability of early (first day) plasma lipid measurements in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris. In 55 such patients, plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides measured within the first 24 hours after admission were significantly lower than the corresponding values at 6 weeks, ...
Mavri A - - 2001
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is more frequent in winter months than in summer months. The aetiologic mechanisms underlying this seasonal pattern are poorly understood. We investigate whether seasonal variation of metabolic and haemostatic coronary risk factors exists, and whether this variation is more pronounced in subjects with coronary artery disease ...
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