Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1470
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Koga Nobuhiko - - 2002
The goal of cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients at high risk for recurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is the prevention of acute coronary syndrome by stabilization of coronary atheromatous plaque. We often encounter patients in whom it is difficult to maintain the serum cholesterol level at a desirable level ...
Leys Didier - - 2002
An important issue for stroke prevention is identification and treatment of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia. The four reasons to test hypolipidemic agents in stroke prevention are: (i) a statistical link between elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) or decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and ischemic stroke; (ii) a reduction in ...
Morishita Ryuichi - - 2002
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are greatly contributed to the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, and constitute an important part of comprehensive strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the 21st century. Particularly, a strategy for preventing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the most important complication of hyperlipidemia, is urgently ...
Wright R Scott RS Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA. - - 2002
The use of statin agents in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) remains an area of intense clinical interest. Statin therapy has an established secondary preventive benefit in patients with coronary artery disease, and its extension to ACS seems logical. A number of observational studies have shown an association between ...
Mayer O O - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Definite evidence has been established, that coronary patients benefit from appropriate secondary prevention measures, as recommended by the European and National Guidelines. EuroAspire I (1995) and EuroAspire II (1999) were surveys aimed to evaluate the state of the implementation of guidelines into the every-day medical practice in several European ...
Goldberg Anne Carol - - 2002
Event trials using statin therapy have shown a beneficial effect on rates of cardiovascular events. The three statins that have been used in long-term trials have shown generally similar effects on rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularizations, and mortality. Safety data appear to be comparable for lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. ...
Bybee Kevin A - - 2002
HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors(statins) have been shown, in three large randomized trials, to decrease adverse cardiac events in patients with clinically evident coronary artery disease. All of these trials have excluded patients with an acute coronary syndrome within the three months prior to enrollment. Statin therapy is thought to stabilize ...
Achenbach Stephan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Coronary calcification measured by fast computed tomography techniques is a surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden. In a cohort study, we prospectively investigated whether lipid-lowering therapy with a cholesterol synthesis enzyme inhibitor reduces the progression of coronary calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 66 patients with coronary calcifications in ...
Theilmeier Gregor - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia induces functional and structural changes of the microvasculature and reduces coronary flow reserve in humans and experimental animals. The effect of hypercholesterolemia on left ventricular (LV) function in the absence of coronary stenosis is, however, unknown. Our objective was therefore to assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia and cholesterol ...
Horwich Tamara B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Although hypercholesterolemia is a well-defined risk factor for morbidity and mortality in coronary artery disease, the relationship between cholesterol and heart failure (HF) has rarely been investigated. METHODS: Cholesterol and lipoproteins were measured in 1,134 patients with advanced HF who presented to a single center for HF management and ...
Kayikçio─člu Meral - - 2002
AIM: To determine whether statin therapy initiated early in acute myocardial infarction together with thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction results in clinical benefit through early plaque stabilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 77 patients who underwent coronary balloon angioplasty of the infarct-related artery during ...
Rifai Nader - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite changes in lifestyle and the use of effective pharmacologic interventions to lower cholesterol levels, coronary heart disease remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Cholesterol screening fails to identify almost 50% of those individuals who will present with acute coronary syndromes. ...
- - 2002
Throughout the usual LDL cholesterol range in Western populations, lower blood concentrations are associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. In such populations, therefore, reducing LDL cholesterol may reduce the development of vascular disease, largely irrespective of initial cholesterol concentrations. 20,536 UK adults (aged 40-80 years) with coronary disease, other occlusive ...
Mosca Lori - - 2002
Despite the significant advances made in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy, the risk of serious complications remains high, especially in the first few months following an acute coronary event. Although lipid-lowering therapy in patients with significant risk factors (primary prevention) or stable coronary ...
Suzuki Toru - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To examine the diagnostic performance of circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein levels as a biochemical risk marker of coronary heart disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: 361 patients with coronary artery disease and 710 healthy volunteers as normal controls were examined. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis in addition to statistical analysis (univariate, ...
Futterman Laurie G - - 2002
The peripheral vascular system makes up the largest single "organ system" and holds many biological secrets that, when unlocked, can open doors for new treatments for all vascular beds, including those of the coronary and cerebral arteries. The coronary and noncoronary circulations are inseparable and interdependent. Cardiologists as well as ...
Burns P - - 2002
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, largely from coronary and cerebrovascular disease, which often overshadows the PAD itself. Best Medical Therapy (BMT), comprising smoking cessation, antiplatelet agent use, cholesterol reduction, exercise therapy, and the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus; is evidenced ...
Spin Joshua M - - 2002
This review examines the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) medications early in the clinical course of acute coronary syndrome. Available data demonstrate that there are clear clinical benefits to this practice. Numerous previous studies have documented the primary and secondary benefits of statins in the prevention of coronary events. ...
Whincup P H - - 2002
To determine the prevalence and correlates of lipid lowering drug use among older British men with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Cross sectional survey within a cohort study (British regional heart study) carried out at 20 years of follow up in 1998-2000. General practices in 24 British towns. 3689 men ...
Ho Karen J KJ The Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2002
Gender-based differences in the incidence of hypertensive and coronary artery disease, the development of atherosclerosis, and myocardial remodeling after infarction are attributable to the indirect effect of estrogen on risk factor profiles, such as cholesterol levels, glucose metabolism, and insulin levels. More recent evidence, however, suggests that activated estrogen receptor ...
Lopez Larry M - - 2002
The current and future roles of statins as antilipemic agents for the prevention and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) are reviewed. Therapy with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) substantially reduces total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. Large clinical trials have documented the efficacy of statin therapy for both ...
Lehtimäki T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a determinant of impaired coronary function and oestrogens inhibit its formation probably throughout genetically-variable oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in artery wall. We hypothesized that the ESR1 polymorphism might influence coronary function and reactivity as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), which allows the detection ...
Ducas John - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Studies on the impact of elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) or apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]) on the development of coronary artery disease have given controversial results. The relationship between apo(a) phenotypes and coronary artery stenosis remains unclear. METHODS: Lipid profiles, and apo(a) levels and phenotypes were analyzed in 225 patients who ...
Alabakovska Sonja B - - 2002
AIM: To determine distribution, size, and phenotype of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses and examine the influence of plasma lipid concentrations on lipoprotein particle size in both healthy population and patients with myocardial infarction. METHOD: Nondenaturing gradient (3-31%) gel electrophoresis for lipoprotein separation was used to determine the distribution and ...
Willerson James T - - 2002
The response to injury in the vasculature and the heart is inflammation. Atherosclerosis is often the result of injury followed by inflammation and atherosclerosis. Vascular and myocardial infections from various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, chlamydia, and other infections result in vascular inflammation and almost certainly play a role in the ...
Gemayel Carol - - 2002
Cardiologists have traditionally focused on coronary narrowing as seen on angiography and have orientated treatment towards bypassing these lesions or widening them with angioplasty. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary interventions reliably relieve angina and myocardial ischemia, but do not prevent myocardial infarction or reduce mortality. Cholesterol ...
Farmer John A - - 2002
In the last decade, an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences has emerged. The characteristics of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, the substrate for the majority of acute coronary events, have been well defined: mild-to-moderate stenosis, a lipid-rich pool, few smooth muscle cells, a friable ...
Reinhardt Sean C - - 2002
The development of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) has been a very significant development in the management of coronary artery disease. Large prospective clinical trials have provided unequivocal evidence that cholesterol lowering therapy with statins reduces all-cause mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. There is now ...
Ylitalo Kati - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is the most common hereditary lipid disorder that predisposes the patients to premature coronary heart disease. Members of FCHL families are categorised as affected or unaffected according to serum lipid levels. This study is aimed to evaluate whether there is a difference in carotid artery ...
Auer J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein is a valid marker of cardiovascular risk. It is not known whether C-reactive protein is a marker of atherosclerotic burden or whether it reflects a process (e.g. inflammatory fibrous cap degradation) leading to acute coronary events. This study was performed to determine whetherthe concentration of C-reactive protein ...
Kawano M - - 2002
A 56-year-old male with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency experienced a myocardial infarction without pancreatitis. A coronary angiogram showed complete occlusions of both the right and circumflex coronary arteries. His serum lipid levels were as follows: fasting total cholesterol 3.15 mmol/l; postprandial total cholesterol 3.62 mmol/l; fasting triglycerides 1.46 mmol/A; postprandial triglycerides ...
Gorog Diana A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The concept that oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL), not native LDL, plays a major role in atherogenesis is gaining support. Lipid hydroperoxides in plasma are carried almost exclusively in LDL and reflect oxidised LDL. Previously, elevated plasma lipid hydroperoxides were reported in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients following bypass surgery. ...
Feldman Elaine B - - 2002
The author and four independent experts evaluated the intent and quality of scientific evidence for a potential beneficial health relationship between the intake of walnuts and the reduction and prevention of coronary heart disease. The report also addresses the supporting evidence for the health benefit of other tree nuts and ...
Harrop J - - 2002
To quantify changes in 30 day and one year mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction in southern Derbyshire (population 560 000) in each of five consecutive years (1995-1999) before the publication of the National Service Framework for coronary heart disease, and to assess the proportion of one year survivors ...
Ambrose John A - - 2002
The concept of plaque stabilization was developed to explain how lipid lowering could decrease adverse coronary events without a substantial reduction in the regression of atherosclerosis. Plaques were stabilized by reducing serum cholesterol leading to several favorable pathobiological changes in the vessel wall of lipid-rich plaques responsible for a majority ...
- - 2002
BACKGROUND: The Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study showed that pravastatin therapy over 6 years reduced mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with previous acute coronary syndromes and average cholesterol concentrations. We assessed the longer-term effects of initial treatment with pravastatin on further cardiovascular events and mortality ...
van Dam Marjel - - 2002
Few things are better understood within the medical community than the relationship between elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, cardiovascular disease and death. There is consensus in the treatment guidelines of numerous national and international bodies that cholesterol levels in at-risk patients should be reduced to target levels ...
Heeschen Christopher - - 2002
BACKGROUND: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins) reduce cardiac event rates in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Withdrawal of chronic statin treatment during acute coronary syndromes may impair vascular function independent of lipid-lowering effects and thus increase cardiac event rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of statins on the ...
LaRosa John C - - 2002
Atherosclerosis is not an inexorable part of aging. Addressing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors will go a long way toward reducing the current burden of atherosclerosis without widespread drug therapy. The question is whether this is possible, given the demand of our modern culture. It is not yet clearly established precisely where ...
Parchure Nikhil - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae(CPn) can trigger inflammatory mechanisms that may in turn impair vascular endothelial function. The aim of the present study was to assess whether treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease and antibodies positive ...
Simes R John - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) trial showed that pravastatin significantly reduced mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) events in 9014 patients with known CHD and total cholesterol 4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L at baseline. Secondary objectives included assessment of CHD event reduction according to lipid levels. ...
Sigurdsson Emil L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of secondary prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in general practice in Iceland. SETTINGS: Two health care centers adjacent to Reykjavik with a total of 25766 inhabitants. PATIENTS: All patients (533) with CHD living in the study area were sent an invitation letter ...
Arntz Hans-Richard - - 2002
Three large secondary prevention studies have shown that, in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, statin treatment reduces the risk of further events and lowers overall mortality. In these studies, total mortality was reduced by as much as 30% in high-risk groups and 22% in average-risk groups. However, these ...
Vale Margarite J - - 2002
Community studies have demonstrated suboptimal achievement of lipid targets in the management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). An effective strategy is required for the application of evidence-based prevention therapy for CHD. The objective of this study was to test coaching as a technique to assist patients in achieving ...
Fonarow Gregg C - - 2002
After acute myocardial infarction, patients remain at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality. Despite the compelling scientific and clinical trial evidence that lipid-lowering medications reduce mortality in patients after acute myocardial infarction, this life-saving therapy continues to be underutilized. A number of studies in a variety of clinical ...
Braun Anne - - 2002
Murine models of atherosclerosis, such as the apolipoprotein E (apoE) or the LDL receptor knockout mice, usually do not exhibit many of the cardinal features of human coronary heart disease (CHD), eg, spontaneous myocardial infarction, severe cardiac dysfunction, and premature death. Here we show that mice with homozygous null mutations ...
Chan Albert W - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Long-term administration of statin therapy has been shown to reduce major coronary events and cardiac mortality within randomized clinical trials. In addition to lowering lipids, statins favorably affect platelet adhesion, thrombosis, endothelial function, inflammation, and plaque stability, which may potentially improve outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we ...
Grainger D J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate inflammation is a key mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis. Antibodies against components of the atherosclerotic lesion, in particular, oxidised low density lipoprotein, have been described. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a systemic autoimmune response, characterised by the presence of high titres of antinuclear antibodies, is associated with the ...
Papamichael Ch - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The present study was carried out to investigate risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in wives of patients with acute myocardial infarction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Risk factors for developing coronary artery disease were investigated in 50 wives of patients who developed an acute myocardial infarction (group A) and ...
Donnelly R - - 2002
Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disorder usually associated with silent or symptomatic arterial disease elsewhere in the circulation and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors inducing atheroma progression and/or thrombotic complications. Because of these strong clinical associations, especially with coronary heart disease, the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) ...
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