Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1448
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Mullenix Philip S - - 2005
Atherosclerosis has traditionally been attributed to disordered cholesterol metabolism with associated accumulation of lipid substrate in the arterial wall. It is now believed that systemic and local inflammatory events mediate all phases of plaque development, progression, and degeneration. No longer regarded as a bland, mechanical process, plaque evolution is now ...
Ostadal Petr - - 2005
Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs, highly effective in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. It has been found, however, that statins also have nonlipid effects; they can influence different pathways, which have been described to participate in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Inflammation or decreased production ...
Hayden Melvin R - - 2005
The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus), and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant--anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential ...
von Haehling S - - 2005
Statins are being hailed as the new aspirin--but are they beneficial for patients with heart failure?
Strey Christopher H - - 2005
Although not currently indicated for chronic heart failure (CHF), statins have been associated with improved outcome in retrospective analysis. However, statin therapy reduces plasma levels of coenzyme Q(10) (ubiquinone), which may have adverse effects on heart failure states. We hypothesized that atorvastatin treatment improves endothelial function in patients with chronic ...
Lauderdale Stacy A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe current data evaluating the use of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary heart disease. DATA SOURCES: A literature search using MEDLINE (1966-September 2004) was conducted using the search terms lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, coronary arteriosclerosis, and coronary disease to identify published ...
Glew Robert H - - 2004
While the incidence of infectious diseases has been on the decline in developing countries, the toll of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and myocardial infarction, has been increasing. The impression of physicians in certain regions of the western Sahel, including the state of Gombe in northeastern Nigeria, is that macrovascular disease ...
Ducharme Anique - - 2004
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Because CAD is the major cause of heart failure (HF) in developed countries, prevention of CAD may result in reduced HF. Evidence from randomized trials on lipid reduction (Cholesterol and Recurrent Events ...
Alkhenizan Abdullah H - - 2004
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Vitamin E as an anti-oxidant vitamin, was suggested to have a role in the prevention of CVD. We did a meta-analysis, using the Cochrane Group Methodology, of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the ...
Perloff Joseph K - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Dilated coronary arteries, coronary blood flow, and the paucity of coronary atherosclerosis have not been studied in cyanotic congenital heart disease. METHODS: Coronary arteriograms were interpreted in 59 cyanotic adults, and dilated coronaries were examined histologically in 6. Coronary blood flow was determined with N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography ...
Nishioka Hiroki - - 2004
BACKGROUND: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin) have been reported to decrease coronary artery events in several angiographic studies. However, the mechanism by which statin achieve this is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of statin on coronary plaque using serial intravascular ultrasound analysis. METHODS AND ...
Ray Kausik K - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The results of a landmark clinical study comparing intensive statin therapy with conventional statin therapy, in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), are reviewed. The mechanisms behind these results are analysed drawing data from vascular and cell biology. RECENT FINDINGS: The Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection ...
Balk Ethan M - - 2004
PURPOSE: Statins reduce cardiovascular events by more than can be explained by their effects on lipids. We conducted a systematic review of how statins affect vascular structure and function, differences among statins, and correlations between the effects of statins on vascular outcomes and either lipid levels or cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: ...
Ali Imtiaz S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery carries a 2-3% early mortality due in part to perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI), low-output syndrome (LOS), and arrhythmias. Statins attenuate thrombogenesis, normalize endothelial dysfunction, and mitigate the oxidative stress and reperfusion injury characteristic of such complications. We sought to determine whether preoperative statin use is associated with ...
Saliashvili Gocha - - 2004
Reduced arterial compliance is associated with arteriosclerosis. In some arteries, this is due in part to abnormal vascular tone, which can be altered by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction and statin therapy. We tested the effectiveness of statin therapy in improving arterial compliance in patients with manifest coronary disease (CAD) ...
Kayo Soichiro - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a key factor in the progression of atherosclerosis. We developed a sensitive method for measuring plasma ox-LDL levels using a novel anti-ox-LDL antibody. Recently, several studies have shown positive associations between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and coronary heart disease. Thus the question arises ...
Saab Fadi A - - 2004
The clinical benefits of statins in acute coronary syndromes are well established, but the optimal time for administration in this setting has not been well studied. In this study, patients who had acute coronary syndrome and received statins <24 hours of presentation had lower incidences of death, stroke, reinfarction, heart ...
Veverka Angie - - 2004
Current practice guidelines provide recommendations for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Following the publication of clinical trials in recent years, this review will highlight some controversial issues: the role of angiotensin and aldosterone antagonists after acute myocardial infarction; the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with stable ...
Aikawa Masanori - - 2004
Dyslipidemia plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. Vascular inflammation also triggers the onset of acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction. Advances in cardiovascular medicine demonstrate that lipid-lowering therapy by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) likely prevents acute coronary complications by ...
Larose Eric - - 2004
The endothelium integrates and modulates critical functions of the arterial wall. As well as regulating vasomotion, it controls inflammation, coagulation, and thrombosis. Many of these actions are mediated through the release of nitric oxide. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with atherosclerosis and its risk factors. It is independently correlated to adverse ...
Mital Seema - - 2004
Cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and improve symptoms of heart failure by cholesterol-independent mechanisms. Statins block the isoprenylation and function of members of the Rho GTPase family, ...
Spencer Frederick A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the non-lipid-lowering effects of statins and their effect on outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. It has been suggested that withdrawal of statin therapy during an acute coronary syndrome may attenuate any benefits of pretreatment, thereby providing indirect evidence of the importance of ...
Iribarren Carlos - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass and activity with calcified coronary plaque in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nested case-control study among CARDIA participants at the year 15 examination (2000 to 2001, 33 to 45 years old). Cases (n=266) were those with and controls (n=266) ...
Briel Matthias - - 2004
PURPOSE: To assess if lipid-lowering interventions (statins, fibrates, resins, n-3 fatty acids, diet) prevent nonfatal and fatal strokes in patients with and without coronary heart disease. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature up to August 2002 to retrieve all randomized controlled trials of lipid-lowering interventions that reported nonfatal and fatal ...
McGowan Mary P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: For a variety of reasons, many patients abruptly discontinue statin therapy. The present analysis was conducted to determine whether the risk of cardiovascular outcomes increases after withdrawal of statin therapy in a stable cardiac population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Treating to New Target (TNT) study, 2 doses of ...
Kukreja Neville - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The uptake of medical treatment in patients with coronary artery disease may be suboptimal. Our intention was to review the medical treatment of these patients in the light of current evidence. METHODS: One hundred ninety six consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease attending a tertiary centre ...
Ray Kausik K - - 2004
Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD), their acute presentations as acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and the role of LDL cholesterol. In particular there is clear evidence that atherosclerosis is far from being a process that leads to an amorphous flow ...
Calmarza Pilar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the Lp(a) concentration and the frequency distribution of the apo(a) isoforms of a myocardial infarcted male group under 60 years old and a group of healthy subjects (controls). METHODS: A total of 111 infarcted men and 99 men free from disease ...
SzczepaƄiska Kostro Jolanta - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Early atheromatic changes have been found in the carotid and the femoral arteries of young adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). It has been shown that adults with GHD have increased cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to compare atherosclerotic risk factors in children with ...
Krishnamoorthy K Mahadevan - - 2004
Statins reduce major coronary events and all-cause mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Statin therapy has a proven track record for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. The extension of the benefit to patients with acute coronary syndromes can be expected. Apart from their lipid-lowering effects, statins significantly ...
Corti Roberto - - 2004
Although a wealth of evidence supports the use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in patients with clinically evident coronary artery disease, these agents are still underutilized. Statins are the most effective agents in reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol among lipid-lowering drugs, and studies have recently shown that they improve ...
Okura Yoshifumi - - 2004
Although endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and is improved by cholesterol-lowering therapy, the relationship between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factor profiles has not been fully investigated in coronary artery disease patients who have been treated with statins. We investigated endothelial function in male hypercholesterolemic patients (n=53) ...
Ammar E M - - 2004
Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are widely abused by athletes and this abuse has been associated with many serious circulatory events including sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of chronic treatment for 16 weeks with testosterone (25mg(-1)kg(-1)week(-1)) and nandrolone (50mg(-1)kg(-1)week(-1)) on serum lipids of male hypercholesterolemic New Zealand ...
Tonelli Marcello - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular disease and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are common in people with renal insufficiency, data addressing the cardiovascular benefits of fibric acid derivatives in this population are sparse. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether gemfibrozil is effective ...
Happonen Pertti - - 2004
Heavy coffee consumption has been associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk although many studies have not observed any relation. We studied the effect of coffee consumption, assessed with a 4-d food record, on the incidence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction or coronary death in a cohort of 1971 ...
Bybee Kevin A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Statin pre-treatment has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size in animal models. We evaluated peak creatine kinase levels in humans based on concomitant or very early statin initiation following myocardial infarction. METHODS: We identified 66 consecutive patients who received a statin within 24 h of admission to our ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2004
With so many statins available for clinical use in coronary artery syndromes, there has been much discussion about which is the best. Two recent trials have compared the clinical outcomes of intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin 80 mg/day and standard lowering with pravastatin 40 mg/day. In the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin ...
Walton Kenneth G - - 2004
Because of growing evidence for stress as a major factor contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD), techniques of meditation are being increasingly used. The Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique is distinct from other techniques of meditation not only in its origin and procedure, but also in the amount and breadth of research ...
Chan Kristine Y - - 2004
PURPOSE: Clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of therapy with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors for reducing elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and associated coronary events are reviewed. SUMMARY: Atherosclerotic plaque growth may be attenuated with therapy aimed at minimizing inflammation. Because increased levels of CRP have been associated with arterial-wall ...
Aikawa Masanori - - 2004
Dyslipidemia and vascular inflammation play critical roles in the onset of acute coronary syndromes including myocardial infarction. Recent advances in cardiovascular medicine demonstrate that lipid-lowering therapy by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) prevents acute coronary complications, probably by limiting inflammation in atheroma. Although a number of studies have ...
Lazar Harold L - - 2004
Statins have been proven to prevent or delay ischemic events in patients at risk for atherosclerotic coronary disease. Increasing evidence suggests that statin therapy is also beneficial to patients undergoing coronary revascularization. In this review statin therapy will be shown to improve vein graft patency, minimize recurrent ischemic events, and ...
Matsumoto Tetsuya - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin (BK) and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in subjects with normal coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the plasma oxLDL level is a determinant of coronary endothelial function. Bradykinin plays an important role in ...
Jensen Lisette Okkels - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Angiography of the coronary arteries reflects only changes in luminal dimensions. With intravascular ultrasound, cross-sectional images can be obtained and area measurements can be added to calculate volumes of the external elastic membrane (EEM), plaque plus media (P+M), and lumen. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Olsson Anders - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the short-term healthcare costs and incremental cost per event avoided, associated with aggressive atorvastatin treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Sweden. METHODS: The total expected 16-week healthcare costs per patient on atorvastatin 80 mg per day and placebo were compared using clinical outcomes data from ...
Murtagh Blaithnead M - - 2004
We review the role of inflammation in coronary artery disease, particularly its conversion from a chronic to an acute illness. An overview is provided of the various biochemical reactions that are grouped under the heading of inflammation and which lead to the development and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease and ...
Ito Takashi - - 2004
Recently, we developed myocardial infarction-prone WHHLMI rabbits from coronary atherosclerosis-prone WHHL rabbits (WHHLCA rabbits) by selective breeding. In this study, we examined the relation of atherosclerotic plaques to the onset of myocardial infarction. We examined myocardial lesions of 378 WHHL rabbits born between 1992 and 2000, and atherosclerosis lesions of ...
Esfahani Morteza Abdar - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia has been established as a major independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, but the role of hypertriglyceridemia, is still controversial in this regard. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia has been reported to be a predisposing factor for coronary events. Present study was undertaken to assess postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in non-diabetic patients ...
Paoletti Rodolfo - - 2004
Atherosclerosis is now understood to be a disease characterized by inflammation that results in a host of complications, including ischemia, acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction), and stroke. Inflammation may be caused by a response to oxidized low-density lipoproteins, chronic infection, or other factors; and markers of ...
Ogasawara Ken - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although some reports have indicated that acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) can predict the prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the value of these markers in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) still remains obscure. Therefore, our aim was ...
Jardine Alan G - - 2004
Renal transplant recipients have a greatly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. The ALERT study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluvastatin (40-80 mg/day) in 2102 renal transplant recipients followed for 5-6 years. The main study used a composite cardiac end-point including myocardial infarction, cardiac death and cardiac ...
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