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Lee Kerry L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT) was designed to evaluate an antiarrhythmic treatment strategy, including drugs and implantable defibrillators (ICDs), guided by electrophysiological (EP) testing. We performed several statistical analyses to assess the contribution of defibrillators to the observed treatment benefit. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, the effects of defibrillators ...
Kanagaratnam Logan - - 2002
Biventricular ICDs may offer increased benefit for patients with severe congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia. Currently there are no approved dedicated biventricular ICDs available. Twenty-one consecutive patients who had approved nondedicated hardware implanted for biventricular pacing and defibrillation were included in this study. All device therapies were evaluated using ...
Jongnarangsin Krit - - 2002
A 71-year-old patient underwent routine single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator replacement. During defibrillation threshold testing, ventricular tachycardia was induced but the ICD failed twice to properly detect the tachycardia due to endocardial R wave alternans and sensing of every other beat. The problem was resolved by inserting a separate ...
Telfer Edward A - - 2002
De novo postoperative life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias are poorly understood. Long-term benefits of, and need for, treatment is uncertain. To assess the therapeutic advantage of ICD to manage new-onset, life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias after cardiac surgery. Patients included were those with an ICD implanted for de novo life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias encountered 48 ...
Saxon Leslie A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recently completed studies have evaluated the role of the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) in extending life in the letting of left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All major primary prevention ICD trials performed in the United States are reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Data to date supports the use of the ICD ...
Eftestøl Trygve - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) creates artifacts on the ECG and, with automated defibrillators, a pause in CPR is mandatory during rhythm analysis. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is reduced with increased duration of this hands-off interval in rats. We analyzed whether similar hands-off intervals in humans with ...
Kose Sedat - - 2002
Ventricular fibrillation in a patient with ventricular preexcitation is usually due to atrial fibrillation with an extremely rapid ventricular rate from which it degenerates. We present a case with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and coexistent idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. The patient, a 23-year-old male, had had a cardiac arrest four years earlier. In ...
Sorbera Carmine A - - 2002
The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is now an integral therapy for cardiac patient care. More than 20 years have passed since the first ICD implant. Sudden cardiac death from arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation) has been significantly decreased because of the use of ICD therapy. Primary treatment trials have shown ...
Eason James - - 2002
Finite element modelling of the heart for the purpose of studying the electric fields of defibrillation shocks requires knowledge of the geometry of the heart during fibrillation. However, the standard method of measuring this geometry, MRI. cannot be used during fibrillation because the heart geometry changes rapidly and perhaps unpredictably. ...
Gold Michael R - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Atrial defibrillation can be achieved with standard implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads, which has led to the development of combined atrial and ventricular devices. For ventricular defibrillation, use of an active pectoral electrode (active can) in the shocking pathway markedly reduces defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, the effect of an active ...
Pellis Tommaso - - 2002
The new Guidelines of the American Heart Association state that lay rescuers can no longer rely on the manual pulse check to confirm cardiac arrest in an unresponsive patient. We were therefore prompted to develop a method for automated determination of the presence or absence of cardiac contraction and breathing. ...
Wann Shue-ren SR - - 2002
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is generally sustained. The mechanism is, at least in part, caused by progressive accumulation of intracellular sodium and calcium ions during untreated ventricular fibrillation, which subsequently increases defibrillation threshold. Cariporide, a potent and specific inhibitor of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger, has been shown to reduce intracellular sodium and ...
Moss Arthur J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Patients with reduced left ventricular function after myocardial infarction are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an implantable defibrillator on survival in such patients. METHODS: Over the course of four years, we enrolled 1232 patients with a prior myocardial ...
Haïssaguerre Michel - - 2002
Ventricular fibrillation is the main mechanism of sudden cardiac death, but the source of its spontaneous initiation has not been mapped. 16 patients were investigated by electrography and radiofrequency ablation after resuscitation from recurrent idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Triggers of ventricular fibrillation originated from various locations within the Purkinje system in ...
Colquhoun M C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mode of cardiac arrest in patients with acute myocardial infarction attended by general practitioners, and the effectiveness of early defibrillation. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: British general practice. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners equipped with defibrillators by the British Heart Foundation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiac rhythm when first ...
Walcott Gregory P - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine if the defibrillation threshold (DFT) after spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) secondary to acute ischemia differs from the DFT for electrically induced VF in the absence of ischemia in anesthetized, closed-chest dogs and pigs. BACKGROUND: The efficacy of external defibrillators has been ...
Swygman Craig - - 2002
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have become an important therapeutic modality for patients who have had a cardiac arrest or are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Clinical trials have confirmed the role of the ICD for patients with sustained ventricular arrhythmias and have expanded the indications to include patients with ...
Coats Andrew J S - - 2002
In a press conference on Nov. 20, 2001 it was announced that the Multi-center Autonomic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II) was stopped early because of a 30% reduction in mortality in patients randomised to receive an implantable defibrillator device. The 4 year multi-centre trial of 1200 patients was terminated ...
Steinbeck Gerhard - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: The rate of implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) is growing much faster in the United States than in western Europe. Among several factors, education and awareness of the problem of sudden cardiac death might account for this discrepancy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Guidelines for ICD implantation developed in the ...
Gradaus Rainer - - 2002
Early during ventricular fibrillation, the defibrillation threshold may be low, as ventricular fibrillation most probably arises from a localized area with only a few wavefronts and the effects of global ischemia, ventricular dilatation, and sympathetic discharge have not yet fully developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the ...
Koster Rudolph W - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem. Worldwide success of resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is modest, with 5% to 10% survival to hospital discharge. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the chain of survival, early defibrillation (goal <5 min after collapse) is a major determinant of successful outcome of ...
Boriani Giuseppe - - 2002
The role of devices that deliver shock therapy for atrial fibrillation is still debated. Following technical improvements in catheter-based atrial defibrillation, implantable devices have become available either in the form of stand-alone atrial defibrillators or in the form of dual defibrillators. Although preliminary results do not support their use as ...
Lüderitz B - - 2002
The history of cardiac rhythm disorders including antiarrhythmic drugs and electrotherapeutical tools is long and fascinating. In the beginning, there was not simply the anatomy and physiology of the heart, but also analysis of the pulse, which indicates the activity of the heart. Thus, like any other field of medicine, ...
Marketou M E - - 2001
For a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, an implantable defibrillator, and amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis associated with ventricular fibrillation storm. Medical therapy was ineffective. Thyroidectomy resulted in immediate control of the arrhythmia and permitted reinitiation of amiodarone. At 18-month follow-up, the patient remained euthyroid on amiodarone and ventricular arrhythmia free.
Wang Y - - 2001
Finite-element (FE) modeling has been widely used in studies of bioelectric phenomena of tissues, including ventricular defibrillation. Most FE models, whether built from anatomical atlases or subject-specific tomographic images, treat the myocardium as an isotropic tissue. However, myocardium has been experimentally shown to have significant anisotropy in its resistivities, although ...
Favale S - - 2001
The "EGM width criterion" is a discrimination algorithm that was available in the last generation ICDs. It improved ventricular tachycardia detection by withholding inappropriate therapy deliveries in the presence of narrow QRS tachycardias. The accuracy of the algorithm depends on the optimal settings of the intracardiac EGM source, the "slew ...
Butter C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Defibrillation thresholds (DFT) with standard implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads in the right ventricle (RV) may be determined by weak shock field intensity in the myocardium of the left ventricle (LV). Adding a shocking electrode in a coronary vein on the middle of the LV free wall, thereby establishing biventricular defibrillation, ...
Sanders G D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival in patients with sustained ventricular arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy necessary to make prophylactic ICD or amiodarone therapy cost-effective in patients with myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Markov model-based cost utility analysis. DATA SOURCES: Survival, cardiac death, and inpatient ...
Achleitner U - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chest compressions before initial defibrillation attempts have been shown to increase successful defibrillation. This animal study was designed to assess whether ventricular fibrillation mean frequency after 90 s of basic life support cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be used as an indicator of coronary perfusion and mean arterial ...
Michaud G F - - 2001
According to American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Practice Guidelines, electrolyte abnormalities, including abnormal serum potassium concentrations, are considered a correctable cause of a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Ventricular defibrillator therapy in this situation is a class III indication, and thought to be ineffective and perhaps harmful, although there are minimal ...
Patwardhan A - - 2001
Cycle periods in ECG during VF are correlated with periods of reentrant activation. The ECGs recorded from different locations on the thorax were contributed to from electrical activations within the heart in approximately inverse proportion of their distance from the recording sites. Similarity in cycle periods between ECGs recorded from ...
Merkely B - - 2001
One of the most important subsystems of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the sensing stage, since it determines the sensitivity and specificity of the device to detect the heart rate and the underlying arrhythmia. This paper aims to investigate a new detection algorithm for ICD, which operates fully automatically. The ...
Hamprecht F A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive prediction of defibrillation success after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may help in determining the optimal time for a countershock, and thus increase the chance for survival. METHODS: In a porcine model (n=25) of prolonged cardiac arrest, advanced cardiac life support was provided by administration of two ...
Tang W - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of biphasic defibrillation waveforms and conventional monophasic defibrillation waveforms on the success of initial defibrillation, postresuscitation myocardial function, and duration of survival after prolonged duration of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), including the effects of epinephrine. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING: Animal laboratory and ...
Panchal V R - - 2001
A 70-year-old man with a single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placed for ventricular tachycardia presented with syncope. He was found to have ventricular flutter/fibrillation with capacitor charge time in excess of 1 minute before defibrillation. The excessive charge time was secondary to ICD capacitor malfunction. The generator was explanted and ...
Vardas P E - - 2001
AIMS: To assess the effects of atrial fibrillation duration on the defibrillation threshold in atrial fibrillation patients seconds or minutes after initiation of the arrhythmia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen patients with recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation were evaluated. After programmed induction of atrial fibrillation, the defibrillation threshold was assessed after two ...
Steinberg J S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Previous retrospective or observational series suggest that many patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) will be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) to modify the frequency or manifestation of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. The relative clinical benefit, however, is uncertain, and deleterious interactions can occur. The objective of this clinical investigation ...
Kuisma M - - 2001
Early defibrillation by emergency medical services has been a success story in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation. This success has been followed by recommendations to allow public access to defibrillation equipment. We tracked the changes in incidence of ventricular fibrillation from prospectively collected data from the Helsinki Cardiac Arrest Register. ...
Leng C T - - 2001
The authors devised a nonthoracotomy defibrillation system for a patient with a prosthetic tricuspid valve using existing technology and previously established implantation techniques. Their lead configuration deviates substantially from existing designs in its primary use of a coronary sinus defibrillation coil and a left-sided subcutaneous array to distribute current across ...
Gradaus R - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: Placement of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has been simplified by using the shell of a pectorally implanted ICD as a defibrillation electrode in combination with an endocardial right ventricular defibrillation lead. However, a sufficiently low defibrillation threshold (DFT) cannot be obtained in a few patients. Therefore, alternative approaches were ...
Everett T H - - 2001
Electrical remodeling of atrial fibrillation may account for the increase in atrial defibrillation thresholds over time. The aim of this study was to examine the time course of electrical remodeling and the benefit of early defibrillation on the defibrillation threshold. Twenty-six mongrel dogs weighing 27.6 +/- 3.3 kg were induced ...
Wang N C - - 2001
Investigators who studied ventricular defibrillation by use of optical mapping techniques failed to observe an initial defibrillation event (isoelectric window or quiescent period) shown by electrode mapping studies. This discrepancy has important implications for the mechanisms of defibrillation. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate an optical equivalent ...
Takatsuki S - - 2001
A 62 year old man was admitted for evaluation of recurrent episodes of syncope. A surface ECG showed frequent repetitive premature ventricular complexes of right ventricular outflow tract origin. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electrical stimulation but otherwise cardiac evaluation was unremarkable. A diagnosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was ...
Hauser R G - - 2001
Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the ...
Amann A - - 2001
Prediction of the success of defibrillation to avoid myocardial injury and performance feedback during CPR requires algorithms to analyze ventricular fibrillation signals. This report reviews investigations on different parameters of ventricular fibrillation electrocardiographic signals, including amplitude, frequency, bispectral analysis, amplitude spectrum area, wavelets, nonlinear dynamics, N(alpha) histograms, and combinations of ...
Malkin R A - - 2001
We present a novel measurement for studying defibrillation mechanisms: the time course of changes in the size of the left ventricular (LV) cavity within 500 ms following defibrillation. Mechanical changes can be linked to electrical mechanisms via an understanding of excitation-contraction coupling. Eight mongrel dogs were internally defibrillated 5-50 seconds ...
Mela T - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in technology, problems with effective ventricular endocardial sensing continue to arise and to result in inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient is a 79-year-old man with ischemic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia (VT) who received inappropriate ICD therapies due to lead-related noise detection. ...
Ujhelyi M R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of hypothermia on defibrillation energy requirements and cardiac electrophysiology. DESIGN: Prospective randomized acute intervention trial. SETTING: Medical center animal laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fifteen domestic farm swine. INTERVENTIONS: Swine were randomized to a hypothermia group (n = 8) or a control group (n = 7). All animals were ...
Sinha S - - 2001
Ventricular fibrillation, the major reason behind sudden cardiac death, is turbulent cardiac electrical activity in which rapid, irregular disturbances in the spatiotemporal electrical activation of the heart make it incapable of any concerted pumping action. Methods of controlling ventricular fibrillation include electrical defibrillation as well as injected medication. Electrical defibrillation, ...
Glikson M - - 2001
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have evolved from the treatment of last resort to the gold standard therapy for patients at high risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. High-risk patients include those who have survived life-threatening arrhythmias, and individuals with cardiac diseases who are at risk for such arrhythmias, but are symptomless. Use ...
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