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Results 501 - 550 of 1016
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Page R L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Passengers who have ventricular fibrillation aboard commercial aircraft rarely survive, owing to the delay in obtaining emergency care and defibrillation. METHODS: In 1997, a major U.S. airline began equipping its aircraft with automated external defibrillators. Flight attendants were trained in the use of the defibrillator and applied the device ...
Pinski S L - - 2000
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have become the dominant therapeutic modality for patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. ICDs are implanted using techniques similar to standard pacemaker implantation. They not only provide high-energy shocks for ventricular fibrillation and rapid ventricular tachycardia, but also provide antitachycardia pacing for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and antibradycardia pacing. ...
Knisley S B - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Effects of a conductive bath and electrode-myocardial separation on cardiac stimulation have not been elucidated. These factors may play a role in endocardial catheter stimulation or defibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied effects of a bath and separation on transmembrane voltage changes during stimulation (deltaVm) and excitation thresholds in ...
Roberts P R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the defibrillation efficacy of a novel lead system placed in the middle cardiac vein with a conventional non-thoracotomy lead system. METHODS: In eight pigs (weighing 35-71 kg), an electrode was advanced transvenously to the right ventricular apex (RV), with the proximal electrode in the superior caval vein ...
Chattipakorn N - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Ventricular defibrillation is probabilistic and shock strength dependent. We investigated the relationship between defibrillation outcome and postshock activation patterns for shocks of the same strength (approximately 50% probability of success for defibrillation [ED50] to yield an equal number of successful and failed shocks). METHODS AND RESULTS: In five pigs, ...
Oechslin E N - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe characteristics and outcome in adults with isolated ventricular noncompaction (IVNC). BACKGROUND: Isolated ventricular noncompaction is an unclassified cardiomyopathy due to intrauterine arrest of compaction of the loose interwoven meshwork. Knowledge regarding diagnosis, morbidity and prognosis is limited. METHODS: Echocardiographic criteria for IVNC include-in the absence ...
Auricchio A - - 2000
Cardiac arrhythmias are very common in the setting of heart failure, with atrial and ventricular arrhythmias often present in the same patient. The risk and the benefit of antiarrhythmic therapies are still a matter of debate. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided in patients with heart failure, cardiac ischemia, ...
Timmermans C - - 2000
An atrial defibrillator was implanted in a patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, associated cardiac abnormalities, and persistent atrial arrhythmias. During a 15-month follow-up, 14 of 20 spontaneous episodes of his arrhythmias were successfully treated with the device. Two of these episodes were converted to sinus rhythm ...
Lin Y C - - 2000
Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) is extremely rare in children who have not previously undergone cardiac surgery. Patients resuscitated from idiopathic VF remain at risk for recurrence. The use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) effectively prevents such recurrences. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had a history of ...
Gatzoulis K - - 2000
Naxos disease is a unique form of right ventricular cardiomyopathy with a high prevalence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, including sudden cardiac death. As a hereditary systemic disease confined to a small island, it has been closely studied over the last 15 years. The implantation of an automatic defibrillator provides an ...
Leng C T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Survival after prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) appears severely limited by 2 major factors: (1) low defibrillation success rates and (2) persistent post-countershock myocardial dysfunction. Biphasic (BP) waveforms may prove capable of favorably modifying these limitations. However, they have not been rigorously tested against monophasic (MP) waveforms in clinical models ...
Moulton C - - 2000
Defibrillation is the only reliable treatment for ventricular fibrillation. Its success depends on the passage of an adequate current through the chest rather than on the administration of a preset energy. The final determinant of both efficacy and cellular damage is myocardial current density. Therefore, the current should be evenly ...
Sims J J - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Increased spatial electrical heterogeneity has been associated with impaired defibrillation efficacy. The current study investigated the relationship between electrical heterogeneity and defibrillation efficacy by manipulating spatial electrical heterogeneity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We increased spatial electrical heterogeneity by infusing potassium chloride (2 to 4 mEq/hour) or placebo in the left ...
Tovar O H - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: The probability of survival decreases to 70% after 2 minutes of ventricular fibrillation. Biphasic shocks are more effective than monophasic shocks in terminating short-duration (<30 sec) ventricular fibrillation. We tested the hypotheses that developing ischemia changes the electrophysiologic characteristics of fibrillation and that the relative efficacy of biphasic shocks ...
Gold M R - - 2000
Remarkable progress has been made in the 15 years since ICD therapy was approved for human use. The early "shock boxes" had almost no diagnostic capabilities and required thoracotomy for epicardial patch implantation with typical duration of hospitalization of about a week. Pulse-generator longevity was less than 2 years. Modern ...
Sheldon R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Patients with resuscitated ventricular tachyarrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation) benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) compared with medical therapy. We hypothesized that the patients who benefit most from an ICD are those at greatest risk of death. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study (CIDS), 659 patients with resuscitated ...
Sticherling C - - 2000
A well described interaction between an antibradycardia pacemaker and a ventricular defibrillator is sensing of pacemaker stimuli by the ventricular defibrillator. This report describes an interaction between an atrial demand pacemaker and a ventricular defibrillator that resulted in ventricular asystole and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this case, the ventricular defibrillator ...
Chalvidan T - - 2000
A patient with Brugada syndrome experienced incessant ventricular fibrillation 7 years after implantation of an ICD. General anesthesia, fast ventricular pacing, bretylium, and atenolol infusion were ineffective; amiodarone infusion was started. After 190 defibrillation shocks over 36 hours, the electrical storm stopped. A multiorgan failure occurred as a complication of ...
Rubin A - - 2000
Although sudden cardiac death is rare in sports, having an automated external defibrillator (AED) available facilitates early defibrillation and increases the chance of survival for an athlete in cardiac arrest. The decision to buy an AED involves many factors, and physicians and other personnel who work with athletes should be ...
Naccarelli G V - - 2000
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used in the treatment of supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This article reviews the results and clinical implications of primary and secondary prevention trials in which amiodarone was used in one of the treatment arms. Key post-myocardial infarction primary prevention trials include the European Myocardial ...
Gold M R - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Lead systems that include an active pectoral pulse generator are now standard for initial defibrillator implantations. However, the optimal transvenous lead system and coil location for such active can configurations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit and optimal position of a superior vena ...
Ayers G M - - 2000
External cardioversion of AF is an established and accepted method for termination of individual episodes of AF. Recent advances have taken place in the area of non-pharmacologic management of AF, and despite its long history and well established technique, defibrillation has not been spared from these advances. The success of ...
Chinushi M - - 1999
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was implanted in 2 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia related to old myocardial infarction, and defibrillation tests were attempted at the time of ICD implantation and at 2 or 4 weeks after the operation. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced by T-wave shocks, but the amplitude of ...
Mittal S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficacy of a novel rectilinear biphasic waveform, consisting of a constant current first phase, with a damped sine wave monophasic waveform during transthoracic defibrillation. BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown that for endocardial defibrillation, biphasic waveforms have a greater efficacy than monophasic waveforms. More recently, a 130-J ...
Mattioni T A - - 1999
Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia remains a significant problem in the in-hospital setting. Although the probability of survival is closely correlated with the rapidity of a response by qualified personnel, response times can be prolonged, even in specialized care units. In an effort to decrease response time, a ...
Trohman RG - - 1999
Despite recurrences of ventricular tachycardia, patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia have a favorable prognosis with medical therapy. Because of the low incidence of arrhythmic death and the problems involved in identifying patients at high risk, it is difficult to evaluate the benefits of interventional therapies (ablation, surgery, and implantable ...
Gradaus R - - 1999
Hardware-related complications in implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) are still a common problem. Identifying underlying reasons becomes more and more difficult as the complexity of ICD systems increases. We report a patient with a dual chamber ICD (DDD-ICD) who suffered multiple complications. These included: ventricular oversensing causing inappropriate shocks and episodes of ...
Wang Y - - 1999
Increasing defibrillation efficacy by lowering the defibrillation threshold (DFT) is an important goal in positioning implantable cardioverter-defibrillator electrodes. Clinically, the DFT is difficult to estimate noninvasively. It has been suggested that the DFT relates to the myocardial voltage gradient distribution, but this relation has not been quantitatively demonstrated. We analyzed ...
Kyle J M - - 1999
Fatalities during sports participation are usually cardiac in origin. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) from ventricular fibrillation has been reported in several sporting venues over the last decade. Successful treatment of stadium SCA requires a rapid response team equipped with defibrillator capabilities. The use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by responders ...
Peters R W - - 1999
Previous studies have shown that life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias display both circadian and septadian (day of the week) periodicity. We hypothesized that assessing the relation between these circadian and septadian rhythms may provide important pathophysiologic information about the mechanism of sudden cardiac death. Using the database from a population of 683 ...
Dhala A - - 1999
Because of the high incidence of heart disease in the elderly, ventricular tachyarrhythmias are not infrequent. Determining the nature and extent of the underlying heart disease and identifying precipitating causes is required prior to instituting long-term therapy. Recent studies suggest that for hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhythmias, mortality is lower with ...
Geelen P - - 1999
In patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and myocardial ischemia due to multivessel coronary artery disease, it remains unclear whether revascularization is enough to control the arrhythmias or whether additional implantation of a defibrillator is indicated. We therefore reviewed our clinical strategy of performing both bypass surgery and implantation of a ...
Cooklin M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare transvenous atrial defibrillation thresholds with lead configurations consisting of an active left pectoral electrode and either single or dual transvenous coils. BACKGROUND: Low atrial defibrillation thresholds are achieved using complex lead systems including coils in the coronary sinus. However, the efficacy ...
Le Franc P - - 1999
Despite a growing number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead removal indications, there is no consensus about extraction techniques. We applied our experience of pacemaker lead removal to ICD leads using a superior approach with a standard extractor kit, and an inferior approach with a lasso, or a surgical extraction. Fifteen ...
Birgersdotter-Green U - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) is the stimulus strength above which ventricular fibrillation cannot be induced, even when the stimulus occurs during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. Determination of ULV using T-wave shocks during ventricular pacing has been shown to closely correlate with the defibrillation threshold ...
Shohat-Zabarski R - - 1999
A 58-year-old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. The postoperative course was complicated by perforation of the right ventricular free wall by the active fixation transvenous ICD lead. The type of ICD lead and the type of organic heart disease are apparently important risk factors for ...
Fogoros R N - - 1999
Evidence from recent randomized clinical trials now strongly supports the use of the implantable defibrillator, as treatment of first choice, in patients who have experienced symptomatic, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Little or no controversy remains on this question, either among physicians or third-party players. The evidence-based use of the defibrillator as ...
Walker S - - 1999
We report a case of fully transvenous single-unit biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use in a 43-year-old woman with a manifesting carrier form of muscular dystrophy (Emery-Dreifuss syndrome). The indication for biventricular ICD use was progressive heart failure with ventricular arrhythmia, permanent atrial fibrillation and previous VVIR pacemaker insertion. Single-unit ...
Wilbur S L - - 1999
Over the past few years, remarkable advances in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death have occurred. One of the most significant treatment modalities has been the addition of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Because of the rapidly expanding indications for ICD therapy, it is common for ...
Alexander R E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: More than 350,000 adult Americans die each year of sudden cardiac arrest, or SCA. The event is unpredictable and can occur in patients with no history of cardiac disease or cardiac symptoms. Drugs and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, save only a small percentage of victims. The necessary response is ...
Lerman RD - - 1999
Survivors of an episode of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (not due to a reversible cause) or hemodynamically significant sustained ventricular tachycardia should in most cases receive an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) rather than antiarrhythmic drug therapy. A number of recently published clinical trials (summarized later) point to improved survival with ICD ...
Sticherling C - - 1999
AIMS: The need for physiological pacing and for improving the ability to discriminate atrial from ventricular tachyarrhythmias has prompted the development of dual chamber implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs). METHODS: Fifty-two patients were implanted with a newly developed dual-chamber ICD providing rate-responsive physiological pacing (Ventak AV II DR). The device possesses two ...
Yamanouchi Y - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: A single lead active can configuration has been widely used in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Occasionally, however, such a defibrillation lead configuration may not achieve adequate defibrillation threshold (DFT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether addition of a left ventricular (LV) lead can improve defibrillation ...
Fotuhi P C - - 1999
Today, transthoracic and intracardiac defibrillation offer a well-accepted and widely used form of therapy for patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Despite the wide clinical use of defibrillators, the mechanisms by which an electrical shock halts fibrillation are still not completely understood. During a shock, different amounts of current flow through ...
Heisel A - - 1999
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an extremely common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. Because of the limited efficacy of traditional therapeutic strategies to restore and maintain normal sinus rhythm, several nonpharmacologic options have evolved. The promising results achieved with internal atrial defibrillation have facilitated the development of an implantable atrial defibrilator. ...
Böcker D - - 1999
Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation account for a substantial proportion of all deaths in patients with heart failure. Of currently available therapies, amiodarone and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) appear to have the greatest potential to decrease sudden death in heart failure. In this article, the presently available information on ...
Amaya S C - - 1999
Ultrasonography in the emergency department is being used for many purposes, including the evaluation of patients with cardiac arrest. Ultrasound testing has been shown to be useful in such patients in determining the presence of true electromechanical dissociation and pericardial effusions. We report a case of ventricular fibrillation identified by ...
Tachibana H - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model in which ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be induced reproducibly and defibrillation can be accomplished repeatedly. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) was cannulated and perfused with blood from the carotid artery in eleven open-chest dogs. Electrodes of the internal ...
Wolk R - - 1999
Moxonidine has been shown to be antiarrhythmic during ischaemia in vivo. This study aimed to investigate its electrophysiological effects in isolated working rabbit hearts in vitro. Monophasic action potential duration, effective refractory period and conduction delay were measured at three ventricular sites. The hearts were treated before and during ischaemia ...
Dhala A - - 1999
Because of the high incidence of heart disease in the elderly, ventricular tachyarrhythmias are not infrequent. Determining the nature and extent of the underlying heart disease and identifying precipitating causes is required prior to instituting long-term therapy. Recent studies suggest that for hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhythmias, mortality is lower with ...
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