Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1851
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Naya Takayuki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cardioembolic stroke generally results in severer disability, since it typically has a larger ischemic area than the other types of ischemic stroke. However, it is difficult to differentiate cardioembolic from noncardioembolic stroke (atherothrombotic and lacunar stroke), whenever ischemic stroke patients have sinus rhythm at the time of presentation. METHODS: ...
Mark Victor W - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total cerebral infarction volume on motor status and treatment responses to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in patients with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis and limb nonuse. In most studies of clinical-radiological correspondences, infarct volume has been found to predict clinical status. METHODS: 60 adult patients ...
Emsley Hedley C A - - 2008
Thrombolysis heralded a new era of acute intervention for ischemic stroke, accompanied by an increasing need for comprehensive acute critical care support. There remains the prospect of novel cerebral protection strategies. Cerebral ischemia initiates a complex cascade of events at genomic, molecular, and cellular levels, and inflammation is important in ...
Galan Pilar - - 2008
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, many basic and clinical research have pointed to the role of B vitamins (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and n-3 fatty acids as nutritional factors that might have a protective effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS/DESIGN: The SU.FOL.OM3 (SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin ...
Ren Chuancheng - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We and others have reported that rapid ischemic postconditioning, interrupting early reperfusion after stroke, reduces infarction in rats. However, its extremely short therapeutic time windows, from a few seconds to minutes after reperfusion, may hinder its clinical translation. Thus, in this study we explored if delayed postconditioning, which is ...
Lai Shiao-Lin - - 2008
Background and Purpose: Stroke risk factors and subtypes were examined for associations with mortality and recurrence rate in Taiwanese patients with first-ever and recurrent stroke. Methods: This study examined patients with initial and recurrent stroke from 2003 to 2005 for risk factors, demographic data, Bamford subtypes and transient ischemic attack. ...
Lee Hyung - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the frequency and origin of sudden deafness (SD) associated with the nonanterior inferior cerebellar artery (non-AICA) territory posterior circulation infarct(s), and the vascular topographical patterns of ischemic lesion associated with SD. METHODS: A total of 685 consecutive cases of vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke diagnosed by brain MRI from ...
Nagano Keiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Echogenicity of carotid plaque well reflects the risk of ischemic stroke and may be predictive of the histologic content of the plaque. However, objective evaluation of plaque echogenicity has been hampered by a lack of established quantitative measures. This study examined the relation between echogenicity assessed by ...
Cherubini A - - 2008
Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and severe disability in industrialised countries and also in many developing countries. An excessive amount of free radicals is generated during cerebral ischemia, which significantly contributes to brain damage. Therefore, an increasing interest has been devoted to the potential benefits of ...
Nagakane Yoshinari - - 2008
AIMS: To find neurological or neuroimaging signs to predict neurological deterioration in acute lacunar infarctions. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive patients with a supratentorial lacunar infarct, who were admitted within 48 h, were studied retrospectively. Progressive-type stroke (PS) was defined as progressive motor deficits that arose within 7 days after onset, by ...
Ramos-Est?banez Ciro - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the natural history of the prodromal stages of ischemic vascular dementia (pVaD). METHODS: A sample of 314 inpatients with pVaD or a clini- cal diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD; lacunar state, Binswanger's disease, pure cortical VaD, corticosubcortical and strategic infarctions) admitted to a teaching tertiary center during ...
Kang Bong-Su - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The annual risk of stroke or cardiovascular events has been reported to be over 10% in middle cerebral artery stenosis. However, the prognosis of patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) remains unclear. We investigated the risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic MCAO. ...
Simundic Ana-Maria - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that serum lipids measured in the early period of stroke are predictive of stroke severity and outcome. The optimal time for lipid measurement is not established. We explored whether lipid profile assessed within the first 24 h after stroke onset: (i) differs from that in ...
Lee Kyung Bok - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aims of our study were to elucidate the differences in the distribution of acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions involving the striatocapsular region and to compare those following embolic striatocapsular infarctions with those originating from MCA disease (MCAD). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with acute large ...
Micheli Sara - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is the most common source of cardiac embolism with a high reported risk of stroke and a high stroke-related mortality. A common clinical dilemma in patients with acute stroke is whether the detection of one of the major cardiac sources of emboli requires an early anticoagulation ...
Leira E C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Emergency treatment of ischemic stroke should ideally be mechanism specific, but acute subtype diagnosis is problematic. Since different subtypes often are associated with specific patterns of neurological deficits, we hypothesize that scores on baseline NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) items may help emergently stratify patients by their probability of having ...
Lee Seung-Jae - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) share some common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, brain injury has been associated with abnormalities of heart function such as increased cardiac enzymes and EKG changes. However, there is little information on patients with post-stroke MI. In this study, ...
Rincon Fred - - 2008
Stroke is the most common life-threatening neurological disorder. Based on limited acute therapies, clinicians have opted to focus on preventive strategies to limit its recurrence. Targets for prevention include modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, obesity, alcohol use, and physical inactivity among others. The American ...
Nicholas J S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Treatment with statins reduces infarct volume in animal models of ischemic stroke, independently of the effect on cholesterol. This study examined this effect in humans by testing whether patients taking statins at onset of ischemic stroke had smaller infarct volumes than those not taking statins. METHODS: The study design ...
Liang Zhijian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Secondary degeneration following supratentorial stroke has been detected by some studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but the anterograde and retrograde degeneration in pyramidal tract after pontine infarction and its potential clinical significance are not well understood. METHODS: Fourteen patients with a recent pontine infarct underwent three DTIs at ...
Schwertz Dorie W - - 2008
It has been shown that HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors (statins) lower the incidence of a first stroke in patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether statin therapy could reduce the incidence of a second stroke in patients without ...
Buck Brian H - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few data exist on the relationship between differential subpopulations of peripheral leukocytes and early cerebral infarct size in ischemic stroke. Using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), we assessed the relationship of early total and differential peripheral leukocyte counts and volume of ischemic tissue in acute stroke. METHODS: All ...
Coca Antonio - - 2008
Our understanding of factors influencing stroke risk among patients with coronary artery disease is incomplete. Accordingly, factors predicting stroke risk in hypertensive, clinically stable coronary artery disease patients were determined with data from the INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST). The effect of baseline characteristics and on-treatment blood pressure (BP) were ...
van Wijk I - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Published data suggest that patients with cerebral ischaemia and atrial fibrillation (CIAF) have higher inhospital mortality than patients with cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (CIAO). Data on long term risks are scarce. We compared the long term risks of death and vascular events (VE) between these groups. ...
Kelly Peter J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental stroke studies indicate that oxidative stress is a major contributing factor to ischemic cerebral injury. Oxidative stress is also implicated in activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and blood-brain barrier injury after ischemia-reperfusion. Plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress may have utility as early indicators of efficacy in ...
Seretis K - - 2007
AIM: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the gold standard for the treatment of carotid stenosis, but carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as a potential less invasive therapeutic alternative to patients who would otherwise be considered as high risk for open surgery. The aim of this review was to pool ...
Ong Cheung-Ter - - 2007
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Silent infarcts (SIs) are commonly found in brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of elderly subjects. However, the prevalence of this silent infarction (SI) and risk factors for this entity are not entirely known. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of silent infarcts in ...
Iranmanesh Farhad - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lacunar infarcts are small deep infarcts resulting from an occlusion of a perforating artery, and account for about a quarter of all ischemic strokes. Some new investigations indicate that subcortical lacunar lesions may have a greater chance of causing a progressive cerebral stroke than deep lacunar lesions ...
Dellagrammaticas D - - 2007
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is of benefit for stroke prevention in the presence of severe carotid stenosis, provided surgical morbidity and mortality are acceptably low. To assess the current performance of CEA in the UK, an interim analysis of 30-day postoperative outcome data, blinded to anaesthetic allocation, from the first 1,001 ...
Staals Julie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Mortality studies in lacunar (LAC) stroke are scarce and often characterized by short follow-up time, small patient groups and absence of a nonlacunar stroke group for comparison. Besides, there are no separate long-term prognostic data on LAC stroke subtypes. We performed a long-term mortality study in LAC stroke, subtyping ...
Kinlay Scott - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute coronary syndromes have an increased risk of stroke. We measured markers of inflammation in the MIRACL study, a randomized trial of atorvastatin versus placebo in acute coronary syndromes, to assess the relationship of inflammation to stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A ...
Duffis Ennis J - - 2007
Neurological complications of coronary angiographic procedures are uncommon, varied and can include central nervous toxicity caused by contrast agents (contrast reactions), as well as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. These complications are rare; however, more recent data derived from neuroimaging studies suggest that there is a higher incidence of 'silent' ischemic ...
Sharma Jagdish C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Measures of damage limitation for acute stroke have not produced substantial benefit to reduce stroke mortality. Search continues for measures to reduce stroke mortality. METHODS: Literature review for influence of cardiovascular factors, specifically the value of NT proBNP (a sensitive index of cardiac impairment) for stroke mortality. RESULTS: Cardiovascular ...
Anyanwu Ani C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of the epidemiology of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been based primarily on patients having coronary bypass surgery and therefore have limited applicability to the more heterogenous populations seen in the current era. We examine the epidemiology of stroke after cardiac surgery in a contemporary ...
Mehdiratta M - - 2007
Complications of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for acute stroke are commonly related to hemorrhage, anaphylaxis, or arterial re-occlusion. Embolic complications of t-PA are beginning to be recognized with increased use of t-PA for acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesize that disruption of intra-cardiac thrombus may result in ...
Mach F - - 2008
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is the primary cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, which occur after sudden thrombotic occlusion of an artery. A growing body of evidence suggests that cannabinoid signalling plays a fundamental role in atherosclerosis development and its clinical manifestations. Thus, CB2 receptors are protective ...
Van der Heyden Jan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The strategy for treating patients with severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and cardiac disease remains unresolved. Staged or combined carotid endarterectomy in these patients offers the potential benefit of decreased neurological morbidity during and after cardiac surgery; however, in high-risk patients with severe coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
Alberts M J - - 2007
Stroke remains a global leading cause of death and long-term disability, highlighting the need for more effective treatment approaches. The majority of strokes are of ischemic origin, often caused by large- or small-artery atherothrombosis, or cardioembolism. Considering the systemic nature of the atherothrombotic disease process, stroke patients are at increased ...
Sallustio Fabrizio - - 2007
Ischemic stroke is the third cause of death and the most common cause of neurological disability. A main target of treatment is the still salvageable tissue surrounding the core of infarction and called "ischemic penumbra". Up to now the only drug approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is ...
Nakase Taizen - - 2007
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are reported to regulate mitochondrial respiration and energy metabolism during hibernation. Recently, it has been reported that UCP2 and UCP5 might reduce free radical stress in the ischemic condition in in vitro models, suggesting both as potential neuroprotective agents. We therefore investigated the levels of UCP2 and ...
Johnston Samuel Lewis - - 2007
A 64-year-old man who had received a lung transplant later presented with an air embolism that caused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, multiple strokes, and death. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to document air bubbles crossing from a bronchial fistula to a pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. Spontaneous air was ...
Jüttler Eric - - 2007
Stroke is a leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability in adults in Western countries and has an enormous socioeconomic impact. Among all stroke subtypes, intracerebral hemorrhage is the deadliest form, especially in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage. In recent years, intracerebral hemorrhage has become a major ...
Tanaka Yu - - 2007
Previous studies have described microvascular disturbances downstream of occluded large vessels arising during the acute phase (several hours) following cerebral ischemic insult. Prolonged microvascular disturbances may cause delayed neuronal cell death in ischemic penumbral regions, leading to expanded brain infarctions and poor neurological and functional outcomes. The lack of simple ...
Ay Hakan - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The SSS-TOAST is an evidence-based classification algorithm for acute ischemic stroke designed to determine the most likely etiology in the presence of multiple competing mechanisms. In this article, we present an automated version of the SSS-TOAST, the Causative Classification System (CCS), to facilitate its utility in multicenter ...
Castilla Guerra Luis - - 2008
Historically, the etiological link between hypercholesterolemia and stroke has been less clear than for coronary heart disease. The lack of association between cholesterol levels and stroke in most epidemiological and observational studies has brought about this controversy. Many recent, long-term clinical studies have confirmed that statin therapy results in a ...
Ovbiagele Bruce - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Conflicting data exist on the role of antiplatelet agents in reducing incident ischemic stroke magnitude, but most prior studies used clinically-assessed neurologic deficit as the index of stroke extent rather than more precise volumetric measurements of infarct size. We assessed the relation of premorbid antiplatelet use to initial diffusion-weighted ...
Rickhag Mattias - - 2008
Injury to the brain (e.g., stroke) results in a disruption of neuronal connectivity and loss of fundamental sensori-motor functions. The subsequent recovery of certain functions involves structural rearrangements in areas adjacent to the infarct. This remodeling of the injured brain requires trafficking of macromolecular components including cholesterol and phospholipids, a ...
Risty Gina M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Carotid-subclavian bypass (CSB) and carotid-subclavian transposition (CST) have excellent long-term patency with low perioperative mortality and morbidity. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is necessary for severe ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis in a small subset of these patients. CEA can be performed as a combined or separate procedure. This study was ...
Verma R - - 2007
Stroke or cerebrovascular disease is one of the most important causes of high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Stroke in young individuals poses a major problem as these individuals are bread earners of the family. Ischaemic strokes are increasingly being attributed to causes other than atherothrombotic disease. Disorders of ...
Spence J David - - 2007
On the basis of the results of several recent clinical trials, many researchers have concluded that vitamin therapy designed to lower total homocysteine concentrations is not effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. However, whereas almost all myocardial infarctions are due to plaque rupture, stroke has many more pathophysiological ...
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