Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1849
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Fink John N - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The influence of stroke lateralization on functional and cardiovascular outcome after stroke is not well established. We evaluated the influence of hemispheric lateralization among patients enrolled in prospective acute stroke trials. METHODS: We obtained data from the VISTA database for acute stroke trials which reported lateralization. Baseline ...
Yoon Sa Rah - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) infarct patterns can play a useful role in the management of ischemic stroke patients, particularly in identifying index stroke mechanisms. Novel vascular risk factors like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the metabolic syndrome have recently been shown to be of prognostic importance following ischemic stroke. ...
Petrazzi Luisa - - 2008
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) treatment but have also been tested in cardiovascular prevention. DMT2 is associated with a marked increment in cardiovascular risk, and its prevention represents a main target in cardiometabolic protection. Both Troglitazone (Troglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes study) and ...
Reeves Barnaby C - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Literature since 2006 was reviewed to identify the harms and costs of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies, in people having various cardiac surgery operations, found strong associations of RBC transfusion with mortality and postoperative morbidity. The effect on mortality was strongest close to ...
Garrett Matthew C - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that patients with increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) have a substantially increased risk of stroke as a result of hemodynamic insufficiency. These patients appear to be ideal candidates for extracranial (EC)-intracranial (IC) bypass. The feasibility of this screening ...
Goldstein Larry B - - 2008
Clinical trials and observational studies provide evidence for a wide range of interventions of proven value for preventing a first or recurrent stroke. The available data indicate that strategies for primordial, primary and secondary stroke prevention are not being optimally implemented. Although specific estimates are difficult to calculate, the impact ...
Freeman William D - - 2008
The frequency of cardioembolic stroke is expected to rise as the general population ages. Much of the increase may be attributed to atrial fibrillation, the most common cause of cardioembolic stroke and one that plays a substantial role in aging adults. Other sources of cardioembolic stroke may include ventricular thrombus ...
Siccoli M M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were 1) to better characterize central periodic breathing during sleep (CPBS) and its clinical relevance in acute stroke, 2) to better define the role of brain damage in its pathogenesis. METHODS: We included 74 consecutive patients admitted within 96 hours after stroke onset. Stroke ...
Castellanos M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Excitotoxic and inflammatory mechanisms have been demonstrated as mediating early neurologic deterioration (END) in patients with cerebral infarction. Here we investigate whether molecular markers associated with END are related to the volume and outcome of the diffusion weighted image (DWI) lesion in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: MRI was performed ...
Saczynski Jane S JS Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. - - 2008
Given the improved survival of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), more patients are at risk for cerebrovascular complications of AMI. Trends in the magnitude of stroke in the setting of AMI are not well characterized, however, and neither have contemporary trends in the hospital death rates of patients developing ...
Sato Shoichiro - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan approved the use of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in October 2005. The impact of the regulatory approval of rt-PA on the processes of acute stroke management was examined. METHODS: A ...
Ay Hakan - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Predictive instruments based on clinical features for early stroke risk after transient ischemic attack suffer from limited specificity. We sought to combine imaging and clinical features to improve predictions for 7-day stroke risk after transient ischemic attack. METHODS: We studied 601 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attack ...
Halm Ethan A - - 2009
The benefit of carotid endarterectomy is heavily influenced by the risk of perioperative death or stroke. This study developed a multivariable model predicting the risk of death or stroke within 30 days of carotid endarterectomy. The New York Carotid Artery Surgery (NYCAS) Study is a population-based cohort of 9308 carotid ...
Takayama Kenshi - - 2008
We propose a sketch-based interface for modeling the myocardial fiber orientation required in the electrophysiological simulation of the heart, especially the ventricles. The user can create a volumetric vector field that represents the myocardial fiber orientation in two steps. First, a depth field over the three-dimensional (3D) ventricular model is ...
Murata Yoshihiro - - 2008
Thrombolysis with tPA is the only FDA-approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. But its widespread application remains limited by narrow treatment time windows and the related risks of cerebral hemorrhage. In this study, we ask whether minocycline can prevent tPA-associated cerebral hemorrhage and extend the reperfusion window in an experimental ...
Micieli Giuseppe - - 2008
Signs and symptoms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction are frequently reported after ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke and in many cases they exhibit peculiar patterns in relationship with the site and the extension of brain lesion. However if an ANS disorder can cause or predispose to a stroke is far ...
Sillesen Henrik - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial found that treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per day reduced the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. We hypothesized this benefit would be greatest in ...
Chen Jian - - 2009
Interventional management of acute stroke can significantly increase recanalization rate of the occluded artery, however, this improvement is achieved at the expense of an increased incidence in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, which may markedly reduce the therapeutic benefit of this treatment. Hypothermia is one of the most promising neuroprotective approaches studied. ...
Saposnik Gustavo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Little is known about stroke mechanisms in patients with fluctuating symptoms and the role of branch atherosclerotic disease. OBJECTIVE: To report a novel stroke presentation associated with a paramedian pontine infarct due to branch disease with a fluctuating course. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Academic research. Patient A 63-year-old man ...
Kumar Sudhir - - 2008
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved treatment for AIS, is received by less than 2% of patients. Moreover, there is a slight increase in hemorrhagic complications with thrombolysis. Therefore, there is a need for ...
Gretarsdottir Solveig - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To find sequence variants that associate with the risk for ischemic stroke (IS), we performed a genome-wide association study. METHODS: We genotyped 1,661 Icelandic IS patients and 10,815 control subjects using the Infinium HumanHap300 chip (Illumina, San Diego, CA). A total of 310,881 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested ...
Shen Qiang - - 2008
Accurate prediction of ischemic tissue fate could aid clinical decision-making in the treatment of acute stroke. We investigated predictions of tissue fate for three (30-min, 60-min and permanent) stroke models in rats. Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and spin-spin relaxation time constant (T(2)) were acquired during ...
Sundar Uma - - 2008
AIMS: The study aimed at correlation of post-stroke dysphagia with area and volume of infarct/ bleed, and with subsequent in-hospital respiratory morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients of acute stroke were serially recruited. Standard Staff swallowing assessment was performed within 24 hours of admission along with pulse oximetry. ...
Park Key-Chung - - 2008
Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the aorta and its main branches, and a well known cause of stroke. Pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke has been attributed to intracranial vasculitic involvement or emboli from either stenoocclusive extracranial vessels or cardiac disease such as aortic regurgitation. We present a patient ...
Kumar Anil - - 2008
Strokes, or brain attacks, which occur due to an interruption of blood flow in discrete regions of the brain, are a major cause of death. Stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability in developed nations. The complex pathophysiology of this medical problem includes excitotoxicity mechanisms, inflammatory pathways, ...
Jang Sung Ho - - 2008
We investigated whether the integrity of the corticospinal tract classified by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) can predict the motor outcome in 25 patients with pontine infarct. DTTs were obtained in the early stage of stroke (5-30 days) and were classified into two groups (type A: the integrity of corticospinal tract ...
Serena Joaquín J Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Dr Josep Trueta, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona, Girona, Spain. - - 2008
Few studies have prospectively examined the risk of recurrent stroke associated with patent foramen ovale. We present the results of the Spanish right-to-left shunt (RLSh) multicenter study. Four hundred eighty-six patients with cryptogenic stoke were included at 17 participating hospitals. Patients were examined by contrast transcranial Doppler methods at baseline. ...
Mas Jean-Louis - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Carotid stenting is a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy but whether this technique is as safe as surgery and whether the long-term protection against stroke is similar to that of surgery are unclear. We previously reported that in patients in the Endarterectomy Versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe ...
Barreto Andrew D - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have established a relation between recanalization and improved clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients; however, intra-arterial clot size has not been routinely assessed. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of intra-arterial thrombus burden on intra-arterial treatment (IAT) and clinical outcome. METHODS: ...
Wen Wanqing - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Studies of the lifestyle predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been predominantly conducted in Caucasian populations. There are few data from other populations, such as Chinese men, who have different lifestyles and a different spectrum of CVD as compared with Caucasian populations. METHODS: Based on the baseline data of ...
Kawano Hiroyuki - - 2008
Dysfunction of cardiovascular regulation, including arterial hypotension, is a rare complication of acute ischemic stroke. We report a patient with an acute pontomedullary infarction who frequently had severe hypotensive episodes. A 78-year-old diabetic man suddenly developed faintness and left hemiparesis. MRI revealed a fresh infarct at the right pontomedullary region, ...
Della Morte David - - 2008
Several studies suggest transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be neuroprotective against ischemic stroke analogous to preinfarction angina's protection against acute myocardial infarction. However, this protective ischemic preconditioning-like effect may not be present in all ages, especially among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect ...
Fisher Marc - - 2008
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common disorder that has only one associated approved therapy: intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (iv t-PA). A limiting factor to the use of iv t-PA is that it must be initiated within 3 h of stroke onset. Efforts to expand the therapeutic time window are ...
Moon Heui-Soo - - 2008
Progression of motor deficits in the acute period is frequently observed in patients with subcortical striatocapsular infarctions. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with early motor progression in patients with infarcts confined to the striatocapsular region. We studied 80 consecutive patients with striatocapsular-region infarction, as defined by clinical ...
Fitchett David H - - 2008
Statin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease or in those at risk for cardiovascular disease is associated with a reduced incidence of ischemic stroke. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial showed treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg daily in patients with a recent stroke or ...
Khan Usman - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Homocysteine is an endothelial toxin and elevated levels have been associated with stroke risk. Stroke, particularly the small vessel disease (SVD) subtype, is increased in U.S. and UK black populations. In white populations elevated homocysteine has been associated with SVD, especially confluent leukoaraiosis, and may be acting ...
Lapchak Paul A - - 2008
Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) is a novel neuroprotective agent that does not bind to the classical erythropoietin receptor or affect hematocrit. Since CEPO has not been systematically studied in a fully blinded and randomized manner in an embolic stroke model, we determined if CEPO would be useful to attenuate clinical deficits ...
Valham Fredrik - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effect of sleep apnea on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity is mainly unknown. We aimed to study whether sleep apnea is related to stroke, death, or myocardial infarction in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 392 men and women with coronary artery disease ...
Kim Hye-Jin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: An acute perfusion-diffusion mismatch is known to be the strongest predictor of infarct growth. However, the differential patterns of clinical and radiological evolution according to stroke mechanism are unknown. METHODS: The study retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who had 1) acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction, 2) diffusion- and ...
Guadagno J V JV Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Neurology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2008
Selective neuronal loss (SNL) in the rescued penumbra could account for suboptimal clinical recovery despite effective early reperfusion. Previous studies of SNL used single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), did not account for potential volume loss secondary to collapse of the infarct cavity, and failed to show a relationship with initial hypoperfusion. ...
Norrving Bo - - 2008
Lacunar infarcts--small subcortical infarcts that result from occlusion of a single penetrating artery--account for about one quarter of all ischaemic strokes. However, there are many diagnostic pitfalls, and causes other than penetrating small vessel disease in up to one third of cases. Recent studies have shown that the prognosis after ...
Thanvi B - - 2008
Early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischaemic stroke is a common event. The underlying mechanisms are heterogeneous. The clinical predictors of END include severity of the initial stroke, large vessel occlusion, diabetes mellitus, hypotension, and atrial fibrillation. Serial observations and detailed assessment by the trained staff in specialised stroke units ...
Geranmayeh F - - 2008
Throughout the ages, art and neuroscience have had a delicate yet definite relationship with reciprocal influence. By virtue of their superior power of observation, artists have often preserved neurological signs through detailed brush strokes or meticulous carvings long before it is described in scientific literature. There has been an increasing ...
Beri Abhimanyu - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the current literature regarding anticoagulation in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PUBMED. All relevant articles including meta-analysis, original case studies and cross-references from relevant articles were included in this review. RESULTS: Atrial fibrillation is a ...
Brouns Raf - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of lactate in ischemic regions has been documented in acute stroke. We evaluated the relation between lactate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ischemic stroke evolution and outcome. METHODS: Lactate was measured in blood of 187 acute ischemic stroke and TIA patients at admission, 24 h, ...
Shen Albert Yuh-Jer - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Warfarin reduces stroke risk in studies of predominantly white patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether nonwhites also have lower rates of stroke while treated with warfarin is unclear. METHODS: A multiethnic stroke-free cohort hospitalized with nonrheumatic AF was identified in a large health maintenance organization. Stroke risk ...
Arenillas J F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of vascular risk factors associated with a prothrombotic state. We aimed to evaluate the impact of MetS on the response to systemic tPA treatment in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke. METHODS: We studied 100 consecutive patients with ischemic ...
Ramadan Mahmoud M - - 2008
Determining the type of cardiac dysfunction is important for implementing therapeutic strategies and for prognostic insights. We characterized systolic dysfunction (SD) and isolated diastolic dysfunction (IDD) in adults referred for echocardiographic evaluation, and compared their clinical and other characteristics. In the present work, we studied 218 patients (137 males) with ...
Abelson M - - 2008
Large-vessel ischaemic strokes have a very poor natural history. Thombolysis is indicated for the treatment of ischaemic stroke but in practice is given to less than 10% of stroke sufferers, and its efficacy in large-vessel occlusion is poor. Mechanical embolectomy is a new therapy that allows attempted revascularisation up to ...
Thanvi B R - - 2008
Haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction is a common and potentially serious occurrence following acute ischaemic stroke. Though often a "natural" evolution, particularly in acute embolic stroke, haemorrhagic transformation is a prime concern with the use of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. The severity of haemorrhage may range from a ...
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