Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1193
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Wolfrum Sebastian - - 2005
Excitation of sensory nerves and activation of myocardial protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon contribute to the transduction of remote preconditioning (RPC) to the heart. Since calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is an important mediator of sensory neurons we tried to delineate whether CGRP a) protects the heart from ischemic injury, ...
Pasupathy Shanker - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has emerged as a powerful experimental method of ameliorating ischemic injury in a variety of organs. This systematic review examines the surgical implications of this phenomenon. Data Source A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify laboratory and clinical studies investigating IP-induced protection in a variety of ...
Bienengraeber Martin W - - 2005
Preconditioning describes a very powerful endogenous mechanism by which the heart may be protected against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Transient administration of a volatile anesthetic before a prolonged ischemic episode reduces myocardial infarct size to a degree comparable to that observed during ischemic preconditioning. Many components of the signal transduction ...
Makaula Siyanda - - 2005
Myocardial ischemia is associated with increased production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), with potentially deleterious effects. We hypothesized that the ischemia-induced activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), could beneficially be inhibited by a PKA-inhibitor N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-89). H-89 when given to isolated perfused rat hearts before 30 minutes of global ...
Tong Haiyan - - 2005
This study examines the role of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) in cardioprotection. The beta2-AR couples to Gs and Gi proteins. Gs activates PKA, which phosphorylates the receptor and switches beta2-AR coupling from Gs to Gi. Prior to 20 min of global ischemia, mouse hearts were either perfused for 30 min ...
Berg Jette Scheby JS Clinical Institute and Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Sygehus, Brendstrupgårdsvej 100, DK-8200 Arhus N, Denmark. - - 2005
The coronary vascular resistance (CVR) after off pump coronary bypass (OPCAB) surgery has never been clarified and ways of preventing stunning are wanted. We wished to investigate the effect of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) on the CVR and stunning in the postoperative period after OPCAB. In 20 pigs (80 kg), 7 ...
Baker John E - - 2005
Ischemic preconditioning is a powerful endogenous phenomenon in which brief periods of a sub-toxic ischemic insult induce robust protection against future, lengthy, lethal ischemia. The cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning are manifest in all species studied so far, including humans. The ability to reproduce the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning ...
Anastasiou-Nana Maria I - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The effects of myocardial ischaemia preconditioning in pigs on the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation during subsequent ischaemic events are controversial. This study examined the time course of changes in ventricular fibrillation (VFT) and defibrillation (DFT) thresholds during transient myocardial ischaemia after a 45 min preconditioning period. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Simůnek T - - 2005
Risk of cardiotoxicity is the most serious drawback of the clinical usefulness of anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotics, which however, remain among the most powerful and widely employed anticancer drugs. In this study we have used daunorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits as a model to investigate possible cardioprotective effects of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone ...
Pelat M - - 2005
Despite the apparent redundancy of NOS isoforms in the myocardium, subcellular compartmentation dictates specific NO signaling from each isoform to colocalized effectors in response to physical (e.g. stretch) or receptor-mediated stimuli. Genetic deletion or overexpression experiments helped to characterize each isoform's respective role in the normal or diseased heart. eNOS ...
Lehmann Andreas - - 2005
The use of volatile anesthetics in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting resulted in a shorter length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit, shorter LOS in the hospital, and a decreased need for prolonged intensive care. Volatile anesthetics exert cardioprotective effects by anesthetic preconditioning in patients at risk ...
Valtchanova-Matchouganska A A Tara Hospital, The Morose Centre, Johannesburg, South - - 2005
The involvement of C-reactive protein (CRP) in early (acute) and delayed ischaemic (IPC) and pharmacological (chemical) (CPC) preconditioning in an in vivo model of rat myocardial infarction is presented. Acute IPC was produced by three 5-min occlusion (ischaemia) periods interspersed with 5 min reperfusion, followed by 30-min occlusion of the ...
Valen Guro - - 2005
In spite of improved myocardial protection, postoperative arrhythmias and cardiac failure are still important problems causing morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Ischemic preconditioning has been widely investigated experimentally with the purpose of identifying new therapeutic agents, but we have not unraveled the underlying mechanisms and we are not able ...
Hausenloy Derek J - - 2005
Novel treatment approaches, as potential adjunctive therapy to current reperfusion strategies (such as thrombolysis, primary coronary angioplasty, and cardiac surgery), are required to provide further cardioprotection in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction to effect further reductions in morbidity and mortality. In this regard, the activation of prosurvival kinases, ...
Rorabaugh Boyd R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Brief periods of ischemia stimulate an endogenous mechanism in the heart that protects the myocardium from subsequent ischemic injury. alpha1-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) have been implicated in this process. However, the lack of sufficiently selective antagonists has made it difficult to determine which alpha1-AR subtype protects the heart from ischemic ...
Birnbaum Yochai - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Statins attenuate myocardial ischemic injury by activating nitric oxide synthase (NOS). It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which mediates late ischemic preconditioning, also mediates statins-induced cardioprotection. We investigated the involvement of the prostaglandins and NOS in the cardioprotective effect of atorvastatin (ATV) in the rat. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were ...
Jin Zhu-Qiu - - 2005
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is one of the main antioxidant enzymes that protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a short period of ischemia-reperfusion that reduces subsequent prolonged I/R injury. Although MnSOD localizes in mitochondria, the immediate subcellular distribution of MnSOD in heart after IPC and ...
Argaud Laurent - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Brief periods of ischemia performed just at the time of reperfusion can reduce infarct size, a phenomenon called "postconditioning." After reflow, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) has been involved in lethal reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that postconditioning may modulate mPTP opening. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized open-chest ...
Demiryürek Seniz - - 2005
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Y-27632, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, on ischemic preconditioning (IP) and carbachol preconditioning (CP) in anesthetized rats. Administration of Y-27632 (0.1 mg/kg) produced slight, but not significant, reduction in mean arterial blood pressure and suppressed the total number of ventricular ...
Smith Sharon L - - 2005
KTX 0101 is the sodium salt of the physiological ketone, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (betaOHB). This neuroprotectant, which has recently successfully completed clinical Phase IA evaluation, is being developed as an intravenous infusion fluid to prevent the cognitive deficits caused by ischemic foci in the brain during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. KTX 0101 ...
Dendorfer Andreas - - 2005
Iron chelation by deferoxamine (DFO) blocks the Fenton reaction, but also inhibits prolyl hydroxylases and thereby activates certain hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that trigger cellular adaptation to hypoxia. Because both mechanisms may alleviate tissue damage in ischemia and reperfusion, we tried to differentiate their contribution to DFO-induced cardioprotection. Myocardial ischemia ...
Marín-García José - - 2005
Cardioprotection is a mechanism of guarding the heart from damage secondary to different insults including ischaemia, ischaemia/reperfusion, chemical, metabolic and physical stressors. Ischemic preconditioning, by single or multiple brief periods of ischaemia, protects the heart against a more prolonged ischemic insult (index ischaemia). Understanding the cellular, molecular and biochemical events ...
Portnychenko Alla G - - 2005
To determine the participation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiodepressive phenomena during late preconditioning caused by subtoxic doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Spontaneously beating hearts isolated from male Wistar rats (350 g to 400 g), intact or preconditioned with LPS (0.25 mg/kg given intraperitoneally 18 h before heart excision), ...
Inagaki M M Department of Cardiovascular Dynamics, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, - - 2005
Although previous animal studies clearly demonstrated antiarrhythmic effects of vagal stimulation during acute myocardial ischemia, highly invasive nature of vagal stimulation limited its clinical use. Recently, intravascular parasympathetic cardiac nerve stimulation (IPS) has emerged as a novel approach to the cardiac autonomic nervous system. We hypothesized that IPS might prevent ...
Tsai Shen-Kou - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) is the mediator of ischemic preconditioning against myocardial infarction. Desflurane produces anesthetic preconditioning to protect the myocardium against infarction. In the model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits, we evaluated desflurane-induced ischemic preconditioning and studied its mechanism of NO synthesis. Thirty-two male adult New Zealand white rabbits ...
Inagaki Koichi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that a selective activator peptide of epsilon-protein kinase C (PKC), psi(epsilon)RACK, conferred cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion when delivered ex vivo before the ischemic event. Here, we tested whether in vivo continuous systemic delivery of psi(epsilon)RACK confers sustained cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion in isolated mouse hearts and whether psi(epsilon)RACK ...
Stein Adam B AB Division of Cardiology, The Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, - - 2005
Mounting evidence suggests that carbon monoxide (CO) exerts powerful cytoprotective actions. CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) offer an effective means of delivering CO to tissues in vivo. The goal of the present study was to determine whether a water-soluble CORM, tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3), induces delayed protection against myocardial infarction 24 h later and ...
Detillieux Karen A - - 2004
In the field of cardiovascular research, a number of independent approaches have been explored to protect the heart from acute and chronic ischemic damage. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) recently has received considerable attention with respect to its angiogenic potential. While therapeutic angiogenesis may serve to salvage chronically ischemic myocardium, more ...
Rezkalla Shereif H - - 2004
In animals, brief episodes of ischemia before a total coronary occlusion protect the heart and result in a smaller myocardial infarct size. In humans, episodes of angina before acute myocardial infarction might also confer a preconditioning or protective effect; numerous studies show that preinfarction angina is associated with smaller infarcts. ...
Riksen N P - - 2004
Ischaemic preconditioning was originally described in animal hearts as histological infarct-size limitation by a previous brief episode of ischaemia. In humans, ischaemic preconditioning has been demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo models, including coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograplasty, using surrogate markers of ischaemia and ...
Garcia C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cardiac preconditioning is thought to be involved in the observed decreased coronary artery reocclusion rate in patients with angina preceding myocardial infarction. We prospectively examined whether preconditioning by sevoflurane would decrease late cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective ...
Obal D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics precondition the heart against infarction, an effect partly mediated by activation of the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCepsilon). We investigated whether cardioprotection by activation of PKCepsilon depends on the isoflurane concentration. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats underwent 25 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min ...
Agnes Hajnal - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the protective effects of ischaemic preconditioning (PC) against arrhythmias was examined in anaesthetised dogs using the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG). METHODS: PC was induced in 20 chloralose-urethane anaesthetised dogs by two 5 min occlusions of the left anterior descending (LAD) ...
Riksen N P - - 2004
Ischaemic preconditioning is defined as an increased tolerance to ischaemia and reperfusion induced by a previous sublethal period of ischaemia. Since this is the most powerful mechanism for limiting infarct size, other than timely reperfusion, an overwhelming number of studies have addressed the way in which this form of protection ...
Yoshimura Yukihiro - - 2004
There is considerable evidence implicating a key role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning against myocardial infarction. However, there have been few, if any, studies examining the role of p38 MAPK in the protection of stunned myocardium. The purpose of this study was to determine ...
Chiari Pascal C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning against myocardial infarction by volatile anesthetics is well known. The authors tested the hypothesis that new emulsified formulations of halogenated anesthetics administered intravenously reduce myocardial infarct size when administered either 1 or 24 h before prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits (n = 39) were instrumented for ...
Hatanaka Kazuhito - - 2004
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a primary component of gap junctions, contributes to intercellular electrochemical communication. Cx43 undergoes dephosphorylation in early ischemia. We examined whether Cx43 is degraded in association with dephosphorylation during early myocardial ischemia and whether ischemic preconditioning (IP) affects the degradation after rat coronary artery occlusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats ...
Nakamura Yuichi - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The role of microtubules in ischemic preconditioning (PC) was investigated in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. METHODS: Myocardial infarction was induced by 30-min global ischemia and 2-h reperfusion, and infarct size was expressed as a percentage of the left ventricle (%IS/LV). Using separate groups of rabbits, ventricular biopsies were taken ...
Li Guohu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Adaptation to ischemia by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (preconditioning) of the heart protects the heart against sustained ischemia, where the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB) appears crucial for the protection. Preconditioning of the heart may even be evoked by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion in ...
Kuzume Koh - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the influence of the narcotic anesthetic remifentanil on irreversible myocardial ischemic injury. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized with propofol (0.7-1.8 mg.kg.min) and then subjected to 30 min regional myocardial ischemia and 3 h reperfusion (CON). Some animals also underwent ischemic preconditioning, elicited by either one ...
Kara Ali F - - 2004
Trimetazidine is a widely used anti-ischemic agent, but its effect on myocardial preconditioning in anesthetized animals has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of trimetazidine on ischemic preconditioning and carbachol preconditioning in anesthetized rats. Ischemic preconditioning, induced by 5-min coronary artery occlusion and ...
Kristiansen Steen B - - 2005
Local and remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and preserve cardiac function. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that remote preconditioning is memorized by the explanted heart and yields protection from subsequent I/R injury and that the underlying mechanism involves sarcolemmal and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels. ...
Hernandez-Pampaloni Miguel M Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London, - - 2005
Different criteria to identify residual viability in chronically dysfunctioning myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can be derived by the combined assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and glucose utilisation (MRG) using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a large number ...
Schulte G - - 2004
AIMS: Adenosine is involved in classic pre-conditioning (PC) in most species, acting through especially adenosine A1 and A3 receptors. We studied whether the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) was important for remote, delayed adaptation to ischaemia using a mouse with targeted deletion of the A1R gene. METHODS: Remote, delayed adaptation was ...
Fujii Takafumi T Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, - - 2004
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is believed to exert degradative action at high norepinephrine (NE) levels. Although COMT exists in cardiac tissues, the contribution of cardiac COMT activity to regional NE kinetics, particularly in ischemia-induced NE accumulation, remains unclear. We investigated the role of cardiac COMT in NE kinetics in the ischemic ...
Brzozowski Tomasz - - 2004
Limitation of the stomach damage by its earlier brief ischemia and reperfusion before prolonged ischemia is defined as gastric ischemic preconditioning but whether such brief ischemia of remote organs like heart or liver can also attenuate the gastric damage caused by longer and severe ischemia-reperfusion remains unknown. The cardiac, hepatic ...
Iliodromitis Efstathios K - - 2004
Catecholamines bind to alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptors and are capable of preconditioning ischemic myocardium. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of acute either short or prolonged i.v. administration of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists on ischemic preconditioning in vivo. Fifty-five anesthetized rabbits were divided into 10 groups (n=5-7 per group) and were subjected ...
Tang Xian-Liang - - 2004
Although NO donors have been shown to confer late preconditioning (PC) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in healthy rabbits, it is unknown whether concurrent systemic disorders affect NO donor-induced cardioprotection. Since many patients with coronary artery disease have hypercholesterolemia (HC), we examined the effect of this condition on late PC induced ...
Yang Xi-Ming - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: An in situ model was used to test whether and how multiple occlusions at reperfusion can protect rabbit myocardium. BACKGROUND: Recently it was demonstrated that postconditioning in dogs salvaged ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Control hearts underwent 30-min regional ischemia/3-h reperfusion, whereas in experimental hearts four postconditioning cycles of 30-s occlusion/30-s ...
Maulik Nilanjana - - 2004
Despite significant advances in myocardial revascularization and reperfusion, coronary artery disease and subsequently myocardial infarction, are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Strategies which improve the myocardial substrate during and following a myocardial infarction-such as the regrowth of functional blood vessels to the ischemic myocardium ...
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