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Turan Nilufer Nermin - - 2008
Short ischemic episodes increase tolerance against subsequent severe ischemia in the heart. Nitropropionate (3-NP), an irreversible inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial complex II, was shown to induce protective effect against ischemic brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of 3-NP on ...
Arangannal A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ischaemic preconditioning protects the myocardium from ischaemic injury and may also protect the vascular endothelium from the deleterious effects of ischaemia and reperfusion. We examined the possibility that ischaemic preconditioning might preserve the integrity of the coronary microcirculation following ischaemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were perfused in ...
Otani Hajime - - 2008
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major contributory factor to cardiac dysfunction and infarct size that determines patient prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Considerable interest exists in harnessing the heart's endogenous capacity to resist I/R injury, known as ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The IPC research has contributed to uncovering the pathophysiology of ...
Avkiran Metin - - 2008
Extensive pre-clinical work indicates that inhibition of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) affords significant protection to myocardium subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion. By contrast, clinical studies with the NHE inhibitors cariporide, eniporide and zoniporide, in patients with evolving myocardial infarction and those at risk of myocardial infarction, have provided largely disappointing ...
Feng Jianhua - - 2008
AIMS: We tested whether delayed pharmacologic preconditioning elicited by isoflurane is protective in infarct-remodelled hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were treated with the preconditioning drug isoflurane 6 weeks after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Twenty-four and 48 h later, hearts were perfused on the ...
Tapuria Niteen N Institute-Hepatobiliary Pancreatic and Liver Transplant Unit, University Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, UCL, London, United - - 2008
Restoration of blood supply to an organ after a critical period of ischemia results in parenchymal injury and dysfunction of the organ referred to as reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury is often seen in organ transplants, major organ resections and in shock. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an adaptational response of ...
Mourouzis I - - 2009
There is accumulating evidence showing that ischemic preconditioning (PC) may lose its cardioprotective effect in the diseased states. The present study investigated whether PC can be effective in hypothyroidism, a clinical condition which is common and often accompanies cardiac diseases such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. Hypothyroidism was induced ...
Matejíková J - - 2009
Ischemic preconditioning (I-PC) induced by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) protects the heart against sustained I/R. Although activation of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) interacting with reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed as a key event in this process, their role in the antiarrhythmic effect is not clear. ...
Bhatti Rajbir
In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury has been studied. Hearts from adult albino rats of Wistar strain were isolated and immediately mounted on Langendorff′s apparatus for retrograde perfusion. After 15 minutes of stabilization, the hearts were subjected ...
Weber N C - - 2008
The heart has a strong endogenous cardioprotection mechanism that can be triggered by short periods of ischaemia (like during angina) and protects the myocardium during a subsequent ischaemic event (like during a myocardial infarction). This important mechanism, called ischaemic pre-conditioning, has been extensively investigated, but the practical relevance of an ...
Andreadou I - - 2008
Despite current optimal treatment, the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease remain significant worldwide and open the way for the development of novel cardioprotective therapies. In the last two decades, a remarkable scientific effort has focused on the limitation of infarct size. Important input from experimental studies has led ...
Das Manika - - 2008
Lipid rafts represent a subcompartment of the plasma membrane that coordinate and regulate varieties of signaling processes while caveolins are the integral membrane protein of the lipid raft. To study the role of lipid raft in ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the heart, rat hearts were perfused by working mode and ...
Rao K Nayan S - - 2008
An additional target for reducing infarct size, namely, attenuation of apoptosis, has recently emerged. Erythropoietin (Epo) exhibits properties that may attenuate this process and enhance neovascularization, thereby preserving jeopardized myocardium. Potentially adverse effects of Epo, including hypertension, thrombosis and possible exacerbation of occult neoplasms can likely be averted with analogues ...
Lucchinetti Eliana - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Postinfarct remodeling in the heart may affect protective signaling. We tested whether isoflurane preconditioning retains its protection in postinfarct remodeled hearts. METHODS: Myocardial remodeling was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in male Wistar rats. Six weeks later, diseased hearts were mounted on a Langendorff ...
Tissier Renaud - - 2008
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following coronary artery occlusion is a common cause of mortality and morbidity world-wide. Patients currently receive reperfusion therapy as the only anti-infarct intervention. A number of agents have been evaluated to further improve myocardial salvage, but until recently, none has demonstrated clear efficacy in clinical trials. ...
Kaneda Kazuhiro K Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, - - 2008
Volatile anesthetics and regular ethanol consumption induce cardioprotection mimicking ischemic preconditioning. We investigated whether sevoflurane enhances ethanol preconditioning and whether inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels attenuated this enhanced cardioprotection. The effects of regular ethanol consumption on expression of inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS) nitric oxide ...
Yap Elgin - - 2008
Energy requiring apoptosis and presumably unregulated necrosis are considered conceptually and morphologically distinct forms of cell death which have been initially identified as two exclusive pathways. However, several apoptotic characteristics have been observed in the necrotic core lesion in ischemia which led to the controversial theory that cell death advances ...
Ren C - - 2008
Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left ...
Rezkalla Shereif H - - 2007
Brief ischemia to the myocardium initiates a cascade of biochemical events in cardiac myocytes that protects the heart muscle during subsequent ischemic insults. This phenomenon is called ischemic preconditioning. If an acute myocardial infarction is preceded by preinfarction angina, it results in smaller infarction size, fewer cardiac arrhythmias, and better-left ...
Soeding P E - - 2007
Levosimendan is emerging as a novel cardioprotective inotrope. Levosimendan augments myocardial contractility by sensitising contractile myofilaments to calcium without increasing myosin adenosine triphosphatase activity or oxygen consumption. Levosimendan activates cellular adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels, a mechanism which is postulated to protect cells from ischaemia in a manner similar to ischaemic ...
Thibault Hélène - - 2007
Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Ischemic postconditioning, that consists of repeated brief episodes of ischemia-reperfusion performed just after reflow following a prolonged ischemic insult, dramatically reduces infarct size in animal models. Recent data indicate that it might involve the activation of ...
Schulz Rainer - - 2007
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the predominant protein forming gap junctions and non-junctional hemichannels in ventricular myocardium, but Cx43 is also localized at the inner membrane of cardiomyocyte mitochondria. In cardiomyocytes, Cx43 is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, which are central to the signal transduction cascade of ischemic ...
Keul Petra - - 2007
Increasing evidence suggests that High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a direct cardioprotective agent in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and that this cardioprotection occurs independently of their atheroprotective effect. Studies on the involved mechanisms have revealed that the biologically active HDL-compound sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is responsible for the beneficial effect ...
Bolli Roberto - - 2007
There is little doubt that the discovery of ischemic preconditioning (PC) has been one of the fundamental milestones in the field of ischemic biology in the past 20 years. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology and molecular basis of the late phase of myocardial PC. The ...
Bazargan M - - 2008
There is a growing interest for the beneficial effect of magnesium (Mg) in cardiovascular disorders. A number of cardiovascular disorders including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure have been associated with low extra- cellular or intracellular concentrations of Mg. The efficiency of the preconditioning effect of Mg on cardiac ...
Liu Yanping - - 2008
Redox signaling prior to a lethal ischemic insult is an important step in triggering the protected state in ischemic preconditioning. When the preconditioned heart is reperfused a second sequence of signal transduction events, the mediator pathway, occurs which is believed to inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation that normally destroys ...
Cun Long - - 2007
Inhibition of Na/H exchanger isoform-1 (NHE1) has shown significant protection in adult myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, the effect is unclear in immature myocardium. We evaluated the effects of HOE642 (a potent, highly selective NHE1 inhibitor) preconditioning on immature rabbit hearts. Twenty immature (2-3 weeks old) New Zealand white rabbits ...
Baumert Jan-H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics protect the myocardium from ischemia reperfusion damage. Our hypothesis for this study was that xenon reduces the size of myocardial infarction similar in extent to the reduction associated with ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: Thirty-six pigs weighing 30-35 kg were anesthetized with thiopental and then randomized into four groups: ...
Shome Shibaji - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms for the antiarrhythmogenic effects of preconditioning in ischemic hearts, although well demonstrated, are not clear. We measured indices of activation and repolarization using data from a high-resolution epicardial sock electrode array in preconditioned (PC) and non-PC hearts in an attempt to gain further insight into protective mechanisms. ...
Liang Jun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the kinetic changes of uptake, washout and retention of Tc-sestamibi in order to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning and adenosine preconditioning on myocardium injured by ischaemia/reperfusion. METHODS: Isolated ischaemia/reperfusion rabbit heart models, as established by Langendorff, were used. Eighteen rabbit hearts perfused ...
Binbrek Azan S - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Despite the well-recognized effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on augmenting red blood cell production, EPO exerts multiple additional effects in diverse tissues. Evidence indicating the potential for tissue protection is reviewed as is a description of a study now initiated, in which its potential benefit on the evolution of acute ...
Rodrigo Glenn C - - 2008
Current cellular models of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) rely on inducing preconditioning in vitro and may not accurately represent complex pathways triggered by IPC in the intact heart. Here, we show that it is possible to precondition the intact heart and to subsequently isolate individual ventricular myocytes that retain the protection ...
Yogaratnam Jeysen Zivan - - 2008
Ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable part cardiac surgery such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). While ischemic hypoxia and the ensuing normoxic or hyperoxic reperfusion are critical to the initiation and propagation of IRI, conditioning myocardial cells to an oxidative stress prior to IRI may limit the consequences ...
Cai Zheqing - - 2008
We investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a role in the acute phase of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). Hearts from wild-type (WT) mice and mice heterozygous for a null allele at the locus encoding HIF-1 alpha (HET) were subjected to IPC (10-min ischaemia/5 min reperfusion, or two cycles ...
Horikawa Yousuke T - - 2008
Volatile anesthetics protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury but the mechanisms for this protection are poorly understood. Caveolae, sarcolemmal invaginations, and caveolins, scaffolding proteins in caveolae, localize molecules involved in cardiac protection. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae and caveolins are essential for volatile anesthetic-induced cardiac protection using cardiac myocytes ...
Hajrasouliha Amir Reza - - 2008
In addition to well-known neurobehavioral effects, endogenous cannabinoids exert diverse cardiovascular actions. Recently, they have been suggested to protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of endogenous cannabinoids to cardioprotection afforded by remote ischemic preconditioning. Three groups of remote preconditioned (15 ...
Chase Anabelle - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether coronary artery disease alters vulnerability of hearts and myocytes to cardiac insults. To address this issue, we developed an experimental model of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. SETTING: University experimental research laboratories. SUBJECTS: Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. INTERVENTIONS: Male apolipoprotein E knockout mice, aged ...
Köhler David - - 2007
Extracellular adenosine, generated from extracellular nucleotides via ectonucleotidases, binds to specific receptors and provides cardioprotection from ischemia and reperfusion. In the present study, we studied ecto-enzymatic ATP/ADP-phosphohydrolysis by select members of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family during myocardial ischemia. As a first step, we used a murine model of ...
Walsh S R - - 2007
Perioperative myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after major non-cardiac surgery. Pharmacological agents such as beta-blockers may reduce the risk but are associated with side-effects and may be contra-indicated in some patients. Basic scientific experiments and preliminary clinical trials in humans suggest that remote ischaemic preconditioning ...
Malik Gautam - - 2008
This study examined if glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx1), a redox-regulator of thioredoxin superfamily, plays any role in the redox signaling of ischemic myocardium. The hearts were subjected to 30 min of coronary occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Another group of hearts was rendered tolerant to ischemia (preconditioned, PC) by four ...
Phillips Alistair B M - - 2007
Preconditioning (PC) is a potential approach to myocardial protection. We hypothesize that brief ischemia or adenosine given prior to an extended period of warm ischemia may prevent myocardial stunning by altering myocardial metabolism. Using a global ischemia model, 19 dogs were subjected to no PC(control), two episodes of ischemia (2 ...
Zhou R-H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the cardioprotective effects of pharmacologic pretreatment with HOE642, a selective Na(+)/H(+ )exchanger (NHE) isoform-1 inhibitor, in immature rabbit hearts, as compared with ischemic preconditioning (IPC). METHODS: For this study, 36 isolated immature New Zealand white rabbit hearts were equilibrated on the Langendorff apparatus. They were randomly ...
Benjamin Ivor J - - 2007
The abundantly expressed small molecular weight proteins, CRYAB and HSPB2, have been implicated in cardioprotection ex vivo. However, the biological roles of CRYAB/HSPB2 coexpression for either ischemic preconditioning and/or protection in situ remain poorly defined. Wild-type (WT) and age-matched ( approximately 5-9 mo) CRYAB/HSPB2 double knockout (DKO) mice were subjected ...
Hausenloy D J - - 2008
Despite optimal therapy, the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains significant, particularly in patients with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. New strategies for cardioprotection are therefore required to improve the clinical outcomes in patients with CHD. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) as a cardioprotective strategy has not fulfilled it ...
Ji Bingyang - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is commonly regarded as having a powerful internal protective effect on the organs. The mechanism of IPC is not clear yet, and the controversy over the benefits and protocol of IPC still continues. In this study, we used the sensitive and specific biochemical marker: cardiac troponin-I ...
Sundset R - - 2007
Ischemic preconditioning increases the heart's tolerance to a subsequent longer ischemic period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early and delayed preconditioning on gap junction communication, connexin abundance, and phosphorylation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Prolonged ischemia followed 5 minutes after preconditioning in the ...
Wu Guo-ting - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of different sulfonylureas on the myocardial protection effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in isolated rat hearts, and ATP-sensitive potassium channel current (IK(ATP)) of rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Isolated Langendorff perfused rat hearts were randomly assigned to five groups: (1) control group, (2) IPC group, (3) ...
McLennan Peter L - - 2007
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are selectively incorporated into cardiac cell membranes from the diet in a dose-related manner. Regular intake can slow the heart rate, reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, and increase coronary reserve. These properties contribute to preconditioning-like effects of resistance to myocardial ischaemic damage and improved post-ischaemic ...
Bolte Craig S - - 2007
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and developing world. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a number of interventions including brief periods of ischemia or hypoxia and certain endogenous factors such as opioids, bradykinin, growth factors or pharmacological agents are capable of protecting ...
Loukogeorgakis Stavros P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Transient limb ischemia administered before a prolonged ischemic insult has systemic protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (remote ischemic preconditioning [RIPC]). It has been demonstrated that protection from IR can be achieved by brief periods of ischemia applied at a remote site during an injurious ischemic event (remote postconditioning ...
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