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Ansley David M - - 2009
Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of death globally and results in significant morbidity and mortality following surgery. After cardiac surgery, diabetic patients are especially at risk for low cardiac output syndrome, which can quadruple the risk for postoperative death. Attempts to prevent low cardiac output syndrome have focused on ...
Lange Markus - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: An optimal administration protocol to induce a maximal effect of anesthetic preconditioning has not been evaluated to date. In this study, desflurane preconditioning was characterized with respect to its threshold, dose dependency, and continuous versus repetitive application. Furthermore, the role of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors in anesthetic preconditioning was tested. DESIGN: ...
Balakumar Pitchai - - 2009
Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow to the heart is diminished and thus the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart is reduced. The reperfusion to an ischemic myocardium often results in induction of infarction and cardiac dysfunction. The brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion ...
Huffmyer Julie - - 2009
Perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction are not only major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery but also important causes of prolonged hospital stay and resource utilization. Ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning and postconditioning have been known for more than 2 decades to provide protection against myocardial ischemia and ...
Fallavollita James A - - 2009
To test the hypothesis that a critical stenosis prevents delayed preconditioning against stunning, studies were conducted in pigs chronically-instrumented with occluders and segment-shortening crystals. In the setting of a critical stenosis, a preconditioning stimulus of repetitive brief occlusions resulted in infarction. Thereafter, a single 10-minute occlusion was used as the ...
Mio Yasushi Y Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2009
Similar to volatile anesthetics, the anesthetic noble gas xenon protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that xenon-induced cardioprotection is mediated by prosurvival signaling kinases that target mitochondria. Male Wistar rats instrumented for hemodynamic measurements were ...
Zhao Heng - - 2009
Ischemic postconditioning initially referred to a stuttering reperfusion performed immediately after reperfusion, for preventing ischemia/reperfusion injury in both myocardial and cerebral infarction. It has evolved into a concept that can be induced by a broad range of stimuli or triggers, and may even be performed as late as 6 h ...
Penna Claudia - - 2009
A series of brief (a few minutes) ischemia/reperfusion cycles (ischemic preconditioning, IP) limits myocardial injury produced by a subsequent prolonged period of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Postconditioning (PostC), which is a series of brief (a few seconds) reperfusion/ischemia cycles at reperfusion onset, attenuates also ischemia/reperfusion injury. In recent years ...
Pagel Paul S - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Brief, repetitive administration of helium before prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion protects myocardium against infarction. Opioid receptors mediate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning, but whether these receptors also play a role in helium preconditioning is unknown. The authors tested the hypotheses that opioid receptors mediate ...
Valen Guro - - 2009
Myocardial adaptation to ischemia in the form of ischemic preconditioning is clinically attractive, but not easily usable in cardiac surgery until molecular mimics are discovered. The various forms of pre- and postconditioning, including remote preconditioning, indicate that a 'universal' protection is evoked. A growing body of evidence indicates that events ...
Nadtochiy Sergiy M SM Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14620, - - 2009
The reversible S-nitrosation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is a potential mechanism of cardioprotection, recruited by ischemic preconditioning (IPC), S-nitrosothiols, and nitrite. Previously, to exploit this mechanism, the mitochondrial S-nitrosating agent S-nitroso-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (SNO-MPG) was developed, and protected perfused hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In the ...
Hall A A AA Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Basic Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, - - 2009
Previous reports have shown that human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) administered intravenously 48 hr following middle cerebral artery occlusion reduce infarct area and behavioral deficits of rodents. This cellular therapy is potently neuroprotective and antiinflammatory. This study investigates the effect of HUCBC treatment on white matter injury and oligodendrocyte ...
Baharvand Babak - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, it was indicated that pre-exposing rats to normobaric hyperoxia could induce a late preconditioning against infarction and arrhythmia. In this study, attempts were made to know whether the intermittent pre-exposure to the same environment could prolong the late phase of hyperoxia preconditioning. METHODS: In the ...
Floyd James S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: During acute myocardial infarction, both ST elevation and QRS distortion on the initial electrocardiogram (ECG) have been correlated with poorer prognosis. Studies in dogs and humans suggest that these ECG markers provide information about myocardial protection from both collateral blood flow and ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: In a protocol designed ...
RAVINGEROVA T - - 2009
We examined the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its effector protein kinase B (Akt) in cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (PC) with particular regards to its role in the protection against ischemia-induced arrhythmias in isolated perfused rat heart. PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin (100 nM) was administered 15 min prior to ...
Lakkisto Päivi - - 2009
Cardiac expression of cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is modulated by ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R). We therefore hypothesized that pretreatment with hemin, an inductor of HO-1, would precondition the heart against post-ischaemic dysfunction and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Male Wistar rats were given either hemin or HO enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin ...
Abete Pasquale - - 2009
A mild stress such as brief ischemic episodes may protect the heart from a successive and more prolonged myocardial ischemia (ischemic preconditioning). This phenomenon is considered a typical "hormetic mechanism" by which the heart is immunized from pathological insults such as myocardial ischemia. This mechanism is reduced with aging and ...
Yao Yongwei - - 2009
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based regenerative therapy is currently regarded as an alternative approach to salvage the acute myocardial infarcted hearts. However, the efficiency of MSCs transplantation is limited by lower survival rate of engrafted MSCs. In previous study, we found that 1.0 microg/ml Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could protect MSCs against apoptosis ...
Whittaker Peter - - 2009
Fibrin plays a vital structural role in thrombus integrity. Thus, the ability to assess fibrin architecture has a potential to provide insight into thrombosis and thrombolysis. Fibrin has an anisotropic molecular structure, which enables it to be seen with polarized light. Therefore, we aimed to determine if automated polarized light ...
Weber Nina C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Xenon induces early myocardial preconditioning of the rat heart in vivo, but whether xenon induces late cardioprotection is not known. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to be an important mediator in the signal transduction of myocardial ischemic late preconditioning (i-LPC). We investigated whether xenon induces late preconditioning (Xe-LPC) and ...
Lu Wen-Hsien - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Acceleration on the +Gz axis increases pressure in the cardiac chambers. Our research was designed to study whether: 1) such acceleration would impair cardiac function; and 2) a "preconditioning" exposure to +Gz would protect the heart from any such effects. METHODS: There were 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats that were ...
Hausenloy Derek J DJ The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, United - - 2009
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death world-wide. Its major pathophysiological manifestation is acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Innovative treatment strategies for protecting the myocardium against the detrimental effects of this form of injury are required in order to improve clinical outcomes in patients with CHD. In this ...
L??tienne R - - 2009
The goal of the study was to determine whether postconditioning protects against different ischemia durations in the rabbit. Rabbits were assigned to a 20-, 25-, 45- or 60-min coronary occlusion followed by 24-h of reperfusion. Rabbits received no further intervention (control) or were postconditioned with four cycles of 30-s occlusion ...
van Vuuren Derick D Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. - - 2008
The increase in the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in both high- and low-income countries necessitates the development of myocardial salvaging/protection interventions, to be applied alongside standard reperfusion therapies. Although the phenomenon of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is associated with the desired protective capacity, the necessity ...
Oikawa Masayoshi - - 2008
The aim of this study was to assess whether and how infarct size (IS) reduction by postconditioning is modified in the heart with coronary stenosis (CS), and how beta-blocker treatment affects it. The IS was assessed by 30-min acute coronary occlusion and 24-h reperfusion in rat hearts in which CS ...
Shen You-Tang YT Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, - - 2008
The hypothesis of the present study was that molecular mechanisms differ markedly when mediating ischemic preconditioning induced by repetitive episodes of ischemia versus classic first- or second-window preconditioning. To test this, chronically instrumented conscious pigs were subjected to either repetitive coronary stenosis (RCS) or a traditional protocol of second-window ischemic ...
Shinmura Ken - - 2008
Ischemic tolerance decreases with aging, and the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is impaired in middle-aged animals. We have demonstrated that short-term caloric restriction (CR) improves myocardial ischemic tolerance in young and old animals via the activation of adiponectin-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated signaling. However, it is unknown whether prolonged ...
Churchill Eric N EN Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5174, - - 2009
The cardioprotective effects of moderate alcohol consumption have been well documented in animal models and in humans. Protection afforded against ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) proceeds through an ischemic preconditioning-like mechanism involving the activation of epsilon protein kinase C (varepsilonPKC) and is dependent on the time and duration of ethanol ...
Lin Jih-Shyong - - 2008
Preconditioning, such as by brief hypoxic exposure, has been shown to protect hearts against severe ischaemia. Here we hypothesized that hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) protects injured hearts by mobilizing the circulating progenitor cells. Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury was induced by left coronary ligation and release in rats kept in room air or ...
Czibik Gabor - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ischemic preconditioning reduces infarct size and improves hemodynamic function. Unstable angina may be a clinical analogue to ischemic preconditioning, and involve activation of gene programs. We hypothesized that preceding unstable angina and/or ischemic preconditioning activated genes regulated by nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) or hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in ...
Totzeck Andreas - - 2008
Cardiac connexin 43 (Cx43) is involved in infarct propagation, and the uncoupling of Cx43-formed channels reduces infarct size. Cx43-formed channels open upon Cx43 dephosphorylation, and ischemic preconditioning (IP) prevents the ischemia-induced Cx43 dephosphorylation. In addition to the sarcolemma, Cx43 is also present in the cardiomyocyte mitochondria. We now examined the ...
Abdukeyum Grace G - - 2008
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and (n-3) PUFA are both cardioprotective. This study compared effects of dietary fish oil, IPC, and their interactions on heart function and injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10% wt:wt fat comprising either 7% high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6(n-3)] tuna fish ...
Walsh Stewart R - - 2009
Remote ischemic preconditioning is a physiologic mechanism in mammalian species whereby brief exposure to nonlethal ischemia in one tissue confers protection against a prolonged ischemic insult in a distant tissue. First described almost 15 years ago, it has been slow to translate into clinical practice. Several clinical trials have recently ...
Chevion Mordechai - - 2008
Ischemic preconditioning is a well-known procedure transiently protecting the heart against injury associated with prolonged ischemia, through mechanism/s only partly understood. The aim of this study was to test whether preconditioning-induced protection of the heart involves an iron-based mechanism, including the generation of an iron signal followed by accumulation of ...
Pagel Paul S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS: Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were ...
Chen Chen Hsiu - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role both in triggering and mediating delayed protection against myocardial I/R injury during anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC). However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear. Using isoflurane as a representative anesthetic, the present study tested the hypothesis that NO released after anesthetic-induced preconditioning ...
Yao Linong - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that preconditioning with anesthetics can be used to simulate the myocardial protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. But it is still not certain whether they can protect the myocardium in hemorrhagic shock. This study was designed to examine the myocardial protective effects of propofol and fentanyl ...
Gao Xuwen - - 2008
We examined the temporal factors of postconditioning, assessed whether gradual reperfusion reduces infarcts, and compared postconditioning's protection with that of both rapid and delayed preconditioning. Focal ischemia was generated by permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (dMCA) combined with 30 min of occlusion of both common carotid ...
Han Cuihong - - 2008
It has been shown that after ischemia-reperfusion, application of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces cardiac injury. In this study we tested the hypothesis that HBO preconditioning reduces injury to the ischemic myocardium. One hundred and eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-280 g) were randomly divided into four groups: normoxia + sham ...
Vessey Donald A DA Liver Study Unit (151-K), Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, - - 2008
Both sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were able to protect the ex vivo rat heart from ischemia reperfusion injury when added to the perfusion medium at the time of reperfusion after a 40min ischemia (postconditioning). Inhibitor studies revealed distinct mechanisms of protection, with S1P employing a G-protein coupled receptor pathway and ...
Sadat Umar - - 2008
Acute myocardial ischemic insult remains the most prevalent cause of postoperative mortality and morbidity despite major advances in cardiovascular medicine. Preoperative cardiac assessment and optimization, intraoperative anesthetic techniques and perioperative medical prophylaxis are all used to minimize cardiac morbidity. Ischemic postconditioning is one of the latest techniques to be added ...
Andreadou Ioanna - - 2008
Ischemic preconditioning (PC) and postconditioning (PostC) are endogenous mechanisms of protection of the ischemic heart. In brief, short cycles of sublethal ischemia separated by brief periods of reperfusion render the heart resistant to infarction from a subsequent lethal episode of prolonged ischemia. Although PC is a powerful form of protection, ...
Schober Patrick - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Preconditioning with bacterial wall fragments lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) reduce myocardial infarct size after ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Preconditioning with LTA reduces neutrophil accumulation during reperfusion and thereby ameliorates one of myocardial reperfusion injury's most important mechanisms. In this study, we use an ex vivo ...
Eckle Tobias - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ischemic preconditioning provides strong cardioprotection from ischemia, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Convincing evidence confirms a central role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Thus, we pursued HIF-1 as a central component of cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning. METHODS AND RESULTS: Murine studies of in situ preconditioning ...
Han Hong-guang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To date, there have been no reports on altered nitric oxide (NO) content in ischemia/reperfusion with regard to in vivo preconditioning procedures. These studies are important for understanding the mechanisms of NO during early myocardial ischemic preconditioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of ...
Lee Jeong-Sang - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Paraplegia is a serious complication of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic operations and is the result of ischemic spinal cord injury induced by low perfusion pressure during cross-clamping of the aorta. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the heart or brain with reversible sublethal ischemic injury induces resistance to subsequent lethal ischemia. ...
Li Wei-jie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has been reported to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury in different species. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide may induce the expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) which may protect the heart ...
Pagel Paul S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Helium produces preconditioning by activating prosurvival kinases, but the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-regulated potassium (K(ATP)) channels in this process are unknown. The authors tested the hypothesis that ROS and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels mediate helium-induced preconditioning in vivo. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study. SETTING: ...
Stecyk Jonathan A W - - 2008
Certain vertebrates, such as freshwater turtles of the genus Chrysemys and Trachemys and crucian carp (Carassius carassius), have anoxia-tolerant hearts that continue to function throughout prolonged periods of anoxia (up to many months) due to successful balancing of cellular ATP supply and demand. In the present review, we summarize the ...
Wang Lixing - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Remote ischemic preconditioning is known to elicit production of a blood-borne cardioprotective factor that is infarct sparing in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial damage reducing after cardiopulmonary bypass in human subjects. The mechanism of protection remains incompletely understood. In this study, we examined effects on mitochondrial structure and ...
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