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Ambrosio Giuseppe - - 2010
Brief episode(s) of ischaemia may increase cardiac tolerance to a subsequent major ischaemic insult ('preconditioning'). Nitrates can pharmacologically mimic ischaemic preconditioning in animals. In this study, we investigated whether antecedent nitrate therapy affords protection toward acute ischaemic events using data from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events. The dataset ...
Zhu Junchao - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We sought to test whether a transient myocardial ischaemia can induce impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and whether sevoflurane preconditioning can provide robust protective effects on this neurological impairment. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to a transient coronary artery occlusion for 30 min. Sevoflurane preconditioning was ...
Naderi Roya - - 2010
We assume that phenylephrine produces late pharmacological preconditioning through the opening of the mitochondrial KATP channels. To test this hypothesis, rat hearts were isolated and perfused with Krebs buffer solution by Langendorff method and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In this study, phenylephrine ...
Tao Xing - - 2009
We compare the cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning by propofol and/or isoflurane in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Male adult Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Before the long ischemia, anesthetics were administered twice for 10 min followed ...
Jones W Keith - - 2009
Although remote ischemic stimuli have been shown to elicit cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, there is little known about the effects of nonischemic stimuli. We previously described a remote cardioprotective effect of nonischemic surgical trauma (abdominal incision) called remote preconditioning of trauma (RPCT). In the present study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying ...
Kawada Toru - - 2009
AIMS: To examine endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rabbit left ventricle during acute ischemia, ischemic preconditioning and electrical vagal stimulation. MAIN METHODS: We measured myocardial interstitial ACh levels in the rabbit left ventricle using a cardiac microdialysis technique. In Protocol 1 (n=6), the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) was ...
Zhang Hao - - 2010
We suggested that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) precondition prior to cell transplantation might remodel the hostile milieu of infarcted myocardium and subsequently enhance early survival and therapeutic potential of implanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Therefore, in this study we wanted to address: (1) whether LLLI pre-treatment change the ...
Løfgren Bo - - 2010
We have found that cardioprotection by l-glutamate mimics protection by classical ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). We investigated whether the effect of IPC involves amino acid transamination and whether IPC modulates myocardial glutamate metabolism. In a glucose-perfused, isolated rat heart model subjected to 40 min global no-flow ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion, ...
Yang Xi-Ming - - 2010
Ischemic pre- (IPC) and post- (IPOC) conditioning are very protective in laboratory animals, but it has not been possible to measure their anti-infarct potency in human hearts. Non-human primates are genetically closer to humans than other laboratory animals, but until now there have been no studies of IPC or IPOC ...
Manintveld Olivier C - - 2009
Patients with an impending myocardial infarction may be preconditioned by pre-infarct angina. Hence, it is important to establish whether ischemic postconditioning is still effective in preconditioned hearts. We therefore studied in anesthetized rats the effect of postconditioning after coronary artery occlusions (CAO) of 60 min in control hearts, hearts preconditioned ...
Shimizu Mikiko - - 2009
rIPC (remote ischaemic preconditioning) is a phenomenon whereby short periods of ischaemia and reperfusion of a tissue or organ (e.g. mesentery, kidney) can protect a distant tissue or organ (e.g. heart) against subsequent, potentially lethal, ischaemia. We, and others, have shown that transient limb ischaemia can provide potent myocardial protection ...
Vessey Donald A - - 2009
Exogenous sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an effective cardioprotectant against ischemic injury. We have investigated the hypothesis that S1P is also an important endogenous cardioprotectant released during both ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IPOST). IPC of ex vivo rat hearts was instituted by two cycles of 3 min ischemia-5 min ...
Calvert John W - - 2009
The recent emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule necessitates the elucidation of its cytoprotective mechanisms. The present study evaluated potential mechanisms of H(2)S-mediated cardioprotection using an in vivo model of pharmacological preconditioning. H(2)S (100 microg/kg) or vehicle was administered to mice via an intravenous injection ...
Redel Andreas - - 2009
The murine in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction is increasingly used to investigate anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) and postconditioning (APOST). However, in mice the potency of different volatile anesthetics to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS) has never been investigated systematically nor in a head to head comparison with regard to ...
Okusa Chika - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anaesthetic preconditioning (APC) exerts cardioprotective effects by reducing infarct size and improving recovery of contractile function after ischaemia-reperfusion. The interval between brief exposure to volatile anaesthetic and sustained ischaemia, the acute memory phase, is dependent on intracellular signalling mediating this cardioprotection. Intramyocyte translocation of protein kinase C ...
Vessey Donald A - - 2009
Aging hearts are known to have diminished capacity to be protected against reoxygenation ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury provided by various cardioprotective regimens. In search of a more successful regimen, we have studied the response of aged hearts to preconditioning (PC) and postconditioning (POST) elicited by sphingosine or sphingosine 1-phosphate treatment.An ex ...
Saxena Pankaj - - 2010
Remote ischemic conditioning is a novel concept of protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Brief controlled episodes of intermittent ischemia of the arm or leg may confer a powerful systemic protection against prolonged ischemia in a distant organ. This conditioning phenomenon is clinically applicable and can be performed before--preconditioning, during--perconditioning, or after--postconditioning ...
Sadat Umar - - 2009
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major contributory factor to cardiac dysfunction and infarct size that determines patient prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. During the last 20 years, since the appearance of the first publication on ischemic preconditioning (IP), our knowledge of this phenomenon has increased exponentially. Basic scientific experiments and ...
Skyschally Andreas - - 2009
Ischemic postconditioning, a simple mechanical maneuver at the onset of reperfusion, reduces infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion. After its first description in 2003 by Zhao et al. numerous experimental studies have investigated this protective phenomenon. Whereas the underlying mechanisms and signal transduction are not yet understood in detail, infarct size reduction ...
Hu Xiaorong - - 2010
To investigate whether preconditioning with high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) could reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. HMGB1 preconditioning reduced significantly the infarct size induced by I/R. The LDH, CK, TNF-α and ...
Downey James M - - 2009
Despite thousands of publications describing agents that limit infarct size in animals, all we have available today is reperfusion therapy. In this review, we examine why these drugs have not been translated into clinical practice. Many of the first interventions tested in clinical trials were very controversial in animal trials ...
Konia Mojca Remskar - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sevoflurane anaesthetic preconditioning (SPC) has been shown to limit nuclear factor-[kappa]B (NF-[kappa]B) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines during myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of NF-[kappa]B using parthenolide is effective in limiting I/R injury. We, therefore, postulated that the protective effect of delayed SPC would ...
Gritsopoulos G - - 2009
PURPOSE: Postconditioning confers protection to the heart after a potentially lethal episode of prolonged ischemia. There is evidence that it may also be protective when applied at a distal artery. In the present study, we sought to determine whether remote postconditioning within the heart (local) or outside the heart (distal) ...
Dow Joan - - 2009
We have observed that ischemic postconditioning markedly reduces reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias, but whether the mechanism is related to previously described pathways of preconditioning or postconditioning for infarct size reduction is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether known pathways were involved in postconditioning's protective effect on arrhythmias. ...
Pan Ting-Ting - - 2009
In the current study, we investigated the delayed cardioprotection induced by H(2)S preconditioning in an in vivo rat model of myocardial infarction. Assessment of infarct size revealed that a single bolus of NaHS (a donor of H(2)S, at 0.1-10 micromol/kg body weight) administered 1 day before myocardial infarction produced a ...
Chen Gang - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial dysfunction is often seen during the inflammatory response to major surgery at 4 to 6h postoperatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine pretreatment, as a means of preconditioning, on lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial dysfunction. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups: Control; lipopolysaccharide; ...
Smul Thorsten M - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: The authors tested the hypothesis that volatile anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) follows a similar time pattern as that described for ischemic preconditioning and that delayed APC is mediated by nitric oxide. DESIGN: A prospective randomized vehicle-controlled study. SETTING: A university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: New Zealand white rabbits (n = 75). ...
Granfeldt Asger - - 2009
Infarct size can be limited by reducing the determinants of infarct size or increasing collateral blood flow by treatment initiated before the ischaemic event. Reperfusion is the definitive treatment for permanently reducing infarct size and restoring some degree of contractile function to the affected myocardium. Innate survival mechanisms in the ...
Li Shu-Juan - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Transient limb ischemia induces remote early preconditioning that protects the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, it is unknown whether limb ischemia induces remote late preconditioning and whether it induces the same magnitude of cardioprotection compared with cardial ischemic preconditioning (CIP). We tested the hypothesis that late remote preconditioning of ...
Baumert Jan H - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the protective effects of xenon and isoflurane against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage would be additive. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized laboratory investigation. SETTING: An animal laboratory of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six pigs (female German landrace). INTERVENTIONS: In an open-chest preparation with thiopental anesthesia, the left anterior descending ...
Pagel Paul S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Intracellular acidosis during early reperfusion after coronary artery occlusion was recently linked to cardioprotection resulting from myocardial ischemic postconditioning. We tested the hypotheses that transient alkalosis during early reperfusion abolishes helium preconditioning and that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) restores the cardioprotective effects of helium ...
Shainberg Asher - - 2009
Massive amounts of nucleotides are released during ischemia in the cardiovascular system. Although the effect of the purine nucleotide ATP has been intensively studied in myocardial infarction, the cardioprotective role of the pyrimidine nucleotide UTP is still unclear, especially in the cardiovascular system. The purpose of our study was to ...
Zuurbier C J - - 2009
The interaction of hexokinase with mitochondria has emerged as a powerful mechanism in protecting many cell types against cell death. However, the role of mitochondrial hexokinase (mitoHK) in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury has as of yet received little attention. In this review we examine whether increased binding of hexokinase to the ...
Ansley David M - - 2009
Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of death globally and results in significant morbidity and mortality following surgery. After cardiac surgery, diabetic patients are especially at risk for low cardiac output syndrome, which can quadruple the risk for postoperative death. Attempts to prevent low cardiac output syndrome have focused on ...
Lange Markus - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: An optimal administration protocol to induce a maximal effect of anesthetic preconditioning has not been evaluated to date. In this study, desflurane preconditioning was characterized with respect to its threshold, dose dependency, and continuous versus repetitive application. Furthermore, the role of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors in anesthetic preconditioning was tested. DESIGN: ...
Balakumar Pitchai - - 2009
Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow to the heart is diminished and thus the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart is reduced. The reperfusion to an ischemic myocardium often results in induction of infarction and cardiac dysfunction. The brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion ...
Mio Yasushi - - 2009
Similar to volatile anesthetics, the anesthetic noble gas xenon protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that xenon-induced cardioprotection is mediated by prosurvival signaling kinases that target mitochondria. Male Wistar rats instrumented for hemodynamic measurements were ...
Huffmyer Julie - - 2009
Perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction are not only major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery but also important causes of prolonged hospital stay and resource utilization. Ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning and postconditioning have been known for more than 2 decades to provide protection against myocardial ischemia and ...
Fallavollita James A - - 2009
To test the hypothesis that a critical stenosis prevents delayed preconditioning against stunning, studies were conducted in pigs chronically-instrumented with occluders and segment-shortening crystals. In the setting of a critical stenosis, a preconditioning stimulus of repetitive brief occlusions resulted in infarction. Thereafter, a single 10-minute occlusion was used as the ...
Zhao Heng - - 2009
Ischemic postconditioning initially referred to a stuttering reperfusion performed immediately after reperfusion, for preventing ischemia/reperfusion injury in both myocardial and cerebral infarction. It has evolved into a concept that can be induced by a broad range of stimuli or triggers, and may even be performed as late as 6 h ...
Penna Claudia - - 2009
A series of brief (a few minutes) ischemia/reperfusion cycles (ischemic preconditioning, IP) limits myocardial injury produced by a subsequent prolonged period of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Postconditioning (PostC), which is a series of brief (a few seconds) reperfusion/ischemia cycles at reperfusion onset, attenuates also ischemia/reperfusion injury. In recent years ...
Pagel Paul S - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Brief, repetitive administration of helium before prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion protects myocardium against infarction. Opioid receptors mediate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning, but whether these receptors also play a role in helium preconditioning is unknown. The authors tested the hypotheses that opioid receptors mediate ...
Valen Guro - - 2009
Myocardial adaptation to ischemia in the form of ischemic preconditioning is clinically attractive, but not easily usable in cardiac surgery until molecular mimics are discovered. The various forms of pre- and postconditioning, including remote preconditioning, indicate that a 'universal' protection is evoked. A growing body of evidence indicates that events ...
Nadtochiy Sergiy M - - 2009
The reversible S-nitrosation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is a potential mechanism of cardioprotection, recruited by ischemic preconditioning (IPC), S-nitrosothiols, and nitrite. Previously, to exploit this mechanism, the mitochondrial S-nitrosating agent S-nitroso-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (SNO-MPG) was developed, and protected perfused hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In the ...
Hall A A - - 2009
Previous reports have shown that human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) administered intravenously 48 hr following middle cerebral artery occlusion reduce infarct area and behavioral deficits of rodents. This cellular therapy is potently neuroprotective and antiinflammatory. This study investigates the effect of HUCBC treatment on white matter injury and oligodendrocyte ...
Baharvand Babak - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, it was indicated that pre-exposing rats to normobaric hyperoxia could induce a late preconditioning against infarction and arrhythmia. In this study, attempts were made to know whether the intermittent pre-exposure to the same environment could prolong the late phase of hyperoxia preconditioning. METHODS: In the ...
Floyd James S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: During acute myocardial infarction, both ST elevation and QRS distortion on the initial electrocardiogram (ECG) have been correlated with poorer prognosis. Studies in dogs and humans suggest that these ECG markers provide information about myocardial protection from both collateral blood flow and ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: In a protocol designed ...
RAVINGEROVA T - - 2009
We examined the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its effector protein kinase B (Akt) in cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (PC) with particular regards to its role in the protection against ischemia-induced arrhythmias in isolated perfused rat heart. PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin (100 nM) was administered 15 min prior to ...
Lakkisto Päivi - - 2009
Cardiac expression of cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is modulated by ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R). We therefore hypothesized that pretreatment with hemin, an inductor of HO-1, would precondition the heart against post-ischaemic dysfunction and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Male Wistar rats were given either hemin or HO enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin ...
Abete Pasquale - - 2009
A mild stress such as brief ischemic episodes may protect the heart from a successive and more prolonged myocardial ischemia (ischemic preconditioning). This phenomenon is considered a typical "hormetic mechanism" by which the heart is immunized from pathological insults such as myocardial ischemia. This mechanism is reduced with aging and ...
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