Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1194
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Jancso G - - 2004
To show that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition potentiates subthreshold ischemic preconditioning (IPC) via the elevation of bradykinin activity, leading to a fully delayed cardioprotective response. On day 1 of the experiment, pigs were subjected to sham (group 1, controls) or IPC protocols. In groups 2 and 3, 4x5 min and ...
Szekeres László - - 2004
In 1983, a delayed and prolonged cardioprotection induced by drugs was described. This pharmacologically induced adaptation to stress represents a new trend in cardioprotection as opposed to the classical drug treatment that was based on the presence of drug-receptor binding. Such a long-lasting, delayed adaptation can be induced by non-injurious ...
Meier J J - - 2004
In the UGDP study, published in the 1970s, a high incidence of cardiovascular mortality was found in patients treated with the sulfonylurea agent tolbutamide. Impaired ischaemic preconditioning is presumed to be the most important mechanism for the excess cardiovascular mortality observed. However, as tolbutamide has only a low affinity for ...
Tang Xian-Liang - - 2004
Nicorandil has been shown to induce an infarct-limiting effect similar to that induced by the early phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC). The goals of this study were to determine whether nicorandil induces a delayed cardioprotection that is analogous to the late phase of ischemic PC and, if so, whether nicorandil-induced ...
Das Dipak K - - 2003
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease by causing cardiac dysfunction and cell death. Several redox-sensitive anti- and pro-apoptotic transcription factors including NFkappaB and AP-1 progressively and steadily increase in the heart as a function of the duration of ischemia and reperfusion. ...
Yano Yoko - - 2003
Kinins have been shown to play a cardioprotective role during myocardial ischemia. However, the localization of each of the components of the kallikrein-kinin system in the heart has not been determined in a cell type-specific manner. Recently, mK1 has been identified as the major tissue kallikrein with the strongest bradykinin-forming ...
Dai Wangde - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen is widely prescribed as an analgesic agent in hospitals and clinics. However, acetaminophen theoretically could influence myocardial infarct size by reducing prostaglandin synthesis in vivo. To date, the effect of acetaminophen on myocardial infarct size is unknown. The present study investigated (1) whether acetaminophen has any effect on ...
Papadopoulos Christodoulos E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the protective effects of preinfarction angina in Q wave myocardial infarction, implicating the role of ischemic preconditioning but this role remains uncertain in patients with a NSTEMI. Subendocardial viability in NSTEMI patients, is thought to be less dependent on collateral circulation and thus more likely ...
Marktanner Ralph - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: alpha(1)-adrenoceptor activation confers myocardial protection from ischemic injury. We tested whether norepinephrine mediates delayed cardioprotection against stunning and whether this alters postischemic arrhythmias. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three groups: Control-group (n=7): no drugs. Norepinephrine-group (n=7): 75 microg norepinephrine/kg bodyweight (bw). Norepinephrine/prazosin-group (n=7):75 microg norepinephrine and ...
Auchampach John A JA Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2004
A(1) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists are effective diuretic agents that may be useful for treating fluid retention disorders including congestive heart failure. However, antagonism of A(1)ARs is potentially a concern when using these agents in patients with ischemic heart disease. To address this concern, the present study was designed to ...
Flynn Jeremy D - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist losartan on functional recovery of isolated rat hearts undergoing global myocardial ischemia-reperfusion compared with myocardial protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. DESIGN: Ex vivo experiment using isolated perfused rat heart. SETTING: Academic laboratory. INTERVENTION: Hearts from ...
Forkel Joerg - - 2004
Chronic hypoxia may precondition the myocardium and protect from ischemia-reperfusion damage. We therefore examined the recovery of left and right ventricular function after ischemia and reperfusion (15 min each) in isolated blood-perfused working hearts from normoxic (Norm) and hypoxic (Hypo; 14 days, 10.5% O(2)) adult rats. In addition, the mRNA ...
Yellon Derek M - - 2003
The phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning, in which a period of sublethal ischemia can profoundly protect the cell from infarction during a subsequent ischemic insult, has been responsible for an enormous amount of research over the last 15 years. Ischemic preconditioning is associated with two forms of protection: a classical form ...
Zaugg M - - 2003
There is compelling evidence that preconditioning occurs in humans. Experimental studies with potential clinical implications as well as clinical studies evaluating ischaemic, pharmacological and anaesthetic cardiac preconditioning in the perioperative setting are reviewed. These studies reveal promising results. However, there are conflicting reports on the efficacy of preconditioning in the ...
Parsa Cyrus J - - 2003
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to protect neurons from ischemic stroke, but can also increase thrombotic events and mortality rates in patients with ischemic heart disease. We reasoned that benefits of EPO might be offset by increases in hematocrit and evaluated the direct effects of EPO in the ischemic heart. ...
Funahashi Michio - - 2003
SUBJECT: We evaluated the efficacy for concomitant use of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and cardioplegic arrest with adenosine premedication on myocardial protection. METHODS: Twenty-one pigs were divided into three groups: 1) control group, 2) IPC group which had IPC, 3) IPC+adenosine triphosphate (ATP) group which had an administration of 140 gamma ...
Garlid Keith D - - 2003
Coronary artery disease and its sequelae-ischemia, myocardial infarction, and heart failure-are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in man. Considerable effort has been devoted toward improving functional recovery and reducing the extent of infarction after ischemic episodes. As a step in this direction, it was found that the heart was ...
Argaud Laurent - - 2004
Although the mechanism by which ischemic preconditioning (PC) inhibits myocardial apoptosis during ischemia-reperfusion is unclear, evidence indicates a role for the secondary messenger ceramide. We investigated in vivo whether PC may affect ceramide and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and attenuate apoptosis during ischemia. Rabbits underwent 30 min of ischemia, followed by ...
Miura Tetsuji - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that acceleration of gap junction (GJ) closure during ischemia contributes to anti-infarct tolerance afforded by preconditioning (PC). First, the effects of PC on GJ communication during ischemia were assessed. Isolated buffer-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 5-min global ischemia ...
Ryan Jonathon B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cariporide (a sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor), BMS180448 (a pharmacologic ischemic preconditioning agent), and the combination thereof, as adjuvant therapies for extended cardiac allograft preservation. METHODS: A porcine model of donor brain death and orthotopic heart transplantation was used. All ...
Müllenheim Jost - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane exerts cardioprotective effects that mimic the early ischemic preconditioning phenomenon (EPC) by activating adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Ischemic late preconditioning (LPC) is an important cardioprotective mechanism in patients with coronary artery disease. The authors investigated whether the combination of LPC and sevoflurane-induced preconditioning results in enhanced cardioprotection ...
Przyklenk Karin - - 2003
Data obtained from adult cohorts have implicated activation/translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon as an important cellular mediator of myocardial infarct size reduction with ischemic preconditioning (PC). Age-related alterations in cellular signaling may, however, confound the extrapolation of mechanistic insight derived from adults to the aging population, the specific subset ...
Wu Zhong-Kai - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to ascertain the percentage of left apical myocardial apoptosis in three-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting patients quantitatively and the impact of ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with three-vessel disease who had elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized in a ratio of ...
Lochner A - - 2003
The search for the mechanism of preconditioning-induced cardioprotection has been hampered by controversial results obtained by workers using different animal species, experimental models, protocols and endpoints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the perfusion model (retrograde vs working), the infarct size and severity of ischaemia ...
Kuzume Koh - - 2003
The opioid antagonist naloxone abolishes infarct limitation by myocardial ischemic preconditioning, suggesting that one or more endogenous opioid peptides can mediate cardiac protection against ischemic damage. We tested the hypothesis that the naturally occurring opioid peptide Met5-enkephalin (ME) modulates myocardial infarct size in vivo. Experiments were conducted in barbiturate-anesthetized open-chest ...
Padilla Ferran - - 2003
The end-effectors of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) are not well known. It has been recently shown that transgenic mice underexpressing the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) cannot be preconditioned. Because gap junctions allow spreading of cell death during ischemia-reperfusion in different tissues, including myocardium, we hypothesized that the protection afforded by ...
Matsuo Hitoshi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether pretreatment with nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)channel) opener, induces a preconditioning effect independent of increased collateral recruitment. METHODS: Forty-four patients with angina who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis were randomly allocated for pretreatment with ...
Loubani Mahmoud - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Increasing age has been recognized as a cause for adverse prognosis in the setting of myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, and cardiac surgery. This is attributed to a greater susceptibility of the senescent heart to ischemic injury and to a lower response to protective interventions. This study investigated the effect ...
Wechsler Andrew S - - 2003
For the past thirty years cardiac surgeons have had a unique opportunity to study the consequences of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. With the advent of an ability to intervene in acute myocardial syndromes, cardiologists have vigorously joined that effort as have fundamental scientists. Exogenous myocardial protective strategies have emerged as ...
Chatterjee Subhasis - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Apoptosis caused by acute ischemia and subsequent ventricular remodeling is implicated as a mediator of heart failure. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of in vivo viral gene transfer of the antiapoptotic factor apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to block apoptosis and preserve ventricular geometry and ...
Julier Karine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning by volatile anesthetics is a promising therapeutic strategy to render myocardial tissue resistant to perioperative ischemia. It was hypothesized that sevoflurane preconditioning would decrease postoperative release of brain natriuretic peptide, a biochemical marker for myocardial dysfunction. In addition, several variables associated with the protective effects of preconditioning were ...
Okubo Shinji - - 2003
The objective of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of protein kinase C between ischemic (IPC) and pharmacological preconditioning (PPC) in the rabbit heart. Control, IPC, diazoxide (Diaz), and chelerythrine (Chel)+IPC groups underwent prolonged coronary artery occlusion (CAO) for 30 minutes followed by 180 minutes' reperfusion (protocol ...
Kehl Franz - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia generates reactive oxygen species and prevents isoflurane-induced preconditioning. The authors tested the hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species with N-acetylcysteine will restore protection against myocardial infarction produced by isoflurane in vivo. METHODS: Barbiturate-anesthetized dogs (n = 45) were instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics. Myocardial infarct size and ...
Turoczi Tibor - - 2003
This study examined if thioredoxin, the major redox-regulator in the mammalian system, plays any role in the redox signaling of ischemic myocardium. Isolated working rat hearts were made globally ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Another group of hearts was rendered tolerant to ischemia by four ...
Riveline J P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: 33 years after the UGDP study, the question of deleterious effects of the sulfoylurea (SU) is still raised. We have made a systematic review of the literature from experimental studies to clinical and epidemiological studies. RESULTS: The main molecule studied is glibenclamide (GB). In vitro and in animal studies, ...
Kavianipour M - - 2003
AIMS AND METHODS: Recently it was suggested that ischaemic preconditioning (IP) protects the myocardium in a graded pattern as assessed by myocardial infarct size estimation. Using tissue biopsies we investigated the impact of the proposed graded pattern of protection on myocardial energy state in an open-chest porcine model of IP ...
Tissier Renaud - - 2003
Although extensive attention has been devoted to the window of preconditioning, only few studies investigated the efficacy of preconditioning against ischemia with increasing durations. To date, a "ceiling of protection" has been demonstrated to occur with early preconditioning but nothing is known about delayed preconditioning. Accordingly, the efficacy of a ...
Vasara Eleni - - 2003
1. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic preconditioning of the rat heart activates cardiovascular adenosine formation to provide enhanced cardioprotection. 2. Rat isolated perfused hearts were either non-preconditioned, preconditioned with 5 min ischaemia or treated for 5 min with the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (50 micro mol/L) before being subjected to ...
Przyklenk Karin - - 2003
Conventional ischemic preconditioning is the phenomenon whereby brief episodes of myocardial ischemia render the ischemic territory resistant to a subsequent, sustained ischemic insult. A growing body of evidence further indicates that brief ischemia applied in distant organs and tissues can also protect naïve, virgin myocardium from ischemic injury. In this ...
Miki Takayuki - - 2003
We have recently shown that the protective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning (PC) is impaired in the myocardium that survived infarction and underwent postinfarct ventricular remodeling. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that failure of PC to activate PKC-epsilon underlies the refractoriness of the remodeling heart to PC. Circumflex coronary ...
Lochner A - - 2003
To further evaluate the significance of p38 MAPK as trigger or mediator in ischaemic preconditioning, anisomycin and SB 203580 were used to manipulate its activation status. Special attention was given to the concentration of the drugs and protocols used. The isolated perfused rat heart, subjected to either 25 min global ...
Sbarouni Eftihia - - 2003
We investigated whether estrogen protects the ischemic myocardium in oophorectomized female rabbits fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet, whether the addition of a progestin compound attenuates the beneficial effect of estrogen and whether raloxifene also limits myocardial necrosis. We treated 32 female oophorectomized hypercholesterolemic rabbits with (a) placebo (N=8, group I), ...
Penttilä Hannu J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The value of ischemic preconditioning during coronary operations has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ischemic preconditioning on myocardial energy metabolism and tissue injury during off-pump multivessel coronary surgery. METHODS: Eleven patients with preceding preconditioning were compared with 11 patients without it. ...
Arnaud Claire - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be a trigger of the heat stress (HS)-induced cardioprotection. Since iNOS also appears to mediate various forms of myocardial preconditioning, the goal of this study was to investigate its role as a mediator of the HS response. METHODS ...
Baker Christopher S R - - 2003
Brief myocardial ischemia/reperfusion has complex effects on the myocardium. In the short term the myocardium may be stunned with temporarily reduced contractile function, though this may also be accompanied by the modification and de novo synthesis of proteins that protect the heart against subsequent early or delayed insults. Repeated episodes ...
de Lorgeril M - - 2003
The mechanisms through which the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in particular wine, protects against cardiac and vascular diseases remain largely unexplored. New methods are needed to investigate that crucial medical and scientific question. Several groups are now beginning to use animal models of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion to explore whether ...
Söylemez Selen - - 2003
We have investigated the role of tyrosine kinase in the antiarrhythmic effects of peroxynitrite preconditioning in rat isolated heart by using a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin. Rat hearts were preconditioned by peroxynitrite administration at 1 microM for 3 min, which was followed ...
Frances Carole - - 2003
Using an isolated nonworking rat heart model, this study investigated the role of beta-adrenergic preconditioning (beta-PC) to attenuate myocardial dysfunction after an ischemia/reperfusion injury. After a 20-min stabilization period, the noradrenaline depleted hearts were perfused for 5 min with isoproterenol (ISO) before 40-min global ischemia (I) followed by 30-min reperfusion ...
Laham Roger J - - 2003
Growth factor-induced angiogenesis is being investigated in ischemic heart disease. Intracoronary and intravenous delivery are the most practical, but are limited by low myocardial uptake and significant systemic recirculation. The pericardial space may act as a drug delivery reservoir with increased myocardial uptake and reduced systemic toxicities. This study was ...
Das B - - 2003
The roles of cardiomyocyte sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) and mitochondrial KATP channels in cardioprotection and antiarrhythmic activity induced by KATP channel openers remain obscure. However, it has been suggested that the mitochondrial KATP channels are involved as a subcellular mediator in cardioprotection afforded by ischemic preconditioning. In the present study, ...
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