Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1208
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Riess Matthias L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic preconditioning (APC) with sevoflurane reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The authors tested whether two brief exposures to sevoflurane would lead to a better preconditioning state than would a single longer exposure and whether dual exposure to a lower (L) concentration of sevoflurane would achieve an outcome similar to that ...
Tsai Ben M - - 2004
Preconditioning describes the phenomenon by which a traumatic or stressful stimulus confers protection against subsequent injury. Originally recognized in dog heart subjected to ischemic challenges, preconditioning has been demonstrated in multiple species, can be induced by various stimuli, and is applicable in different organ systems. Tremendous progress has been made ...
Lee Byeong Han - - 2004
The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of increasing numbers of preconditioning cycles on the different branching patterns (bifurcation/trifurcation) of the coronary artery in the rabbit heart. Fifty-six NZW rabbits were assigned to a bifurcation group and subjected to 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 (B0, B1, ...
Alcindor Dunbar - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediates the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), but whether this enzyme modulates early IPC, anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC), or other forms of pharmacologic preconditioning (PPC) is unknown. The authors tested the hypothesis that COX-2 is an essential mediator of IPC, APC, and PPC in vivo. METHODS: Barbiturate-anesthetized ...
Tanaka Katsuya - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Whether volatile anesthetics produce a second window of preconditioning is unclear. The authors tested the hypothesis that isoflurane causes delayed preconditioning against infarction and, further, that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mediates this beneficial effect. METHODS: Rabbits (n = 43) were randomly assigned to receive 0.9% intravenous saline, the selective COX-2 inhibitor ...
Ebrahim Z Z The Hatter Institute, UCL Hospitals and Medical School, London, - - 2004
Bradykinin is an important endogenous trigger of myocardial ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Through simultaneous inhibition of neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin converting enzyme, omapatrilat prevents enzymatic degradation of bradykinin. The aim of this study was to investigate if omapatrilat, through its ability to augment bradykinin levels, can augment a subthreshold IPC stimulus ...
Loubani Mahmoud - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Ischemic preconditioning confers cardioprotection in early and delayed phases. We investigated the delayed window of pharmacological and ischemic preconditioning in human myocardium, and the involvement of mitoKATP, PKC and p38MAPK. METHODS: These studies were carried out using human right atrial tissue in a cell necrosis model. The tissue was ...
Weinbrenner Christof - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is a powerful mechanism in reducing infarct size of the heart. Protection can be performed either by an ischemic stimulus of the heart itself or by ischemia of an organ distant to the heart (remote PC). We have previously shown that remote PC by infrarenal occlusion ...
Krieg T - - 2004
In ischemic preconditioning (IPC) a brief ischemic period protects the heart from a subsequent ischemic insult by an unknown mechanism. Osmotic swelling has been proposed to be a major cause of cell death when ischemic tissue is reperfused. The present study tests whether the preconditioned heart during reperfusion might release ...
Eisen Alon - - 2004
The phenomenon of "ischemic preconditioning" has been recognized for almost two decades. In experimental animals and humans, a brief period of ischemia has been shown to protect the heart from more prolonged episodes of ischemia, and reduce the degree of impaired ventricular function or subsequent damage. Ischemic preconditioning is classified ...
De Hert Stefan G - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing experimental evidence is indicating that volatile anesthetic agents may exert direct cardioprotective effects. They have been shown to directly precondition or indirectly enhance ischemic preconditioning. This results in protection against reversible and irreversible ischemic myocardial damage. In addition, volatile anesthetics also decrease the extent of the ...
Kolár F - - 2004
Effective protection of the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury is one of the most important goals of experimental and clinical research in cardiology. Besides ischemic preconditioning as a powerful temporal protective phenomenon, adaptation to chronic hypoxia also increases cardiac tolerance to all major deleterious consequences of acute oxygen deprivation such as ...
Dos Santos Pierre - - 2004
The aim of the works presented here is to analyze the alterations induced by acute ischemia-reperfusion and chronic ischemia on mitochondrial function, in relation to alterations on heart function. Parameters of mitochondrial function were assessed on skinned fibers coming from isolated perfused rat hearts. The effects of chronic ischemia were ...
Fujita Masanori - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: When establishing a myocardial infarction model in rabbits, artificial ventilation under endotracheal intubation is required to prevent pulmonary collapse caused by pneumothorax. However, it is difficult to carry out endotracheal intubation due to the rabbit anatomy. We therefore attempted to develop a myocardial infarction model in rabbits without endotracheal ...
Jancso G - - 2004
To show that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition potentiates subthreshold ischemic preconditioning (IPC) via the elevation of bradykinin activity, leading to a fully delayed cardioprotective response. On day 1 of the experiment, pigs were subjected to sham (group 1, controls) or IPC protocols. In groups 2 and 3, 4x5 min and ...
Szekeres László - - 2004
In 1983, a delayed and prolonged cardioprotection induced by drugs was described. This pharmacologically induced adaptation to stress represents a new trend in cardioprotection as opposed to the classical drug treatment that was based on the presence of drug-receptor binding. Such a long-lasting, delayed adaptation can be induced by non-injurious ...
Meier J J - - 2004
In the UGDP study, published in the 1970s, a high incidence of cardiovascular mortality was found in patients treated with the sulfonylurea agent tolbutamide. Impaired ischaemic preconditioning is presumed to be the most important mechanism for the excess cardiovascular mortality observed. However, as tolbutamide has only a low affinity for ...
Tang Xian-Liang - - 2004
Nicorandil has been shown to induce an infarct-limiting effect similar to that induced by the early phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC). The goals of this study were to determine whether nicorandil induces a delayed cardioprotection that is analogous to the late phase of ischemic PC and, if so, whether nicorandil-induced ...
Das Dipak K - - 2003
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease by causing cardiac dysfunction and cell death. Several redox-sensitive anti- and pro-apoptotic transcription factors including NFkappaB and AP-1 progressively and steadily increase in the heart as a function of the duration of ischemia and reperfusion. ...
Yano Yoko - - 2003
Kinins have been shown to play a cardioprotective role during myocardial ischemia. However, the localization of each of the components of the kallikrein-kinin system in the heart has not been determined in a cell type-specific manner. Recently, mK1 has been identified as the major tissue kallikrein with the strongest bradykinin-forming ...
Dai Wangde - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen is widely prescribed as an analgesic agent in hospitals and clinics. However, acetaminophen theoretically could influence myocardial infarct size by reducing prostaglandin synthesis in vivo. To date, the effect of acetaminophen on myocardial infarct size is unknown. The present study investigated (1) whether acetaminophen has any effect on ...
Papadopoulos Christodoulos E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the protective effects of preinfarction angina in Q wave myocardial infarction, implicating the role of ischemic preconditioning but this role remains uncertain in patients with a NSTEMI. Subendocardial viability in NSTEMI patients, is thought to be less dependent on collateral circulation and thus more likely ...
Marktanner Ralph - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: alpha(1)-adrenoceptor activation confers myocardial protection from ischemic injury. We tested whether norepinephrine mediates delayed cardioprotection against stunning and whether this alters postischemic arrhythmias. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three groups: Control-group (n=7): no drugs. Norepinephrine-group (n=7): 75 microg norepinephrine/kg bodyweight (bw). Norepinephrine/prazosin-group (n=7):75 microg norepinephrine and ...
Auchampach John A JA Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2004
A(1) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists are effective diuretic agents that may be useful for treating fluid retention disorders including congestive heart failure. However, antagonism of A(1)ARs is potentially a concern when using these agents in patients with ischemic heart disease. To address this concern, the present study was designed to ...
Flynn Jeremy D - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist losartan on functional recovery of isolated rat hearts undergoing global myocardial ischemia-reperfusion compared with myocardial protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. DESIGN: Ex vivo experiment using isolated perfused rat heart. SETTING: Academic laboratory. INTERVENTION: Hearts from ...
Forkel Joerg - - 2004
Chronic hypoxia may precondition the myocardium and protect from ischemia-reperfusion damage. We therefore examined the recovery of left and right ventricular function after ischemia and reperfusion (15 min each) in isolated blood-perfused working hearts from normoxic (Norm) and hypoxic (Hypo; 14 days, 10.5% O(2)) adult rats. In addition, the mRNA ...
Yellon Derek M - - 2003
The phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning, in which a period of sublethal ischemia can profoundly protect the cell from infarction during a subsequent ischemic insult, has been responsible for an enormous amount of research over the last 15 years. Ischemic preconditioning is associated with two forms of protection: a classical form ...
Zaugg M - - 2003
There is compelling evidence that preconditioning occurs in humans. Experimental studies with potential clinical implications as well as clinical studies evaluating ischaemic, pharmacological and anaesthetic cardiac preconditioning in the perioperative setting are reviewed. These studies reveal promising results. However, there are conflicting reports on the efficacy of preconditioning in the ...
Parsa Cyrus J - - 2003
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to protect neurons from ischemic stroke, but can also increase thrombotic events and mortality rates in patients with ischemic heart disease. We reasoned that benefits of EPO might be offset by increases in hematocrit and evaluated the direct effects of EPO in the ischemic heart. ...
Funahashi Michio - - 2003
SUBJECT: We evaluated the efficacy for concomitant use of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and cardioplegic arrest with adenosine premedication on myocardial protection. METHODS: Twenty-one pigs were divided into three groups: 1) control group, 2) IPC group which had IPC, 3) IPC+adenosine triphosphate (ATP) group which had an administration of 140 gamma ...
Garlid Keith D - - 2003
Coronary artery disease and its sequelae-ischemia, myocardial infarction, and heart failure-are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in man. Considerable effort has been devoted toward improving functional recovery and reducing the extent of infarction after ischemic episodes. As a step in this direction, it was found that the heart was ...
Argaud Laurent - - 2004
Although the mechanism by which ischemic preconditioning (PC) inhibits myocardial apoptosis during ischemia-reperfusion is unclear, evidence indicates a role for the secondary messenger ceramide. We investigated in vivo whether PC may affect ceramide and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and attenuate apoptosis during ischemia. Rabbits underwent 30 min of ischemia, followed by ...
Miura Tetsuji - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that acceleration of gap junction (GJ) closure during ischemia contributes to anti-infarct tolerance afforded by preconditioning (PC). First, the effects of PC on GJ communication during ischemia were assessed. Isolated buffer-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 5-min global ischemia ...
Ryan Jonathon B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cariporide (a sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor), BMS180448 (a pharmacologic ischemic preconditioning agent), and the combination thereof, as adjuvant therapies for extended cardiac allograft preservation. METHODS: A porcine model of donor brain death and orthotopic heart transplantation was used. All ...
Müllenheim Jost - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane exerts cardioprotective effects that mimic the early ischemic preconditioning phenomenon (EPC) by activating adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Ischemic late preconditioning (LPC) is an important cardioprotective mechanism in patients with coronary artery disease. The authors investigated whether the combination of LPC and sevoflurane-induced preconditioning results in enhanced cardioprotection ...
Przyklenk Karin - - 2003
Data obtained from adult cohorts have implicated activation/translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon as an important cellular mediator of myocardial infarct size reduction with ischemic preconditioning (PC). Age-related alterations in cellular signaling may, however, confound the extrapolation of mechanistic insight derived from adults to the aging population, the specific subset ...
Wu Zhong-Kai - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to ascertain the percentage of left apical myocardial apoptosis in three-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting patients quantitatively and the impact of ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with three-vessel disease who had elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized in a ratio of ...
Lochner A - - 2003
The search for the mechanism of preconditioning-induced cardioprotection has been hampered by controversial results obtained by workers using different animal species, experimental models, protocols and endpoints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the perfusion model (retrograde vs working), the infarct size and severity of ischaemia ...
Kuzume Koh - - 2003
The opioid antagonist naloxone abolishes infarct limitation by myocardial ischemic preconditioning, suggesting that one or more endogenous opioid peptides can mediate cardiac protection against ischemic damage. We tested the hypothesis that the naturally occurring opioid peptide Met5-enkephalin (ME) modulates myocardial infarct size in vivo. Experiments were conducted in barbiturate-anesthetized open-chest ...
Padilla Ferran - - 2003
The end-effectors of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) are not well known. It has been recently shown that transgenic mice underexpressing the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) cannot be preconditioned. Because gap junctions allow spreading of cell death during ischemia-reperfusion in different tissues, including myocardium, we hypothesized that the protection afforded by ...
Matsuo Hitoshi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether pretreatment with nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)channel) opener, induces a preconditioning effect independent of increased collateral recruitment. METHODS: Forty-four patients with angina who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis were randomly allocated for pretreatment with ...
Loubani Mahmoud - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Increasing age has been recognized as a cause for adverse prognosis in the setting of myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, and cardiac surgery. This is attributed to a greater susceptibility of the senescent heart to ischemic injury and to a lower response to protective interventions. This study investigated the effect ...
Wechsler Andrew S - - 2003
For the past thirty years cardiac surgeons have had a unique opportunity to study the consequences of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. With the advent of an ability to intervene in acute myocardial syndromes, cardiologists have vigorously joined that effort as have fundamental scientists. Exogenous myocardial protective strategies have emerged as ...
Chatterjee Subhasis - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Apoptosis caused by acute ischemia and subsequent ventricular remodeling is implicated as a mediator of heart failure. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of in vivo viral gene transfer of the antiapoptotic factor apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to block apoptosis and preserve ventricular geometry and ...
Julier Karine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning by volatile anesthetics is a promising therapeutic strategy to render myocardial tissue resistant to perioperative ischemia. It was hypothesized that sevoflurane preconditioning would decrease postoperative release of brain natriuretic peptide, a biochemical marker for myocardial dysfunction. In addition, several variables associated with the protective effects of preconditioning were ...
Okubo Shinji - - 2003
The objective of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of protein kinase C between ischemic (IPC) and pharmacological preconditioning (PPC) in the rabbit heart. Control, IPC, diazoxide (Diaz), and chelerythrine (Chel)+IPC groups underwent prolonged coronary artery occlusion (CAO) for 30 minutes followed by 180 minutes' reperfusion (protocol ...
Kehl Franz - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia generates reactive oxygen species and prevents isoflurane-induced preconditioning. The authors tested the hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species with N-acetylcysteine will restore protection against myocardial infarction produced by isoflurane in vivo. METHODS: Barbiturate-anesthetized dogs (n = 45) were instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics. Myocardial infarct size and ...
Turoczi Tibor - - 2003
This study examined if thioredoxin, the major redox-regulator in the mammalian system, plays any role in the redox signaling of ischemic myocardium. Isolated working rat hearts were made globally ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Another group of hearts was rendered tolerant to ischemia by four ...
Riveline J P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: 33 years after the UGDP study, the question of deleterious effects of the sulfoylurea (SU) is still raised. We have made a systematic review of the literature from experimental studies to clinical and epidemiological studies. RESULTS: The main molecule studied is glibenclamide (GB). In vitro and in animal studies, ...
Kavianipour M - - 2003
AIMS AND METHODS: Recently it was suggested that ischaemic preconditioning (IP) protects the myocardium in a graded pattern as assessed by myocardial infarct size estimation. Using tissue biopsies we investigated the impact of the proposed graded pattern of protection on myocardial energy state in an open-chest porcine model of IP ...
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