Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1388
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Antman Elliott M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relative contributions of the loading and maintenance doses of prasugrel on events in a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis. BACKGROUND: Prasugrel is superior to clopidogrel in preventing ischemic events in patients with ...
Stone Gregg W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin, as compared with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, results in similar suppression of ischemia while reducing hemorrhagic complications in patients with stable angina and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The safety and efficacy of bivalirudin ...
De Luca G - - 2008
Even though time-to-treatment has been shown to be a determinant of mortality in primary angioplasty, the potential benefits from early pharmacological reperfusion by glycoprotein (Gp) IIb-IIIa inhibitors are still unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to combine individual data from all randomised trials conducted on facilitated primary angioplasty by ...
Brodie Bruce R - - 2008
The current standard of care for anti-thrombotic therapy with primary PCI for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. However, heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are associated with a high incidence of bleeding, and many of the trials documenting benefit with ...
Pollack Charles C - - 2008
The main goal of treatment for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is prompt and complete reperfusion of the infarcted myocardium. This may be achieved using either fibrinolytic agents or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI, involving angioplasty with or without coronary artery stenting). In the clinical trial setting, PPCI appears to ...
Chackalamannil Samuel - - 2008
The discovery of an exceptionally potent series of thrombin receptor (PAR-1) antagonists based on the natural product himbacine is described. Optimization of this series has led to the discovery of 4 (SCH 530348), a potent, oral antiplatelet agent that is currently undergoing Phase-III clinical trials for acute coronary syndrome (unstable ...
Cuisset Thomas - - 2008
Impaired responses to antiplatelet therapy assessed by laboratory tests are associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study was designed to determine the relation between responses to aspirin and clopidogrel as assessed by a point-of-care assay (Verify Now, Accumetrics, San Diego, California) ...
Mukherjee Debabrata - - 2008
Current evidence suggests a central role for antithrombotic agents such as unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, several studies have shown that LMWHs may represent an effective alternative to UFH as an adjunct to thrombolytic ...
Christiaens Luc - - 2008
Aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces major vascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The extent of platelet inhibition, denoted as aspirin resistance, however, is not always sufficient. A correlation between aspirin resistance as measured by aggregometry and adverse clinical events has been demonstrated. The point-of-care platelet function ...
Bakhru Mihir R - - 2008
The Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) study (N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1706-1717, J Am Coil Cardiol 2007; 49:1982-1988) assessed the effect of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel (Plavix) and aspirin in patients at risk of atherothrombotic events. At a median of 28 ...
Atiemo Andrew D - - 2008
Antiplatelet therapy has proven efficacy in the management of atherothrombosis. Clopidogrel, a thienopyridine, is a potent antiplatelet agent that achieves its antiplatelet effects by inhibiting the binding of adenosine 5' diphosphate to its platelet receptor. Large clinical trials have demonstrated a role for clopidogrel in the management of symptomatic atherosclerosis, ...
Thijs Vincent - - 2008
Network meta-analysis can provide estimates of treatment efficacy of multiple treatment regimens, even when direct comparisons are unavailable. We used network meta-analysis to compare commonly used antiplatelet regimens in the prevention of serious vascular events after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke. We performed direct meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials ...
Arntz H-R - - 2008
The latest guidelines on the emergency care of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction were published by the European Resuscitation Council at the end of 2005. Since then, numerous studies have been presented, which have led to important conclusions. Among pharmacological interventions, the opinion on adjuncts to anticoagulant treatment in the area ...
Hendrickson Susan - - 2008
Reducing inconsistency and variability in emergency care processes increases chances for survival. Development of consistent processes for early risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndrome and provision of evidence-based therapy will reduce variability. A reproducible system of care for patients with acute coronary syndrome was developed. Results show that ...
Ellahham Samer - - 2008
Atherothrombosis describes the superimposition of a thrombus on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque, and is the primary cause of acute ischemic events. Atherothrombosis is a generalized and progressive process with an inflammatory component. Patients with disease in one vascular bed are at risk of disease in another, a concept known as ...
Tricoci Pierluigi - - 2008
Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors provide the most benefit in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes and high-risk features and in those who undergo early invasive treatment. Current guidelines recommend glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibition in these patients but offer little guidance as to timing of initiation. Preliminary data suggest superior outcomes with upstream ...
Pannu Rajmony - - 2008
Glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when added to aspirin and heparin. However, the benefits of Gp IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients pretreated with clopidogrel are less clear. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of adding a Gp ...
Braunwald Eugene - - 2008
Numerous clinical trials have established the value of antiplatelet therapies for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Aspirin (ASA), thienopyridines (i.e., clopidogrel and ticlopidine) and GP IIb/IIIa antagonists comprise the major classes of antiplatelet therapies demonstrated to be of benefit in the treatment of ACS and for the prevention of thrombotic complications ...
Lotfi Amir - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is inactive in vitro and is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450-3A4 to produce active metabolites. Unlike pravastatin, atorvastatin is a statin that is subject to metabolism by cytochrome P-450-3A4, and drug-drug interactions with other potent inhibitors of this cytochrome system have been demonstrated. However, the clinical impact of ...
Suda Kenji - - 2009
We determined change in serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), one of the most potent angiogenic factors, after intravenous infusion of heparin in children and reported successful improvement of cardiac ischemia after regular intravenous heparin infusion in an infant with ischemic heart disease (IHD) caused by Kawasaki disease (KD). Intravenous infusion ...
Raivio Peter - - 2008
Heparinization requires monitoring, but optimal methods for measuring the anticoagulant effects of heparin remain to be determined. We compared prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) and two chromogenic anti-factor Xa activity (anti-Xa) assays in monitoring high-dose heparinization during cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB). Heparin effects were serially measured with PiCT and two anti-Xa assays ...
Hurlen Mette - - 2008
In the present review, the role of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in the secondary prevention after myocardial infarction (MI) is discussed in the light of the results from large randomized clinical trials. In particular, recently published trials and meta-analyses including the combination of OAC and low-dose aspirin are presented. The data ...
Fares Ramez R - - 2008
The focus of this review is to discuss the hypothesis that justifies the use of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel versus monotherapy with aspirin in arterial vascular disease. By analyzing the CLARITY-TIMI and COMMIT trials, the authors discuss the appropriate use of aspirin plus clopidogrel for patients suffering ...
Rubboli Andrea - - 2008
A 48-hour course of intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the standard of treatment in conjunction with fibrin-specific thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In recent trials, the efficacy and safety of in-hospital administration of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), previously proven effective in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, have been investigated in ...
Boden William E - - 2008
Antiplatelet therapy to reduce the risks of recurrent myocardial infarction and restenosis after primary percutaneous coronary intervention is critically important to optimize the early treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Traditionally, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) has been recommended for patients with suspected STEMI, but this agent targets only one ...
Worster Andrew - - 2008
Clopidogrel (Plavix), a platelet aggregation inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in certain patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions, but its use in patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive a fibrinolytic strategy instead has been controversial. The aim of the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Section is to bring the readership ...
Michelson Alan D - - 2008
The P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel has a well-established role as an antithrombotic agent in the settings of percutaneous coronary intervention and acute coronary syndromes. However, several challenges remain, including the relatively slow onset of action of clopidogrel and the phenomenon of clopidogrel response variability or "resistance". Novel P2Y12 antagonists, including prasugrel, ...
Kilickiran Avci Burcak - - 2008
Agents with antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity have been proved to be effective in reducing the incidence of complications following acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention, and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, these agents, including heparin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors, and thienopyridines, are associated with increased risk of bleeding and thrombocytopenia and have ...
Hennekens Charles H - - 2008
There is an increasing burden of occlusive cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developed, as well as in developing, countries. In fact, the WHO has projected that CVD will become the leading cause of death in the world in the next 10 years. The proximate cause of virtually all occlusive vascular events ...
Canales John F - - 2008
The clinical spectrum of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) encompasses unstable angina, non-ST-elevation, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within an atherosclerotic plaque, disruption of the endothelium can lead to exposure of tissue factor, with platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation, along with activation of the coagulation cascade, culminating in thrombin formation and ...
Mikkelsson Jussi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Aspirin has been used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with coronary disease. Although supported by several large controlled trials, aspirin prevents only a portion of recurrent events. AIM AND METHOD: We set out to study the prevalence of long-term aspirin use prior to admission for ...
Blick Stephanie K A - - 2008
Fondaparinux sodium (Arixtra) is a synthetic, sulfated pentasaccharide, selective factor Xa inhibitor that is indicated in Europe for preventing thrombus formation in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS; the focus of this review), including those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), or unstable angina.The large (n = 20,078), ...
De Luca Giuseppe - - 2008
Despite the improvement in outcome observed with primary angioplasty compared with thrombolysis, there is still room for improvement. Indeed, despite restoration of optimal epicardial flow in the vast majority of patients, suboptimal myocardial reperfusion is observed in a relatively large proportion. The aim of this article is to provide an ...
Zeymer Uwe - - 2008
We sought to assess the effect of clopidogrel on in-hospital events in unselected patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACOS) registry with acute STEMI we compared outcomes of either adjunctive therapy with aspirin alone or ...
Barantke Melanie - - 2008
The increasing incidence of patients who develop acute coronary syndrome (ACS) stresses the importance of effective initial treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. The recommended initial therapeutic regimen for patients with ACS includes both anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents to prevent excessive coronary thrombosis, stroke, and further coronary events. Most commonly, ...
Hartmann F - - 2008
Antithrombotic and powerful antiplatelet therapies, in addition to early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are considered the treatment of choice for moderate- to high-risk patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS; unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction). However, despite the integration of newer therapies including stents, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI), and ...
Smith Pål J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of prognostic factors on the outcome of treatment with warfarin or aspirin after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Patients from the Warfarin Aspirin Re-Infarction Study, assigned to treatment with warfarin (n = 1,216) or aspirin (n = 1,206) after myocardial infarction, were stratified according to important ...
Depta Jeremiah P - - 2008
Platelet activation and aggregation are key components in the cascade of events causing thrombosis following plaque rupture. Antiplatelet therapy is essential in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and for those requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well established antiplatelet therapy and is ...
Ruland Sean - - 2008
Antiplatelet therapy is universally recommended for the prevention of recurrent events in patients with noncardioembolic ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), acute and chronic coronary artery disease, or peripheral arterial disease. However, choosing which antiplatelet agents to use in these situations remains controversial. The use of aspirin, aspirin plus ...
McKeage Kate - - 2008
Parnaparin (Fluxum) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) that is effective and generally well tolerated in the prevention of venous thrombosis, and in the treatment of chronic venous disease and venous and arterial thrombosis. Overall, the efficacy of parnaparin is at least as good as that of unfractionated heparin ...
Wadia Yasmin - - 2008
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an immunologically mediated syndrome that is associated with potentially life-threatening arterial and venous thrombosis. Re-exposing patients who have heparin-induced thrombocytopenia to heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass may be hazardous. We describe the re-exposure to unfractionated heparin of a patient with a left ventricular assist device and evidence of ...
Diercks Deborah B - - 2008
Emergency department (ED) physicians are critical in the accurate diagnosis, efficient management, and treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The initial reperfusion strategy involves the choice between mechanical reperfusion using primary percutaneous coronary intervention and pharmacologic treatment with fibrinolytics. The benefits of these approaches are time dependent, and ...
McCann Conor J - - 2008
New data have re-established the importance of anticoagulation of patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), both as an adjuvant to reperfusion therapy or in patients ineligible for reperfusion. Recent randomized trials have found newer agents to be superior to conventional unfractionated heparin. This article summarizes current understanding of ...
Ramana Ravi K - - 2008
Previously, indirect thrombin inhibitors such as unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin were used as a standard anticoagulation during percutaneous coronary intervention to prevent procedural thrombotic complications but at a risk of hemorrhagic complications. More recently, bivalirudin, a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor class, has been shown to have 1) ...
Berger Jeffrey S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although treatment with immediate aspirin reduces morbidity and mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the optimal dose is unclear. We therefore compared the acute mortality and bleeding risks associated with the initial use of 162 versus 325 mg aspirin in fibrinolytic-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using combined ...
Singh Sarabjeet - - 2007
Recent data suggest that bivalirudin, a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, may be noninferior to heparins (unfractionated heparin/low molecular weight heparin) in providing protection against cardiovascular events, with significantly fewer bleeding complications. Whether this advantage is consistent has not been fully defined. We evaluated cardiac outcomes with bivalirudin vs the heparins ...
Cohen Marc - - 2007
This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the medical and invasive management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as supported by recent updates to the ACC/AHA Guidelines. The authors have summarized findings from key clinical trials published in recent years that ...
Wiviott Stephen D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dual-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine is a cornerstone of treatment to prevent thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: To compare prasugrel, a new thienopyridine, with clopidogrel, we randomly assigned 13,608 patients with moderate-to-high-risk acute coronary syndromes with scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention to ...
Hassan Ameer E - - 2007
Clopidogrel is an effective antiplatelet medication used for the secondary prevention of ischemic events in patients with various cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease conditions. The objective of this paper is to discuss the role of clopidogrel in ischemic stroke patients and to review the existing data from randomized trials ...
Mukherjee Debabrata - - 2007
Evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) identify a central role for unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). A recent study has suggested that interchanging between UFH and LMWH during the course of treatment may be associated with a worse outcome than continued therapy with either ...
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