Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1385
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Ray K K - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine a pharmacogenomic approach to heparin use in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, specifically the impact of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist polymorphisms upon von Willebrand factor (vWF) responses to unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). BACKGROUND: In acute coronary syndromes (ACS), identification ...
Ferrari Emile - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether aspirin withdrawal is an encountered situation in coronary disease patients who relapsed. BACKGROUND: Despite the recognized benefits of aspirin in coronary disease, and because of the threat of bleeding or poor compliance, aspirin intake is sometimes stopped. It is not known whether withdrawal of ...
White Harvey - - 2006
Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug that has been shown in several trials to reduce clinical events such as cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction when compared to aspirin in a broad range of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Clopidogrel has also been shown to reduce the same events by 20% ...
Ray Kausik K - - 2005
AIMS: Prior studies suggest that acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) are associated with endothelial activation and that this is of prognostic significance. We hypothesized that endothelial activation, as measured by a rise in von Willebrand Factor (DeltavWF), was influenced by the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade (TFG), the corrected TIMI ...
Crowe Basil - - 2005
Most acute coronary syndromes result from a platelet-rich occlusion of the coronary arteries. Antiplatelet drugs are of proven efficacy in preventing myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and stroke. However, not all patients on aspirin (ASA) benefit. We studied the phenomenon of aspirin resistance with a simple and reliable platelet function analyzer--the ...
Lindgren Peter - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Percutaneous Coronary Intervention-Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events (PCI-CURE) study, which examined the effect of adding clopidogrel to aspirin versus aspirin alone in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI, found a relative risk reduction in cardiovascular deaths and myocardial infarction among those treated ...
Curran Monique P - - 2005
Eptifibatide (Integrilin) is a highly specific, reversible, intravenously administered glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist that acts at the final common step of the platelet aggregation pathway. Data from large clinical trials indicate that intravenous eptifibatide as adjunctive therapy to standard care is effective in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute ...
Rubboli Andrea - - 2005
The combination of oral anticoagulation (OAC) and aspirin was the antithrombotic treatment initially adopted after coronary stenting (PCI-S). Although dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine subsequently proved safer and more effective, OAC and aspirin combination is still used in patients with an indication for long-term OAC undergoing PCI-S. ...
Denardo Scott J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive pharmacotherapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has historically consisted of a regimen of antiplatelet agents accompanied by an antithrombin agent, typically unfractionated heparin. Paradoxically, unfractionated heparin may activate platelets, induce other pro-thrombotic activities, increase bleeding complications, and cause thrombocytopenia. To optimize patient care and avoid the potential risks ...
Korovesis Socrates - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that enoxaparin may be equally as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin during a coronary angioplasty procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether enoxaparin can be used effectively and safely in place of unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing emergency or programmed coronary ...
Moen Marit D - - 2005
Bivalirudin (Angiox, Angiomax) is a synthetic 20-amino acid peptide analogue of hirudin. It is a direct thrombin inhibitor that binds specifically and reversibly to both fibrin-bound and unbound thrombin. Intravenous bivalirudin is approved in Europe for use as an anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the US, ...
LaMonte Marian P - - 2005
Argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, effectively inhibits free and clot-bound thrombin without the need of a cofactor and exerts dose-dependent anticoagulant effects that are rapidly active and rapidly reversible (elimination half-life: 39-51 min). Argatroban provides predictable parenteral anticoagulation and is well tolerated with an acceptably low bleeding risk in a ...
Weinberger Jesse - - 2005
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the US. Primary prevention of stroke can be achieved by control of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol levels and smoking. Approximately one-third of all ischaemic strokes occur in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic ...
Avezum Alvaro - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based cardiac therapies are underutilized in elderly patients. We assessed differences in practice patterns, comorbidities, and in-hospital event rates, by age and type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We studied 24165 ACS patients in 102 hospitals in 14 countries stratified by age. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds of patients were ...
Paoli G - - 2005
As acute coronary syndromes are principally sustained by plaque complication and subsequent thrombus formation, anticoagulant therapy plays a central role in avoiding ischemic events; its main targets are thrombin activity and generation. Despite its limitations, such as its scarce ability to activate bound thrombin and its unpredictable pharmacological response, heparin ...
Welsh Robert C - - 2004
Pharmacologic reperfusion of patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction is designed to achieve prompt high-quality reperfusion, prevent recurrent ischemia and reinfarction, maintain long-term patency, and to enhance patient survival and quality of life. Because monotherapy with fibrinolytics is by itself unable to achieve all of these objectives, antithrombotic, ...
Rajagopal Vivek - - 2004
Platelet activation is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and has a substantial impact on the outcomes in these settings. Aggressive implementation of antiplatelet therapy has significantly decreased adverse cardiovascular events, such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and repeat ...
Clayton Stephanie B - - 2004
Cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type II heparin induced-thrombocytopenia poses significant challenges. Inadequate pharmacokinetic profiles, monitoring, reversibility, and availability often limit alternative anticoagulation strategies. Bivalirudin, a semisynthetic direct thrombin inhibitor, was recently approved for use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Its unique properties, including a relatively short half-life, an ...
Silva M A - - 2004
Coronary disease accounts for the majority of deaths among patients with diabetes and the thrombotic milieu accelerated by diabetes results in unstable angina (UA), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or death. Upstream use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitor with percutaneous coronary ...
Schussler Jeffrey M - - 2004
Three hundred nine patients were followed during their recovery area stay after percutaneous coronary intervention. Recovery area times for patients who received bivalirudin during percutaneous coronary intervention showed an average reduction in total recovery area length of stay of 36 minutes (p <0.0001) compared with patients who received heparin alone. ...
Schleinitz Mark D - - 2004
Sub-acute thrombosis is a serious complication of coronary artery stenting. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is the accepted prophylactic regimen, but has yet to be proven superior to ticlopidine plus aspirin, and a new regimen combining cilostazol and aspirin has been introduced. We conducted a meta-analysis of all trials that compared >or=2 ...
Moser Lynette R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To review the available literature addressing the role of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as an alternative to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for treatment of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS). DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search (1966-March 2004) identified pertinent articles using the key words acute coronary syndromes, ...
Cavendish Jeffrey J - - 2004
The acute coronary syndromes (ACS), consisting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina, remain a leading cause of death in the United States. Through the process of atherothrombosis, underlying atherosclerosis can progress to an acute ischemic coronary event. This disease mechanism is also common to ischemic ...
Chu Michael W A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel (Plavix) is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation used concomitantly with percutaneous coronary interventions and in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Its favorable effects on preventing thrombus formation may have deleterious effects on hemostasis in patients undergoing coronary surgery. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 312 consecutive urgent ...
Stone Gregg W - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS; unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) are at significant risk for death and myocardial infarction. Early angiography followed by revascularization is considered the treatment of choice for moderate- to high-risk patients with ACS. However, despite the integration of newer therapies including stents, ...
Sonson Jocelyn M - - 2004
We examined treatment patterns of female pts with CKD admitted for ACS. In this retrospective review of 200 patients with chronic kidney disease presenting with acute coronary syndrome, we found that females patients were less likely to receive aspirin and ACE-inhibitors and there was a trend towards less frequent use ...
Tran Huyen - - 2004
CONTEXT: Atherothrombosis is a pathophysiologic process that results in clinical ischemic events affecting the cerebral, coronary, and peripheral arterial circulation. Antiplatelet agents, used alone or in combination, are effective in preventing recurrent vascular events among individuals with established vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current state of evidence regarding oral ...
Rha Seung-Woon - - 2004
Bivalirudin (Angiomax) is increasingly used as a substitute for heparin in a variety of percutaneous coronary interventions. This retrospective, observational study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin compared with heparin as an antithrombotic regimen in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents (Cypher) and found that bivalirudin is clinically ...
Kurth Tobias - - 2004
Aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are widely used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Aspirin has the largest and most persuasive body of randomized trial evidence to support its use in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and primary prevention for myocardial infarction. There is, however, a ...
Harrington Robert A - - 2004
This chapter about antithrombotic therapy for coronary artery disease (CAD) is part of the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: Evidence Based Guidelines. Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patients' ...
Abdel-Razeq Hikmat N - - 2004
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia HIT is a potentially devastating complication of heparin therapy. The severe form of HIT has been associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis manifested by myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular occlusion, skin necrosis or limb ischemia. Several agents are now available as alternatives to heparin in patients with suspected HIT, ...
John Jim M - - 2004
Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent condition in the modern era. Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality in this population. Despite advances in the therapeutic modalities available for management of coronary artery disease, diabetic patients tend to have worse short and long term outcomes. Acute coronary syndrome ...
Petersen John L - - 2004
Clinical trials and accompanying substudies in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have over the last several years yielded a wealth of knowledge about the pathophysiology and management of this high-risk condition. The Superior Yield of the New strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and GlYcoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial is a ...
Jang Ik-Kyung - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, blocks clot-bound thrombin more effectively than does heparin. This multicenter, prospective pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of argatroban in combination with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Patients (N = 152) received argatroban as a 250- or 300-mug/kg ...
Almeda Francis Q - - 2004
Platelet activation and aggregation have become increasingly recognized as the primary processes involved in the cascade that leads to thrombus formation in atherosclerotic vascular disease. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors (GPI) favorably impact thrombus formation and distal embolization by inhibiting the final common pathway of platelet aggregation. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have ...
Wolak Arik - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Enoxaparin has gained wide acceptance in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there is uncertainty regarding management of patients who require coronary intervention while on enoxaparin. Some physicians withhold the morning dose of enoxaparin prior to coronary intervention while others switch patients to unfractionated heparin. Both methods do not ...
Sinnaeve P R - - 2004
The new oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran is at least equivalent to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvar atrial fibrillation, and seems to be a promising adjunct to aspirin after acute coronary syndrome
Montalescot G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended in the treatment of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), but no relationship has ever been shown between anticoagulation levels obtained with LMWH treatment and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In all, 803 consecutive patients with UA/NSTEMI were treated with subcutaneous enoxaparin and were ...
Ferguson James J - - 2004
CONTEXT: Enoxaparin has demonstrated advantages over unfractionated heparin in low- to moderate-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with a conservative strategy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes of patients treated with enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin and to define the role of enoxaparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ...
Cleland J G F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is commonly associated with vascular disease and a high rate of athero-thrombotic events, but the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy are unknown. METHODS: The current study was an open-label, randomized, controlled trial comparing no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin (300 mg/day), and warfarin (target international normalized ratio 2.5) ...
Kreidy Raghid - - 2004
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an important and sometimes life-threatening immunological drug reaction. About 2.5% of patients receiving heparin develop immune-mediated (type II) heparin-induced thrombocytopenia that may be complicated by a paradoxical thrombotic syndrome either arterial or venous. This severe syndrome carries relevant rates of mortality and morbidity secondary to cerebral, myocardial ...
Manoharan Ganesh - - 2004
The combined use of a fibrinolytic and a platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor to target the fibrin and platelet components of occlusive thrombi offers the potential for more rapid and complete reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), although there have been concerns about the safety of this ...
Yan Andrew T - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review was to summarize the recent developments regarding the use of low-molecular-weight heparins in the management of acute coronary syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, enoxaparin is superior to unfractionated heparin in reducing death, myocardial infarction, ...
Schleinitz Mark D - - 2004
PURPOSE: Clopidogrel is more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent vascular events, but concerns about its cost-effectiveness have limited its use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin as secondary prevention in patients with a prior myocardial infarction, a prior stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: We constructed Markov ...
Nagarajan Darbhamulla V - - 2004
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether clopidogrel is superior to aspirin in preventing adverse events post coronary arterial bypass grafting. Altogether 220 papers were found using the reported search, of which four presented the best evidence to ...
Cannon Christopher P - - 2004
Risk stratification is crucial in guiding the acute management of non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS). An early invasive strategy (catheterization/revascularization) in conjunction with aggressive antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy offers the most effective means of reducing ischemic complications in intermediate- and high-risk patients. In low-risk patients, stress testing serves ...
Maroo Anjli - - 2004
The Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Angiomax to Reduced Clinical Events (REPLACE)-2 trial is one of the largest acute randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of two anticoagulant strategies during contemporary urgent or elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The direct thrombin inhibitor, bivalirudin, with provisional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP ...
Sinnaeve Peter R - - 2004
In the ASsessment of the Safety of a New Thrombolytic 3 (ASSENT-3) study, full-dose tenecteplase plus enoxaparin or half-dose tenecteplase plus abciximab reduced the frequency of ischemic complications of acute myocardial infarction, when compared to full-dose tenecteplase plus unfractionated heparin. The aim of the present study was to determine the ...
Cheema Aamir A - - 2004
Aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and vascular death, but some people on aspirin sustain a subsequent vascular event, suggesting the phenomenon of aspirin resistance. Based on epidemiologic data, some people have recommended avoiding ibuprofen in patients taking aspirin and suggested that ibuprofen reverses the cardioprotection offered by ...
Herbert Jean-Marc - - 2004
Atherothrombosis, or thrombus formation, at the site of a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque is the common pathophysiology related to myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease. A growing body of evidence demonstrates an important role for vascular inflammation in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis/atherothrombosis and the importance of the platelet as ...
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