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Tisdale J E - - 1991
The prophylactic administration of lidocaine for the prevention of primary ventricular fibrillation (VF) following suspected acute myocardial infarction (MI) is controversial. The incidence of primary VF following acute MI ranges from 1.8% to 10.5%. "Warning arrhythmias" have not been shown to be reliable predictors of VF. In-hospital prophylactic administration of ...
Kojima M - - 1991
Using an isolated perfused heart preparation of the rat, the effects of lidocaine (Na+ channel blocker) on ischemic derangements of the mechanical function and energy metabolism of the ventricular myocardium were studied. The myocardial tissue levels of creatine phosphate (CP), ATP, inorganic phosphate (PI) and pH were determined using 31P-NMR. ...
Gwathmey J K - - 1991
The purpose of the present study was to examine light microscopic data qualitatively as well as quantitatively from an animal model of dilated cardiomyopathy in the turkey. A previous study reported the gross cardioprotective effect of propranolol and the lack of cardioprotection with digoxin in furazolidone-induced cardiomyopathy. It was therefore ...
Popovici D - - 1991
In the present study: (a) physiopathology, (b) clinics, and (c) therapy of cardiothyreosis are discussed. (a) The hyperkinetic syndrome, the earliest clinical sign in thyrotoxicosis (vasodilatation, increase in inotropism, automatism, etc.), is mediated by a two-fold increase in the number of beta-receptors, and supported by an adequate synthesis of ATP ...
Boutjdir M - - 1991
Alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists were shown to induce delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and triggered activity in the presence of elevated extracellular Ca2+. We investigated the effects of alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation on DADs and triggered activity in canine Purkinje fibers that survived 1-day of myocardial infarction. Endocardial preparations were studied using standard microelectrode ...
Peters R W - - 1990
To provide insight into the protective effect of propranolol on mortality after myocardial infarction observed in the beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial, the time of occurrence of sudden cardiac death was examined in this population. Between 5 A.M. and 11 A.M., 25 of the 56 total deaths (38%) occurred in the ...
Vachiery J L - - 1990
Bretylium tosylate has been shown effective in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation and in the prevention of its recurrence. However, lidocaine is generally preferred because bretylium could have adverse hemodynamic effects related to its antiadrenergic action. To explore further the differences between these two antiarrhythmic agents, the authors compared the ...
Horwitz R I - - 1990
The relation of treatment adherence to mortality after a myocardial infarction was investigated among 2175 participants in the Beta Blocker Heart Attack Trial, which had data for measures of treatment adherence, clinical severity, and the psychological and social features that may influence post-infarction mortality. Overall, patients who did not adhere ...
Zehender M - - 1990
In acute myocardial infarction, lidocaine is considered the drug of choice for the treatment of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. While initially a so-called "selective" treatment strategy prevailed, in which lidocaine was administered only after the onset of certain "warning arrhythmias," the prophylactic use of lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction has been ...
Noguchi K - - 1990
Effects of arotinolol, a combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, on regional myocardial dysfunction produced by severe coronary stenosis in anesthetized dogs were examined and compared with those of labetalol and propranolol. Doses of these three antagonists were selected to produce a comparable degree of the negative chrono- and inotropic ...
Abe Y - - 1990
The effects of betaxolol, a cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, on ischemic myocardial acidosis were studied in dog hearts, in which the left anterior descending coronary artery was partially occluded for 90 min, and were compared with those of atenolol and propranolol. Myocardial ischemia produced a decrease in myocardial pH (measured by ...
Wheatley A M - - 1990
Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism is associated with cardiac hypertrophy, tachycardia and elevated myocardial contractility. To investigate the possibility of ameliorating the cardiac changes pharmacologically, hyperthyroid rats were treated with propranolol, verapamil or dantrolene. Cardiac hypertrophy was assessed from the heart mass: body mass ratio and cardiac function was measured in vitro. ...
Bril A - - 1990
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the electrophysiological effects of acetylcholine in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction. DESIGN: Infarction in canine hearts was produced by coronary occlusion. Ischaemic tissue was removed and surviving Purkinje fibres were compared for effects of increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (1-100 microM) with ...
King F G - - 1990
This double-blind controlled study examined the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) greater than 5.min-1, bigeminy, couplets, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation) in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients during the first 24 hr postoperatively to determine the effect of prophylactic lidocaine on reducing the frequency of ventricular ...
Hiromasa S - - 1990
We examined the in vivo electrophysiologic effects of tocainide in canine acute myocardial infarction. We compared the effects of tocainide in infarcted and non-infarcted zones. The left anterior descending coronary artery of 8 dogs was ligated and bipolar ventricular electrograms were recorded from a needle electrode placed transmurally in the ...
Sintov A - - 1990
Epicardial antiarrhythmic drug administration was studied as a therapeutic approach for experimental ventricular tachycardia (VT) in an open-chest dog model. Lidocaine-polyurethane matrices (28%, w/w) were formulated as a model system. Matrices were placed on the left ventricular epicardium in each of 23 anesthetized open-chest dogs with ouabain-induced VT, to evaluate ...
Glennon R A - - 1990
Phenylalkylamine derivatives produce several types of behavioral effects including central stimulation and hallucinogenic activity. SAR are being formulated and already (a) it has been demonstrated that each of these types of activities is associated with a distinct SAR, and (b) it is now possible to use these SAR to make ...
Fournier C - - 1989
The purpose of this prospective randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of propranolol and amiodarone in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias during the first 6 months following myocardial infarction (MI). 97 patients were treated with either amiodarone (n = 48) or propranolol (n = 49) starting on the 9th day following ...
Abraham S - - 1989
Blockade of ventricular sodium conductance (gNa) is believed to play an important role in the beneficial antiarrhythmic effects of class I antiarrhythmic agents. The present study was undertaken to examine the importance of ventricular gNa blockade by assessing the antiarrhythmic profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a selective sodium channel blocker. Experiments ...
Kashiki M - - 1989
The coronary hemodynamic effects of propranolol (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) were examined in anesthetized dogs with flow-limiting dynamic and fixed coronary stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery. During fixed coronary stenosis created by external application of an occluder device, propranolol significantly decreased coronary blood flow (CBF) by 6.8 +/- 2.7% ...
Scott D B - - 1989
The acute central nervous and cardiovascular effects of the local anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine were compared in 12 volunteers in a randomized double-blind manner with use of intravenous infusions at a rate of 10 mg/min up to a maximal dose of 150 mg. The volunteers were all healthy men. They ...
Costard-Jäckle A - - 1989
Both conduction time (CT) and effective refractory period (ERP), absolute and relative to action potential duration (APD), are major determinants of re-entry arrhythmia circuits. We compared the effects of 3 commonly used class I antiarrhythmic agents, lidocaine, mexiletine and quinidine, and of the combination of the latter 2, on APD, ...
Cardinal R - - 1989
To investigate the actions of lidocaine and diltiazem on the ischemic alterations associated with the onset of acute ischemic arrhythmias, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 6-min periods separated by 30 min of reperfusion, under control conditions and after injection of lidocaine (2.4-3.8 micrograms/mL of plasma) or ...
Dangman K H - - 1989
Procainamide is a class I antiarrhythmic drug. Most studies of the cellular electrophysiologic effects of procainamide have been done with concentrations well above the therapeutic range. We studied the effects of therapeutic concentrations (10 mg/L) of the drug on transmembrane action potentials recorded from isolated canine cardiac tissues. In normal ...
Ogawa T - - 1989
To clarify the mechanism of irreversible myocardial damage, we studied the relationship between ischaemic mitochondrial dysfunction and leakage of lysosomal enzymes, and the effects of propranolol on myocardial damage. Open chest anaesthetised dogs were divided into six groups: 30 min occlusion of the left anterior coronary artery (LAD); 2 h ...
Ray D C - - 1989
The haemodynamic effects of an infusion of nicardipine were studied noninvasively before, during and after halothane anaesthesia in man, using a simple technique to achieve constant plasma drug concentrations. Eighty patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous infusion of either nicardipine or normal saline. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures ...
Hino T - - 1989
In dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded for 90 min. so that about 1/2 of the original flow was allowed to flow (partial occlusion). Bevantolol (a beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (a reference drug) was injected intravenously 30 min. after partial occlusion. Regional ...
Watanabe I - - 1989
The beta-adrenergic and calcium channel blocking agents are known to reduce heart rate and alter myocardial contractility. More recent evidence suggests that both agents affect the metabolic consequences of ischemia, independent of their effects on heart rate and contractility. We used a low-flow model of ischemia in swine with heart ...
Koiwa Y - - 1989
We examined the left ventricular functional response to externally applied vibration using four canine open chest preparations. A sinusoidal 30 Hz vibration (2.7 mm in amplitude) was applied to the ventricular epicardium at each level of propranolol-induced myocardial depression. External vibration in control conditions induced no significant change either in ...
Buffington C W - - 1989
Direct myocardial depression plays a role in the cardiovascular toxicity of local anesthetic agents, but this role is obscured by concomitant cardiac, systemic, and CNS events: seizures, hypoxia, acidosis, sympathetic activation, bradycardia, and A-V heart block. Direct injection of small bolus doses of lidocaine and bupivacaine into a branch of ...
O'Connor J P - - 1989
This study was performed to compare the incidence of prebypass myocardial ischemia in patients receiving fentanyl and enflurane for anesthesia along with either pancuronium or vecuronium. Ninety-eight patients with normal left ventricular function were randomly allocated to receive either pancuronium 0.15 mg.kg-1 or vecuronium 0.15 mg.kg-1 in a double-blind manner ...
Barrett J A - - 1989
Celiprolol, propranolol or saline were administered to separate groups (n = 5-6) of anesthetized dogs in which a critical stenosis was applied to the circumflex coronary artery for 90 min and then reperfused for 30 min. Test drugs were administered at 30 min poststenosis and the effects on pH, regional ...
Cokkinos D V - - 1989
Fifteen patients were studied by echocardiography, apexcardiogram and carotid pulse tracings in four ways: basally; on propranolol 40 mg, three times daily; on disopyramide 200 mg single dose, three days after propranolol discontinuation; and on both drugs. The following data were measured: systolic anterior mitral motion slope, systolic anterior mitral ...
Uchida M - - 1989
We developed a new method for introducing drugs into the basal cistern of rabbits. With minimal surgical invasion, we used either the opening of the craniopharyngeal duct to access the chiasmatic cistern or the suture between the basisphenoid and basioccipital bones to access the interpeduncular cistern. With our method, 0.5 ...
Goldstein M - - 1989
The hemodynamic effects of CGP 17582 B, a new cardio-selective beta-blocking agent with moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and minimal effects on myocardial contractility, were studied in patients after cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass graft. Each patient had been treated preoperatively with beta-blocking agents and had a cineangiographic left ventricular ...
Kaul U A - - 1988
Fifty patients (mean age 48.6 +/- 9.4 years) with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to propranolol therapy (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) in a double-blind manner within 24 hours of their presentation with acute symptoms. M-mode and cross-sectional echocardiography were performed at one week and ...
Polese A - - 1988
In 24 patients with spontaneous and effort-related angina (mixed angina), propranolol (80 mg q.i.d.) was significantly more beneficial than nifedipine (20 mg q.i.d.) on the number, duration and severity of the spontaneous manifestations. In some cases nifedipine elicited a paradoxical response. These patterns are unlikely to have resulted from different ...
Capone R J - - 1988
We evaluated the effect on morbidity and mortality of a post-myocardial infarction management and intervention system. One thousand four patients were prospectively randomized to an intervention group that included routine and emergency transtelephonic follow-up and ECG monitoring or to control; all subjects were followed for 1 year. For symptoms suggestive ...
Lavanchy N - - 1988
31-P NMR spectroscopy data recorded for the isolated heart were analyzed, in conjunction with functional and biochemical variables, in order to investigate the effect observed for several different beta-adrenoceptor antagonists or the alterations provoked by global partial ischemia (37 degrees C, 24 minutes, 1% residual coronary flow) and reperfusion in ...
Touboul P - - 1988
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the antiarrhythmic effects of lidocaine (given intravenously as a bolus injection of 100 mg followed by an infusion of 2 mg min-1) and propafenone (given as a bolus of 105 mg followed by 300 mg orally every 8 h) was conducted in the first 24 ...
Stahl T J - - 1988
Twenty-one dogs underwent instrumentation of the left ventricle with ultrasonic dimension to study the effects of acute protein-calorie malnutrition on the adrenergic responsiveness of the heart. This study allowed a chronic and dynamic measurement of the major cardiac axes and the ventricular wall thickness, which in turn can be used ...
Northcote R J - - 1988
A study comparing the chronic effects of propranolol (n = 21) and pindolol (n = 19) on male patients with stable angina pectoris was performed. Left ventricular function was assessed by serial radionuclide ventriculography. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed at rest and during cold pressor test. Both drugs improved symptoms of ...
Myers M G - - 1988
The effectiveness of nifedipine versus propranolol monotherapy in the treatment of unstable angina in the elderly was evaluated in 26 patients over age 65 years. The study utilized a randomized, parallel design with double-blind primary outcome measurements. Subjects (mean, 76 +/- 2 years) were allocated to nifedipine (n = 12) ...
Acad B A - - 1988
The effect of chronic propranolol administration (2 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14d) and withdrawal on microvascular perfusion was studied in rabbit myocardium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was injected into four groups of anaesthetised open chest rabbits. Fluorescent microscopy was used to identify the perfused vessels and alkaline phosphatase stain was employed to locate the ...
MacMahon S - - 1988
The effects of prophylactic lidocaine hydrochloride on early ventricular fibrillation and death in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction were investigated in an overview of 14 randomized trials. During follow-up intervals of one to four hours in the trials of intramuscular lidocaine infusion (6961 patients) and 24 to 48 hours ...
Herndon D N - - 1988
Hypermetabolism, increased heart rate, and lipolysis are responses to high catecholamine levels associated with burn injury. This study tests the hypothesis that adrenergic beta blockade in burns could reduce myocardial work, lipolysis, and negative nitrogen balance without adversely affecting cardiac or metabolic function. Eighteen patients with burns of 70 +/- ...
Amundson D E - - 1988
Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta-adrenergic blocking drug used in a variety of clinical conditions. Overdoses can result in severe hypotensive states usually associated with bradycardia or asystole or with profound myocardial depression. We report on an 18-year-old man who ingested a massive dose of propranolol HCl in a suicide attempt. ...
Gelb A W - - 1988
In order to determine the cerebral protective effects of an intravenous bolus of 5 mg.kg-1 of lidocaine, the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was transorbitally occluded in 19 cats. Ten animals received the lidocaine bolus and nine a similar volume of saline immediately before MCA occlusion. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) ...
Hanet C - - 1988
To determine whether the association of nicardipine with propranolol had additive effects on myocardial metabolism, 16 patients with angina pectoris were studied invasively before and after 1 month of therapy with a combination of nicardipine and propranolol and compared to a group of 42 patients treated with nicardipine (n = ...
Wyse D G - - 1988
A total of 333 patients arriving within 6 h of the onset of suspected or proven but uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomized to treatment by either the prophylactic or the selective lidocaine strategy. Patients were monitored for 24 h. The major end points were sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and ...
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