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Solomon A J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of cardiovascular surgery. Beta-blockers have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, the use of magnesium is more controversial. It was our hypothesis that adjunctive magnesium sulfate would improve the efficacy of beta-blockers alone in the prevention of postoperative ...
Cuparencu B - - 2000
In isolated guinea pig perfused hearts ICI 118.551, a selective beta 2 adrenoceptor antagonist, induced transient ventricular extrasystoles. Following the termination of the perfusion, a very significant increase of both the ventricular fibrillation threshold and the refractory periods were measured. In guanethidine pretreated hearts, ICI 118.551 failed to induce premature ...
Murao K - - 2000
Large concentrations of sevoflurane and isoflurane, but not halothane, induce spikes in the electroencephalogram. To elucidate whether these proconvulsant effects affect lidocaine-induced seizures, we compared the effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in cats. Fifty animals were allocated to 1 of 10 groups: 70% nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.6 minimum alveolar ...
Sarsero D - - 1999
1. We identified putative beta4-adrenoceptors by radioligand binding, measured increases in ventricular contractile force by (-)-CGP 12177 and (+/-)-cyanopindolol and demonstrated increased Ca2+ transients by (-)-CGP 12177 in rat cardiomyocytes. 2. (-)-[3H]-CGP 12177 labelled 13 - 22 fmol mg-1 protein ventricular beta1, beta2-adrenoceptors (pKD approximately 9.0) and 50 - 90 ...
Faffe D S - - 1999
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may yield several respiratory changes. Nevertheless, no comprehensive pulmonary morphological/physiological correlation has been performed under this condition. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to determine the respiratory parameters in an experimental model of coronary artery occlusion, 2) to relate these results to findings from ...
Asai K - - 1999
Transgenic (TG) mice with cardiac G(salpha) overexpression exhibit enhanced inotropic and chronotropic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but develop cardiomyopathy with age. We tested the hypothesis that cardiomyopathy in TG mice with G(salpha) overexpression could be averted with chronic beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) blockade. TG mice and age-matched wild-type littermates were treated ...
Lifshitz M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed central nervous system (CNS) depression and acute dilated cardiomyopathy following ingestion of 3200 mg of propranolol in a suicide attempt. Early echocardiographic findings were the only sign of cardiac toxicity. DESIGN: A case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit ...
Varma D R - - 1999
1. Negative inotropic effects of several beta-adrenoceptor (betaAR) antagonists on electrically-stimulated right atria, left atria, right ventricles and left ventricular papillary muscles from reserpine-treated rats were used as a measure of their inverse agonist activities. 2. Beta1AR antagonists acebutolol, atenolol and metoprolol, beta2AR antagonist ICI-181,551 and nonselective betaAR antagonists alprenolol, ...
Sadowski Z P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: More than 20 randomized trials and 4 meta-analyses have been conducted on the use of prophylactic lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The results suggest that lidocaine reduces ventricular fibrillation (VF) but increases mortality rates in acute MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with ST-elevation MI who were examined <6 ...
Shimoyama M - - 1999
Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione used for the treatment of NIDDM and potentially for other insulin-resistant disease states. Troglitazone has recently been shown to increase cardiac output and stroke volume in human subjects. These actions are thought to be mediated by the reduction of peripheral resistance, but a potential direct effect ...
Witte K - - 1998
1. In human congestive heart failure beta-adrenoceptor antagonists improve exercise tolerance and cardiac contractility. These beneficial effects are thought to reflect an up-regulation of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors, involving mainly the beta1-subtype. In the present study we evaluated the functional contribution of beta-adrenoceptor subtypes to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in an animal ...
Rinne T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has been used as the primary antiarrhythmic agent for ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial infarction (MI) and open heart surgery. Its cardioprotective effects have been studied in experimental settings and also during angioplastic reperfusion and coronary revascularisation. The basic mechanism of action, probably also involved with cardioprotection, has ...
Garratt K N - - 1998
A pilot study was designed to assess the safety of combined intravenous adenosine and lidocaine in patients with acute myocardial infarction and to estimate the likelihood of a beneficial effect on final infarct size. Adenosine plus lidocaine reduces infarct size in animals, but the safety and efficacy in human beings ...
Reich D L - - 1998
PURPOSE: Cisatracurium besylate (Nimbex Injection, Glaxo Wellcome Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC) is an intermediate-acting bis-benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking drug that is one of the stereoisomers of atracurium. At doses < or = 8 x ED95, it caused no clinically important cardiovascular side effects or histamine release in healthy patients. The ...
Joly L M - - 1998
In a randomized trial, we compared topical anesthesia by a lidocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA; Laboratorie ASTRA, Manterre, France) with subcutaneous local lidocaine infiltration for radial artery cannulation. Patients included 538 adults scheduled for coronary angiography using a radial approach. EMLA was applied 2 h before radial cannulation, and lidocaine infiltration was ...
Huang Y F - - 1998
Previous reports have suggested that tachycardia alone can increase the rate of myocardial uptake of some drugs. As part of a systematic study of the determinants of the myocardial uptake and effects of drugs in critical illness, the effect of tachycardia induced by intracardiac pacing on the myocardial disposition and ...
Ritchie R H - - 1998
One of the major determinants of the short-term effects of many cardioactive drugs is the concentration of the drug specifically within the myocardium. However, no information regarding the disposition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor milrinone in the heart is available. We therefore determined the time course of short-term myocardial milrinone uptake ...
Huang Y F - - 1998
The lung, myocardial and systemic kinetics of the enantiomers of verapamil, and their myocardial effects, were measured after administration of 10 mg of racemic verapamil during 2 min to chronically instrumented sheep; the data were used to develop a physiological model of the process. Verapamil was characterized by relatively slow ...
Aupetit J F - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevention of ventricular fibrillation with a beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) antagonist in anaesthetized, open-chest pigs in a model of ischaemia, intended to reproduce what happens either in anginal attack or in the first hour of infarction. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was determined with trains of diastolic ...
Fujita Y - - 1998
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a cause of death in bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. We have examined the therapeutic effects of lidocaine on the threshold for bupivacaine-induced VF in in situ beating swine hearts. Twenty-four animals were allocated to one of three groups: 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% lidocaine or 0.25% bupivacaine with 1% ...
Amitai Y - - 1998
The most venomous scorpion species are Buthotus tamulus of India, the Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctonus crassicauda of North Africa and the Middle East, the Tityus serrulatus of Brazil, and the Centruroides suffussus of Mexico. The severity of scorpion envenomation varies with the scorpion's species, age, and size, and is much ...
Tanabe T - - 1997
Our objective was to investigate the effects of alpha1- or beta-adrenoceptor blockers on endocardial and epicardial refractory-period changes during myocardial ischemia in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized dogs. The first and second diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery were ligated. The refractory period was determined by an S1-S2 extrastimulus method. Dogs ...
Miyaji K - - 1997
Numerous investigators have attempted to measure regional wall stress directly. However, the measurement systems and devices employed have been too complex for accurate quantification in situ. We have developed a new tactile sensor system for measuring accurately myocardial stiffness in situ and validated its use for estimation of myocardial contractile ...
Waxman A B - - 1997
We present a case of combined verapamil and propranolol ingestion in a young woman with a DDD pacer from whom hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and toxicologic data were obtained simultaneously. Analysis of the data from these combined sources suggests a progression of (1) recovery of myocardial contractility, (2) return of systemic vascular ...
Aronow W S - - 1997
At 32-month follow-up of older patients with prior myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and a left ventricular ejection fraction > or = 40% treated with diuretics plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and also with digoxin if atrial fibrillation was present, propranolol caused a 35% significant reduction in total mortality and a ...
Hogan Q H - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sympathetic neural activity contributes to the genesis of ventricular ectopic activity, particularly in the setting of myocardial ischemia and infarction, so thoracic epidural anesthesia should diminish ventricular ectopy by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. However, the possible antidysrhythmic effect of epidural anesthesia has been studied only ...
Tölg R - - 1997
Although it is generally accepted that adrenergic influences contribute to arrhythmias during myocardial ischemia, it is still a matter of debate whether these arrhythmogenic effects are mediated via alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors and which particular receptor subtype is involved. Controversial results may be due to ancillary properties of the adrenergic ...
Kondo T - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sodium channel blockade on anisotropic excitation propagation in the intact canine left ventricle. BACKGROUND: Anisotropic ventricular conduction- electric conductivity dependent on the myocardial fiber direction-is one of the important mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmia. However, the effects of sodium ...
Vitola J V - - 1997
Myocardial reperfusion is associated with increased influx of activated neutrophils and intracellular accumulation of sodium in the ischemic zone. Lidocaine is a sodium channel blocker that also inhibits several neutrophil functions. We investigated the effect of lidocaine on infarct size in rabbits undergoing 30 minutes of ischemia and 48 hours ...
Yin H - - 1997
The actions of lidocaine were studied in 18 dogs, 4 days after ligation of the left anterior descending artery, by computerized mapping. Lidocaine only occasionally suppressed the induction of reentry. At fast heart rates, lidocaine actually facilitated the induction of reentry. The effects on conduction and refractoriness of normal and ...
Liu Z - - 1997
By using receptor autoradiography to observe the distribution and density of receptors, the effects of propranolol, a beta-blocker, on beta-adrenergic receptor of experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were studied. One week after ligation of proximate left anterior descend (LAD) coronary artery, [3H] DHA binding sites were markedly decreased in both ...
Ujhelyi M R - - 1997
Studies have shown that increasing extracellular sodium concentration can partially reverse sodium channel blockade. However, there is conflicting in vitro evidence in this regard for lidocaine. The effects of lidocaine on cardiac electrophysiology and defibrillation were studied in a basal and hypernatremic state to determine reversibility of sodium channel blockade. ...
Abramovich-Sivan S - - 1996
It has been widely accepted that lidocaine has little or no effect on the autonomic nervous system. However, we have previously shown that in dogs with vagally induced atrial fibrillation, lidocaine has a pronounced parasympatholytic effect. To study the possible effect of lidocaine on autonomic cardiac control in humans, we ...
Kobayashi Y - - 1996
To study the mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias, the effect of dipyridamole (DIP; 300 mg/day), an adenosine transport inhibitor, on ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) was assessed in 12 patients who showed VPCs (21312 +/- 12314/day) on Holter ECG in a controlled setting. The effects were compared with those of verapamil (240 ...
Vanoli E - - 1995
The value of K+ channel blockade in preventing lethal arrhythmias, and specifically those triggered by acute myocardial ischemia and sympathetic hyperactivity, remains unproven. To address this issue, we tested the antifibrillatory effect of d-sotalol, and Ikr blocker, d,l-sotalol, its racemic compound which blocks Ikr, and beta-adrenoreceptors, and propranolol. Ten dogs ...
Barrett T D - - 1995
The antiarrhythmic effectiveness, electrocardiographic and haemodynamic properties of three representative class I antiarrhythmics have been investigated in anaesthetized rats. Quinidine, lidocaine and flecainide were chosen as representatives of class Ia, Ib and Ic, respectively. Lidocaine showed the greatest frequency and 'ischaemia' dependency and a high dose provided complete protection against ...
Chamberlain M C - - 1995
PURPOSE: To study the results of intralumbar administration of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of neoplastic meningitis and to determine how these results relate to the variable and often subtherapeutic drug concentrations in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment. Ventricular and lumbar pharmacokinetic studies were done following intralumbar administration of ...
Vroom M B - - 1995
OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate the hemodynamic effects and safety of R 80122, a novel selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor, and its solvent hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Operating theater of a university hospital in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients with impaired left ventricular function scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting ...
Aupetit J F - - 1995
Because recent clinical studies have failed to show evidence of the benefit of lidocaine in the arrhythmias occurring in the early stage of myocardial infarction and have even shown an increased mortality in patients thus treated, we investigated the value of lidocaine as a protective agent against ventricular fibrillation related ...
Pharand C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of a 40-hour lidocaine infusion after completion of a 8-hour open-label infusion for prophylaxis of primary ventricular fibrillation in patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial held in the coronary care unit of a large nonprofit ...
Xiong L - - 1995
Beta-blockade has been shown to improve cardiac response to catecholamines in heart failure but cellular mechanisms of the improvement are unknown. The effect on left ventricular function of a 14 day propranolol treatment was studied in seven treated and eight non-treated rabbits with experimental heart failure. All animals were subjected ...
Balkin J - - 1994
A total of 266 patients entered into a study comparing the effect of intravenous magnesium and propranolol following acute myocardial infarction. Of these, 97 were able to receive either drug and were therefore randomized into the magnesium (n = 51) or propranolol group (n = 46). 88 patients were unable ...
Tanabe T - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the electrophysiological effects of cardiac sympathetic stimulation, with and without prior alpha 1 and beta adrenoceptor blockade during myocardial ischaemia in dogs. METHODS: Chloralose anaesthetised dogs were studied 2 h after ligation of the obtuse marginal branches of the circumflex artery (OMB). The refractory ...
Veksler V I - - 1994
The effect of prolonged treatment of rats with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), verapamil, or propranolol on cardiac pump function and the properties of myofibrils and mitochondria was studied. After 6-8 weeks of treatment, the heart rate and maximal cardiac output of the isolated heart of rats treated with verapamil or propranolol were ...
Okazaki N - - 1994
The hyperresponsiveness of cardiac tissue to histamine following treatment with reserpine was pharmacologically characterized. Guinea pig hearts were isolated 24 hours after intraperitoneal administration of 5 mg/kg reserpine. This treatment resulted in a complete depletion of tissue norepinephrine. Reserpine treatment potentiated the positive inotropic response of isolated perfused hearts to ...
Hayase N - - 1994
The effects of tilisolol on ischemic myocardial energy and carbohydrate metabolism were examined, and compared with those of propranolol. Ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 3 or 30 min in anesthetized open-chest dogs, 5 min after saline, tilisolol (0.2 mg.kg-1, i.v.), or propranolol (1 ...
Tuininga Y S - - 1994
Restacorin is a recently developed effective antiarrhythmic agent with primarily class Ic properties. The present paper reviews the electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of this compound. The major electrophysiologic effects are a depression of Vmax and an increase in AH, HV and QRS duration. The administration of restacorin does not induce ...
Neidhart P P - - 1994
Pipecuronium bromide, a new neuromuscular relaxant with steroidal structure, is devoid of effects on the autonomic nervous system and may be useful in patients where haemodynamic stability is mandatory. However, tracheal intubation may alter this haemodynamic profile. Therefore, we carried out a prospective double-blind study in 30 patients undergoing coronary ...
Shimizu W - - 1994
We report a patient with congenital long QT syndrome in whom early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were demonstrated on monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings in the left ventricular mid-base inferior wall. Epinephrine infusion at 5 micrograms/min increased the amplitude of the EADs and the late component of the T(U) wave. Epinephrine also ...
Noguchi K - - 1994
The effects of the active metabolite (18-502) of bopindolol, which is a new nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, were studied on the ischemic changes in myocardial segment shortening, cardiac lactate metabolism and S-T segment of subendocardial electrocardiogram during coronary stenosis and on their recoveries after reperfusion in anesthetized dogs, and were compared ...
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