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Results 251 - 300 of 1367
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Soto María Elena - - 2006
Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a primary vasculitis that causes stenosis or occlusion, rarely aneurysm and distal ischemia. This study was undertaken to examine cardiovascular damage using echocardiography and determine the causes of morbid-mortality in Mexican Mestizo patients with TA. Seventy-six patients were studied by transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular diameters, parietal ...
Zarain-Herzberg Angel - - 2006
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a central role in the contraction and relaxation coupling in the myocardium. The SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) transports Ca(2+) inside the SR lumen during relaxation of the cardiac myocyte. It is well known that diminished contractility of the hypertrophic cardiac myocyte is the main factor of ...
Satoh Minoru M Cardiovascular and Hematology Divisions, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2006
The development of cardiac hypertrophy is mediated, in part, by increase in NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial oxidative stress. The Rho GTPase, Rac, regulates NADPH oxidase activity through interaction with gp91(phox) and p67(phox) (in which "phox" is phagocyte oxidase). However, it is not known which Rac isoform mediates this effect ...
Tual L - - 2006
Right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia is mainly due to a mechanical stress upon the ventricular wall secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the hypoxic chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system can contribute to the development of right ventricular hypertrophy either via myocardial adrenergic receptors and/or a vasoconstriction ...
Sharma Jagdish N - - 2006
All the components of the kallikrein-kinin system are located in the cardiac muscle, and its deficiency may lead to cardiac dysfunction. In recent years, numerous observations obtained from clinical and experimental models of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemia, myocardial infarction and left ventricular hypertrophy have suggested that the reduced activity ...
Shen Xiang-Chun - - 2006
Crocetin, a carotenoid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Crocus sativus L. (Saffron), has been shown to have cardiovascular protective effects. The present study investigated the protective action of the antioxidant crocetin against cardiac hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine (NE). This was evaluated by assaying for pathological histological changes with an ...
Kerkela Risto - - 2006
Cardiac hypertrophy is a compensatory mechanism of the heart to maintain cardiac output under stresses that compromise cardiac function. Mechanical stretch and neurohumoral factors induce changes in intracellular signaling pathways resulting in increased protein synthesis and activation of specific genes promoting cardiac growth, eventually leading to left ventricular remodeling and ...
Murdoch Colin E - - 2006
Markers of increased oxidative stress are known to be elevated following acute myocardial infarction and in the context of chronic left ventricular hypertrophy or heart failure, and their levels may correlate with the degree of contractile dysfunction or cardiac deficit. An obvious pathological mechanism that may account for this correlation ...
Lee Tsung-Ming - - 2006
Both angiotensin receptor antagonists and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been shown to attenuate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy after myocardial infarction. Whether combination treatment may be superior to either drug alone on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remains unclear. After ligation of the left anterior descending artery, rats were randomized to both, one, ...
D'Andrea Antonello - - 2006
Athlete's heart is a cardiac adaptation to long-term, intensive training, which includes changes as increased ventricular cavity diameters, wall thickness and mass, produced with a degree consistent with sports activities and exercise programs. The Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI) permits characterization of the velocities of each ventricular myocardial segment by placing ...
Kennedy David J - - 2006
Patients with chronic renal failure develop a "uremic" cardiomyopathy characterized by diastolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and systemic oxidant stress. Patients with chronic renal failure are also known to have increases in the circulating concentrations of the cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin (MBG). On this background, we hypothesized that elevations in circulating MBG ...
Opie Lionel H - - 2006
Ventricular remodelling describes structural changes in the left ventricle in response to chronic alterations in loading conditions, with three major patterns: concentric remodelling, when a pressure load leads to growth in cardiomyocyte thickness; eccentric hypertrophy, when a volume load produces myocyte lengthening; and myocardial infarction, an amalgam of patterns in ...
Daana Muhannad - - 2006
Myocardial bridging (MB) is a rare coronary anomaly in children that is typically associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or left ventricular hypertrophy. Several reports, mainly in adults, have suggested an association between MB and sudden death or ischemia without other cardiac abnormalities. In this report, we describe an 11-year-old girl with ...
MacKenzie Ross - - 2006
Increased QRS voltage accompanied by repolarization abnormalities in a life insurance applicant's electrocardiogram should alert the medical director to the possibility of left ventricular hypertrophy. If confirmed, left ventricular hypertrophy or increased left ventricular mass is a strong independent risk factor for future cardiac events and all cause mortality. The ...
Henareh L - - 2006
Microalbuminuria (MA) is a cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between MA and the intima-media complex of the carotid and brachial artery, endothelial function, glucose metabolism, haemostatic variables and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with coronary heart disease. A total of 123 patients, aged ...
Hayden Melvin R - - 2006
Myocardial cellular and extracellular matrix remodeling are important in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and are essential for the adaptive and maladaptive changes associated with the cardiometabolic syndrome. This brief review of myocyte remodeling also presents preliminary observational findings regarding myocardial adaptive hypertrophy remodeling, including an increase in mitochondria ...
Kang Y James - - 2006
Cardiac hypertrophy was viewed as a compensatory response to hemodynamic stress. However, cumulative evidence obtained from studies using more advanced technologies in human patients and animal models suggests that cardiac hypertrophy is a maladaptive process of the heart in response to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. Although hypertrophy can normalize wall ...
Luedde Mark - - 2006
Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the heart's response to increased biomechanical stress such as arterial hypertension or valvular heart disease. Cardiac hypertrophy has traditionally been considered a compensatory mechanism required to normalize wall tension and to maintain cardiac output. However, recent clinical studies as well as several animal models have shown ...
Lombardi Gaetano - - 2006
Acromegaly is characterized by an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In fact, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The heart is involved from the very early stages of the disease in which the hyperkinetic syndrome (high heart rate and increased systolic output) takes place. Frequently, ...
Nemer Mona - - 2006
Up-regulation of angiotensin II (AII) signalling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and failure as evidenced by the efficacy of AII receptor blockers or inhibitors of AII biosynthesis in reversing ventricular hypertrophy and preventing human heart failure. The mechanisms underlying AII action in the heart remain ...
Grosso Andrea - - 2006
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the relationship between retinal arteriolar narrowing and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 30 patients with a recent history of hypertension (22 M, 8 F; 33 +/- 8; BMI 24,96 +/- 2.8;), consecutively referred to the Hypertension Unit by their ...
Cave Alison - - 2005
Chronic heart failure, secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, is a condition with increasing morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this condition remain a subject of intense interest, there is now growing evidence that redox-sensitive pathways play an important role. This article ...
Kee Hae Jin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A number of distinct stress signaling pathways in myocardium cause cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) antagonize several stress-induced pathways and hypertrophy. However, cardiac hypertrophy induced by transgenic overexpression of the homeodomain only protein, HOP, can be prevented by the nonspecific HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A ...
Choudhary Rashmi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Among various intracellular signaling cascades associated with cardiac hypertrophy, the involvement of calcineurin (CaN; Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase) is gaining credence because of its enhanced activity in ventricular myocardium and the ability of CaN inhibitors to prevent pressure-overload hypertrophy. Since our recent findings attribute clinical significance to serum CaN, ...
Wolf Cordula M CM Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2005
Sarcomere protein gene mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a disease with distinctive histopathology and increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias and risk for sudden death. Myocyte disarray (disorganized cell-cell contact) and cardiac fibrosis, the prototypic but protean features of HCM histopathology, are presumed triggers for ventricular arrhythmias that precipitate sudden death ...
Sun Ying - - 2005
Although NO derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is thought to be cardioprotective, the role of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) remains controversial. Using mice lacking iNOS (iNOS-/-), we studied (1) whether development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and dysfunction after deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt would be less severe compared with wild-type controls ...
Frantz Stefan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is involved in progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Since NADPH oxidases are a major source of reactive oxygen species in the heart, we studied left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice with targeted deletion of the NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox). METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Karram Tony - - 2005
Much of the understanding about the pathophysiological responses to chronic cardiac overload has been gained by the use of rat and dog models of aortocaval fistula (ACF). The use of a similar model in genetically manipulated mice may further elucidate the molecular mechanisms in these responses. The only reports about ...
Fiedler Beate - - 2005
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to long-term increases in haemodynamic load related to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Cardiac hypertrophy developing in pathological conditions with increased load often progresses to a decompensated stage with cardiac contractile dysfunction, clinical signs of heart failure and premature death. Cardiac hypertrophy associated ...
Bloch Kenneth D - - 2005
Identification of all three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms in cardiac myocytes and the recognition of the importance of their subcellular localization have greatly advanced the understanding of the critical role of NO signaling in myocardial function. Targeted deletion of endothelial NOS (NOS3) has revealed a fundamental role for ...
Kaneda Tomoya - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Early detection in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is very important. Integrated backscatter (IB) provides a useful noninvasive measure of the acoustic properties of the myocardium, and may detect early myocardial changes. METHODS: Thirty-four carriers who had gene mutations causing HCM were studied. The patients were divided into three ...
Sukhija Rishi - - 2005
Echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was present in 120 of 160 patients (75%) (mean age 72 +/- 8 years) with systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and in 43 of 94 age- and gender-matched patients (46%) with systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease, and no PAD (p<0.001). ...
Degens Hans - - 2006
Cardiac hypertrophy and failure are associated with alterations in cardiac substrate metabolism. It remains to be established, however, whether genomically driven changes in cardiac glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism represent a key event of the hypertrophic remodeling process. Accordingly, we investigated metabolic gene expression and substrate metabolism during compensatory ...
Prozesky L - - 2005
Myocardial lesions were studied in sheep in which gousiekte was induced by experimental dosage of Pachystigma pygmaeum, Fadogia homblei or Pavetta harborii. The single most consistent diagnostic histological feature in 33 animals was hypertrophy of myocardial fibres in the subendocardial region. Fibrosis in the subendocardial region of the apex or ...
González Arantxa - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review briefly the emerging new concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertensive heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Although hypertensive heart disease is characterized clinically by development of left-ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of a cause other than arterial hypertension, ...
Gupta Rajiv - - 2005
Radionuclide uptake by the right ventricle during myocardial perfusion imaging is minimal compared with the left ventricular myocardium and is not given much importance. However, right ventricular hypertrophy from pressure or volume overload may increase right ventricular radiotracer uptake and demonstrate reversible stress-induced perfusion abnormalities in the presence of normal ...
Pelzer Theo - - 2005
Cardiac mass increases with age and with declining estradiol serum levels in postmenopausal women. Although the non-selective estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta agonist 17beta-estradiol attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in animal models and in observational studies, it remains unknown whether activation of a specific estrogen receptor subtype (ERalpha or ERbeta) might give similar ...
Mardach Rebecca - - 2005
A patient diagnosed at 9 months with a milder form of propionic acidemia was functioning at a near normal intellectual level and a normal neurological level at age 8. After 2-week history of feeling "poorly" but functioning normally, she became acutely ill and succumbed to heart failure and ventricular fibrillation ...
Shiojima Ichiro - - 2005
Although increased external load initially induces cardiac hypertrophy with preserved contractility, sustained overload eventually leads to heart failure through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we describe a conditional transgenic system in mice characterized by the sequential development of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy with preserved contractility in the acute phase and dilated cardiomyopathy ...
Buitrago Monika - - 2005
Hypertrophy represents the major physiological response of the heart to adapt to chronically enhanced workload, but is also crucial in the development of heart failure. Although we know of numerous inducers of cardiac hypertrophy, little is known about mechanisms that limit cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe the transcriptional repressor NAB1 ...
Berenji Kambeez - - 2005
Ventricular hypertrophy develops in response to numerous forms of cardiac stress, including pressure or volume overload, loss of contractile mass from prior infarction, neuroendocrine activation, and mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. Hypertrophic growth is believed to have a compensatory role that diminishes wall stress and oxygen consumption, but Framingham ...
Muller Alice - - 2005
Diminished contractility of the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte is a principal determinant of ventricular dysfunction in chronic heart failure. Reduction of activity of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion (Ca2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a), underlies many of the effects of overload-induced hypertrophy on cardiomyocyte performance, and it may be critical in the progression of compensatory hypertrophy ...
Dorn Gerald W GW - - 2005
The influence of genetics in acquired adult heart disease remains incompletely defined. Genetic manipulation in mice has been widely used in combination with physiologic modeling to address this deficiency and has provided insights into the pathophysiology of myocardial signaling. However, conventional techniques of directed gene expression or ablation confound adult ...
Chan Hsiu-Wen - - 2006
Tissue remodelling is an adaptive physiological event initiated by physical and/or hormonal stimuli and characterised by extracellular matrix modifications, inflammation, cellular hypertrophy, proliferation and/or apoptosis. Although its initial effects may be beneficial for the maintenance of organ function, it is evident that sustained remodelling processes can lead to pathological outcomes, ...
Simko F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis L-arginine is able to modify hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy development induced by chronic blockade of nitric oxide synthase activity by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four groups of rats were investigated: control, L-arginine 1.5 g kg-1, L-NAME 40 ...
Varughese George I - - 2005
Hypertension is complicated by thrombosis-related events (such as myocardial infarction and stroke), and despite the high vascular pressures, these thrombotic occlusive events paradoxically occur more often than hemorrhagic episodes. The predisposition for thrombogenesis is increased in hypertension, which leads to changes in the platelets, endothelium, and matrix metalloproteinases and their ...
Maron Martin S - - 2005
In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), an important subgroup of patients develop progressive and disabling symptoms that are related to heart failure and death. Although a direct relation has been demonstrated between left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and likelihood of sudden and unexpected death (usually in patients who are asymptomatic or mildly ...
Achinger Steven G - - 2005
The role of vitamin D in left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Traditional cardiac risk factors, as well as other factors specific to the ESRD population such as hyperphosphatemia, elevated calcium and phosphate product, abnormal ...
Kass David A - - 2005
Vascular stiffening of the large arteries is a common feature of aging and is exacerbated by many common disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, and renal disease. This change influences the phasic mechanical stresses imposed on the blood vessels that in turn is important to regulating smooth muscle tone, endothelial function, ...
Nakamura Teruya - - 2005
Structural remodeling of the myocardium, including myocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and dilatation, drives functional impairment in various forms of acquired and hereditary cardiomyopathy. Using cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters with a genetic defect in delta-sarcoglycan, we investigated the potential involvement of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the pathophysiology and therapeutics related to ...
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