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Results 551 - 600 of 1435
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Woollard Malcolm - - 2003
This randomised controlled trial used a manikin model of cardiac arrest to compare skill performance in untrained lay persons randomised to receive either compression-only telephone CPR (Compression-only tel., n=29) or standard telephone CPR instructions (Standard tel., n=30). Performance was evaluated during standardised 10 min cardiac arrest simulations using a video ...
Grmec Stefek - - 2003
There has been increased interest in the use of capnometry in recent years. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) correlates with cardiac output and, consequently, it has a prognostic value in CPR. This study was undertaken to compare the initial PetCO2 and the PetCO2 ...
Mordente Alvaro - - 2003
Clinical use of the anticancer anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR) is limited by development of cardiotoxicity upon chronic administration. Secondary alcohol metabolites, formed after two-equivalent reduction of a carbonyl group in the side chain of DOX or DNR, have been implicated as potential mediators of chronic cardiotoxicity. In the ...
Klein Stephen M - - 2003
Human data about resuscitation after cardiac arrest from ropivacaine are limited. We present a case of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after accidental ropivacaine-induced ventricular fibrillation. A 76-yr-old female patient presented for foot osteotomy. A femoral block was performed using a nerve stimulator, a short bevel needle and 20 mL of 1.5% ...
Rabkin David G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We investigated the optimal method of administering probucol to attenuate reperfusion-induced diastolic abnormalities in the left ventricle of the heterotopically transplanted rat heart isograft. METHODS: We assigned Lewis rats (n = 84) to 7 transplant groups. We arrested 42 hearts using coronary perfusion with hypothermic University of Wisconsin (UW) ...
Wellens Hein J J - - 2003
About one fifth of all deaths occur suddenly and unexpectedly, often as the first manifestation of heart disease. Several tests have been developed during the past 2 decades for risk stratification of such an event, but only a minority of victims can be identified as being at high risk before ...
Galinski M - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intubation of the trachea has been a risky cross-contamination procedure over the past decade because no perfect decontamination procedures exist. Infectious agents found on laryngoscopic devices have the potential for devastating spread of the human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses B and C and transmissible non-conventional agents. The ...
Brembilla-Perrot Béatrice - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the causes and the prognosis of consecutive patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest occurring in a general hospital. We assessed 28 females and 94 males (aged 13-82 years) who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest not attributable to acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation ...
Garner Leslie B - - 2003
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent proinflammatory cytokine that is ubiquitously expressed in organs, including the heart. However, no specific role for MIF in modulating cardiac performance has yet been described. Therefore, we examined cardiac MIF expression in mice after LPS challenge (4 mg/kg) and tested the hypothesis ...
Goto Yoshikazu - - 2003
This study determined whether electrocardiographic analysis of ventricular fibrillation (VF) can predict 1-year survival from bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin. VF was analyzed using fast-Fourier transformation in a community in which emergency medical technicians delivered shock with an automated external defibrillator before arrival to the hospital. The frequency ...
Kogan A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after fast-track cardiac anaesthesia, risk factors for PONV and its influence on the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective study was performed in the cardiothoracic ICU (CTICU) ...
Barie Philip S - - 2003
Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have ...
Pell J P - - 2003
To describe and compare presentation, management, and survival by aetiology of cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of all 21 175 first out of hospital cardiopulmonary arrests in Scotland between May 1991 and March 1998. Discharge alive from hospital. Presumed cardiac disease accounted for 17 451 cases (82%), ...
Jha Shubhda - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage due to retained placenta is one of the commonest life-threatening conditions during the third stage of labour. Uterine relaxation is usually required to facilitate placental removal. 'Full-stomach' obstetric patients (which includes those who delivered within 48 h), parturients with a history of antepartum or recurrent postpartum hemorrhage, ...
Holzer Michael - - 2003
Full cerebral recovery after cardiopulmonary resuscitation is still a rare event. Unfortunately, up to now, no specific and outcome-improving therapy was available after such events. From several cases it is known that low body and brain temperature during a cardiocirculatory arrest improves the neurological outcome following these events. As it ...
Stadlbauer Karl H - - 2003
We assessed the effects of a calcium channel blocker versus saline placebo on ventricular fibrillation mean frequency and hemodynamic variables during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Before cardiac arrest, 10 animals were randomly assigned to receive either nifedipine (0.64 mg/kg; n = 5) or saline placebo (n = 5) over 10 ...
Cao Lan - - 2003
The primary goal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is to reestablish blood flow to vital organs until spontaneous circulation is restored. Adrenergic vasopressor agents produce systemic vasoconstriction. This increases aortic diastolic pressure, and consequently, coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures. The pharmacologic responses to the adrenergic agents are mediated by a group of ...
Gazmuri Raúl J - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful treatment of cardiac arrest requires that an electrically stable and mechanically competent cardiac activity be promptly reestablished. However, many interventions used to attempt to reestablish cardiac activity may also inflict additional myocardial injury and, in turn, compromise resuscitability. In this review, we examine mechanisms of such ...
Herzog Charles A - - 2003
Cardiac disease is the major cause of death in dialysis patients, accounting for 45% of all-cause mortality. Sudden cardiac death may be implicated in 60% of these cardiac deaths in dialysis patients. The combination of obstructive coronary artery disease, electrolyte shifts (in hemodialysis patients), left ventricular hypertrophy, and abnormal myocardial ...
Checchia Paul A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Myocardial dysfunction occurs immediately after successful cardiac resuscitation. Our purpose was to determine whether measurement of cardiac troponin I in children with acute out-of-hospital cardiac arrest predicts the severity of myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective, observational study was performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) on ...
Reid K H - - 2003
We review 7 years experience with the chest compression model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, comparing two different anesthetics. Ketamine stimulates cardiac function and only mildly depresses respiration; of the two it provides easier resuscitation. However, ketamine severely depresses brain protein synthesis; in studies using this measure ketamine is unsuitable ...
Engdahl Johan - - 2003
AIM: To describe the epidemiology for out of hospital cardiac arrest of a non-cardiac aetiology. PATIENTS: All patients suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in whom resuscitation efforts were attempted in the community of Göteborg between 1981 and 2000. METHODS: Between October 1, 1980 and October 1, 2000, all ...
Derdoy Jose J - - 2003
The origin and biologic significance of cardiac gastric mucosa are controversial. Traditionally, it has been considered native mucosa and part of normal foregut development. It has been recently suggested that cardiac mucosa is present only as a metaplastic response to gastroesophageal reflux disease and therefore always abnormal. We evaluated the ...
Strohmenger Hans-Ulrich - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing evidence that in end-stage shock or during cardiac arrest, inappropriately low endogenous vasopressin plasma levels may be responsible for pathologic vasodilatation, inadequate organ perfusion, and poor outcome. The purpose of this article is to review recent publications featuring arginine vasopressin as a potent vasoconstrictor ...
Silfvast T - - 2003
Mild resuscitative hypothermia has been shown to improve neurological outcome after cardiac arrest presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF) due to cardiac causes. We describe the experience of inducing mild hypothermia in three patients with non-cardiac causes of arrest and long delays before a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). In one ...
Ayoub Iyad M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the sarcolemmal sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 (NHE-1) is emerging as a promising novel strategy for ameliorating myocardial injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. We investigated whether NHE-1 inhibition (with cariporide) could minimize mechanical and electrical myocardial abnormalities that develop during ventricular fibrillation (VF) and improve outcome using a ...
Chen Yih-Sharng - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to determine the result of prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and the predictive factors for hospital discharge and ECMO weaning. BACKGROUND: Prolonged CPR carries considerable associated mortality and morbidity. As yet, ECMO for prolonged CPR has no definite results. Only small ...
Choudhry Niteesh K - - 2003
Patients who sustain a cardiac arrest have a less than 20% chance of surviving to hospital discharge. Patients may request do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders if they believe that their chances for a meaningful recovery after cardiopulmonary arrest are low. However, in some identifiable circumstances, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has a higher chance ...
Snyder-Ramos Stephanie A - - 2003
Although 25-50% of patients suffering from cardiac arrest can be stabilised haemodynamically, the hospital discharge rate is only 2-14%. One of the major causes of this discrepancy is persistent brain damage. Studies to assess the prognostic value of early prediction of neurologic and overall outcome in patients with cardiac arrest ...
O'Connor Robert E - - 2003
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involving manual external chest compression combined with artificial respiration was first described in 1960 by Kouwenhoven et al. (Kouwenhoven W, Jude JR, Knickerbocker GG. Closed-chest cardiac massage. JAMA. 1960; 173:1064-7). In the four decades since then, there have been no widely accepted alternatives for this technique. Even ...
Safra Tamar - - 2003
Anthracyclines have demonstrated antitumor activity in a variety of cancers; however, irreversible cardiac damage is a major dose-limiting toxicity, restricting lifetime cumulative dose. The most successful strategy to improve the cardiac safety of anthracyclines to date involves liposomal encapsulation, which alters the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of these agents. The ...
Sayre Michael R - - 2003
Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines and emergency medical services (EMS) clinical protocols usually recommend immediate defibrillation for victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who have ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, animal studies and results from a small number of clinical investigations now suggest that a short period of chest compressions ...
Sadowski Jerzy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of accepting cardiac donors after an episode of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since 1997, 13 resuscitated donor hearts (10 M, 3 F, age 15-54 years) after sudden cardiac arrest have been transplanted. The retrospective analysis was used. RESULTS: ...
Brubakk A O - - 2003
The present study was initiated in order to determine the effect of decompression profiles on bubble formation following surface decompression using oxygen. Following an air dive to 496 kPa (130 fsw) for 90 minutes, three different profiles were tested in the pig; a USN staged decompression profile, a profile using ...
Zhang Yun Po - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that the twice-daily use of the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste can significantly reduce caries formation. The objective of this report was to review human studies comparing a triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste to a placebo toothpaste (no fluoride), and a sodium fluoride toothpaste (positive control) for their ability ...
Duda Barbara - - 2003
Many researchers have been interested in cardiac veins, which at present play a very important clinical role in invasive cardiology. In this study the occurrence of middle and small cardiac veins and the topography of their outlet portions were examined. The material consisted of 150 adult human hearts of both ...
D'Aloia A - - 2003
Laser bronchoscopy is a usually well tolerated procedure for the treatment of obstructive lesions on the tracheobronchial tree, with a very low morbidity and mortality rate. Cardiovascular complications, including atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia, have only rarely been reported during laser bronchoscopy. Cardiac arrhythmias during such a procedure ...
Feldman Arthur M - - 2002
The mechanisms accounting forthe salutary benefits of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) remain largely unknown. Emerging data now point to three possible hypotheses to explain its efficacy. These possible explanations include enhanced diastolic flow, changes in the neurohumoral milieu, and changes in ventricular function independent of changes in cardiac load. While ...
Murphy Glenn S - - 2002
Available data suggest that the choice of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) can influence early clinical recovery of the fast-track cardiac surgical patient. The aim of this study was to use a survey tool to determine practice patterns of anesthesiologists for the use of NMBDs in the cardiac surgical setting. We ...
Hennessy Sean - - 2002
To examine the rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia and in non-schizophrenic controls. Cohort study of outpatients using administrative data. 3 US Medicaid programmes. Patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, haloperidol, risperidone, or thioridazine; a control group of patients with glaucoma; and a control ...
Ong M E H - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: The chain of survival concept implies that provision of early access, early advanced care, including early intravenous drugs would improve survival in sudden cardiac arrest. Intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine) has been used as the drug of choice since 1906. What is the evidence for its effectiveness? Is vasopressin a better ...
Meyer Robyn J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular dysfunction after resuscitation from cardiac arrest has been well described. Treatment with dobutamine improves post-resuscitation left ventricular function. Right ventricular function following resuscitation has not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to examine right ventricular function following resuscitation and determine whether dobutamine would improve post-resuscitation ...
Maheshwari Alok - - 2002
Cardiac disease is the most common cause of death in the United States, and sudden cardiac arrest frequently claims the lives of men and women during their most productive years. It is believed that much better survival rates can be achieved for victims of cardiac arrest through optimizing the "chain ...
Idris Ahamed H - - 2002
Emergency ventilation is an essential component of basic life support. Respiratory emergencies occur far more frequently than cardiac arrest and, if not treated promptly and effectively, may lead to cardiac arrest. Many respiratory emergencies require assisted ventilation to prevent the occurrence of hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and cardiac decompensation. Emergency assisted ventilation ...
Ashaye A O - - 2002
This is a report of a patient who developed respiratory arrest some minutes after retrobulbar block was given for ocular anesthesia before cataract extraction. She was managed by artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support without any cardiac or neurological sequelae. This report highlights this rare but fatal complication of suspected brain ...
Chang Michael C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of circulation depends on interactions between the heart and the vascular system. Ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) has been described as an important determinant of cardiovascular function during resuscitation from shock. However, no prospective studies examining VAC and systemic perfusion have been performed. VAC is measured by the ratio of ...
Ho P Michael - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that Medicare patients without supplemental insurance are less likely to receive preventive services, such as mammography. The effect of supplemental insurance on the appropriate use of emergency services is unknown. We sought to determine whether the absence of supplemental Medicare coverage is associated with ...
Fan K L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognosis of patients with ventricular fibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong and examine its relationship with the other links in the chain of survival. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Three accident and emergency departments, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Patients older than 18 years with non-traumatic ...
Krieter Heiner - - 2002
In some patients, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can revive spontaneous circulation (ROSC). However, neurological outcome often remains poor. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions (HHS) have been shown to improve microvascular conductivity after regional and global ischemia. We investigated the effect of infusion of HHS in a porcine CPR model. Cardiac arrest was induced by ...
Smith Karen L - - 2002
The Emergency Medical Response (EMR) program is a Victorian Government initiative in which fire fighters trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and equipped with automatic external defibrillators are dispatched to suspected cardiac arrests simultaneously with ambulance paramedics across metropolitan Melbourne. During the first 12 months (February 2000 to February 2001) of the ...
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