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Moore M J - - 2006
To determine the epidemiology of out of hospital sudden cardiac death (OHSCD) in Belfast from 1 August 2003 to 31 July 2004. Prospective examination of out of hospital cardiac arrests by using the Utstein style and necropsy reports. World Health Organization criteria were applied to determine the number of sudden ...
Spöhr F - - 2005
Cardiac arrest carries a very poor prognosis. More than 70% of cardiac arrests are caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombolysis during CPR has two major effects: first, it causally treats the condition that caused cardiac arrest and second, it has been shown to have ...
Wigginton Jane G - - 2005
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: For over 40 years, manual chest compressions have been the foundation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and recent studies have clearly reconfirmed the hemodynamic significance of delivering consistent, high-quality, infrequently-interrupted chest compressions. However, there remain multiple inadequacies in the actual delivery of manual chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ...
Fenici Peter - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite a more widespread knowledge of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in the community, the survival rate for patients with cardiac arrest has remained essentially unchanged in the past 30 years. Over the past few decades, many different compression-ventilation ratios have been studied in terms of best coronary ...
Rohr Susan M - - 2005
During a 3-month period, a 33-year-old man presented to the emergency department on 4 occasions with dyspnea, palpitations, and syncope. His initial presentation was accompanied by acute myocardial injury and ventricular fibrillation. An extensive evaluation spanned the 3 months and included echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, electrophysiology study, tilt-table evaluation, pulmonary angiography, ...
Runciman W B - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity ...
Biccard B M - - 2005
Functional capacity is an integral component of the pre-operative evaluation of the cardiac patient for non-cardiac surgery. Stair climbing capacity has peri-operative prognostic importance. It may predict survival after lung resection and complications after major non-cardiac surgery. However, stair climbing cannot determine the aerobic metabolic capacity necessary to survive the ...
Nichol G - - 2005
There is a lack of high-quality information about the effectiveness of resuscitation interventions and international differences in structure, process and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation because data are not collected uniformly. An internet-based international registry could make such evaluations possible, and enable the conduct of large randomized ...
Spöhr F - - 2005
Prehospital cardiac arrest has been associated with a very poor prognosis. Acute myocardial infarction and massive pulmonary embolism are the underlying causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 50-70% of patients. Although fibrinolysis is an effective treatment strategy for both myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism, clinical experience for this therapy performed ...
Rudusky Basil M - - 2005
Although aminophylline/theophylline has been relegated to third- and fourth-line status in the cardiopulmonary armamentarium, its use in specific pathophysiologic states, especially those of cardiac etiology, can be of significant benefit. The consulting clinician should maintain an awareness of its potential as adjunctive therapy in cases of atrioventricular block, cardiac arrest, ...
Vogel Melanie - - 2005
Isolated ventricular non-compaction (IVNC) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by arrest in endomyocardial morphogenesis. Presenting features in children include systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, and thromboembolism. End-stage cardiac failure necessitating cardiac transplantation is described in adults. We report the unique case of a 5-year-old boy with IVNC ...
Nielsen Niklas - - 2005
A 62-year-old man suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and was treated with mechanical compression-decompression during transport to the hospital. In the emergency department, 28 min after cardiac arrest, spontaneous circulation returned briefly but the patient rapidly became asystolic and mechanical compression-decompression was again applied. After further resuscitation a spontaneous circulation returned ...
Garza Alex G - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric cardiac arrest patients and adult traumatic arrest patients are perceived as more difficult to endotracheally intubate than adult cardiac arrest patients. The study hypothesis was that these populations were at higher risk of endotracheal intubation failure compared with adult cardiac arrest patients and that paramedics would more frequently ...
Holzer Michael - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most patients who suffer a cardiac arrest die after the event. Full neurological recovery occurs in only 6-23%. Until recently no specific post-arrest therapy was available to improve outcome. Application of therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 degrees C for 12-24 h) applied after cardiac arrest could help to improve ...
Hayashi Hoei - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs) with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according ...
Liperoti Rosa - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Conventional antipsychotic drugs have been implicated as a cause of ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest, but no definitive information is available regarding atypical antipsychotics. We compared the effect of conventional and atypical antipsychotics on the risk of hospitalization for ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. METHODS: We conducted a case-control ...
Smith Maria A - - 2005
Intervention for cardiac arrest may require intervention for electrical abnormalities or hemodynamic instability. These actions can result in ineffective cardiac functioning and systemic hypotension. Vasopressors are capable of improving severe hypotension that can result from reduced cardiovascular contractility or heart rate. These vasopressor actions are critical to successful resuscitation efforts ...
Saxena Neeraj - - 2005
Open, direct cardiac massage (OCM), as a technique of resuscitation has not been very inspiring due to its various limitations. We report a case of resuscitation where open 'indirect' cardiac massage was used to resuscitate a neonate successfully. A 24 hr old neonate with multiple gastrointestinal anomalies presented for emergency ...
Nathan Aruna - - 2005
Adverse reactions to volatile anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants can occur in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) resulting in acute rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. We report a case of hyperkalemic cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in a child with unsuspected DMD. Early diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia ...
Hollenberg J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Dramatic differences in survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) reported from different geographical locations require analysis. We therefore compared patients with OHCA in the two largest cities in Sweden with regard to various factors at resuscitation and outcome. SETTING: All patients suffering an OHCA in Stockholm and Goteborg between ...
Lai Chun-Fu - - 2005
Pneumatosis intestinalis and hepatic portal venous gas are usually associated with severe intra-abdominal pathologies. As diagnostic technologies advanced, a number of variant etiologies have been identified. We report 2 cases in which pneumatosis intestinalis and hepatic portal venous gas developed after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The pathogenic mechanism was most ...
Kopp Sandra L - - 2005
The frequency and predisposing factors associated with cardiac arrest during neuraxial anesthesia remain undefined, and the survival outcome data are contradictory. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the frequency of cardiac arrest, as well as the association of preexisting medical conditions and periarrest events with survival after cardiac arrest during ...
Xu Jiang - - 2005
Kinins exert cardioprotective effects via 2 G-protein-coupled receptors, B1 and B2. Using B1 kinin receptor gene knockout mice (B1-/-), we tested the hypotheses that the B1 receptor plays an important role in preservation of cardiac function, whereas lack of B1 may accelerate cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and ...
Loh K C - - 2005
A 35-year-old Chinese man presented with acute thyrotoxic periodic paralysis complicated by near-fatal cardiac arrhythmias due to persistent hypokalaemia, despite maximum potassium supplementation. He was eventually resuscitated with external cadioversion. In this unusual case of severe refractory hypokalaemia leading to ventricular fibrillation in a patient with underlying thyrotoxicosis, the potential ...
Wenzel Volker - - 2005
Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be a promising drug during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), concern has been raised about the potential for AVP-mediated vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries. In a prospective, randomized laboratory investigation employing an established porcine model, the effects of AVP on haemodynamic variables, left anterior ...
Lee Chien-Chang - - 2005
Sudden cardiac arrest due to blunt anterior chest wall impact (Commotio Cordis) usually occurs in young athletes who are struck by a baseball or other projectile in the precordium. Survival is extremely rare if the induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) is not defibrillated immediately at the scene. We report here a ...
Gaynor J William - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Modified ultrafiltration has been shown to reverse haemodilution and improve ventricular function following cardiopulmonary bypass. There has been concern, however, about the safety and efficacy of modified ultrafiltration after the first stage of Norwood reconstruction for palliation of neonates with hypoplasia of the left heart and its variants. METHODS: ...
Engdahl Johan - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the locality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Goteborg and to identify implications for public access defibrillation (PAD). METHODS: Ambulance run reports for the years 1994-2002 were studied retrospectively and manually to establish the location of the cardiac ...
Alzaga-Fernandez Ana G - - 2005
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests account for approximately 1000 sudden cardiac deaths per day in the United States. Since its introduction in 1960 closed-chest cardiac massage (CCCM) often takes place as an attempt at resuscitation, although its survival rates are low. Other resuscitation techniques are available to physicians such as open-chest cardiopulmonary ...
Hong Mauricio F - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is a review of the most recent findings in resuscitation techniques in advanced cardiac life support. The article focuses particularly on the period after July 1, 2003, but relevant new findings before this period are also included. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized clinical trial results suggest that ...
Green Robert S - - 2005
Anoxic brain injury is a common outcome after cardiac arrest. Despite substantial research into the pathophysiology and management of this injury, a beneficial treatment modality has not been previously identified. Recent studies show that induced hypothermia reduces mortality and improves neurological outcomes in patients resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation. This article ...
Jones Daryl - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether the reported short-term reduction in cardiac arrests associated with the introduction of the medical emergency team (MET) system can be sustained. METHOD: We conducted a prospective, controlled before-and-after examination of the effect of a MET system on the long-term incidence of cardiac arrests. We included ...
Jones J Mark - - 2005
In view of the limitations of current cardiac gene transfer techniques by direct myocardial injection, or via the coronary vasculature, we have been attempting to develop potentially clinically applicable methods. Selective catheterization of the coronary arteries has been performed, but the duration of exposure of the heart to the virus ...
Wang Huan - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Carotid Blowout Syndrome (CBS) carries an exceedingly high mortality rate. Various established endovascular techniques are successful in treating less acute CBS, but exsanguinating patients with hemodynamic compromise continue to pose a significant clinical challenge. METHODS: We report a 53-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue presented ...
Gruska Michael - - 2005
Acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are more common on Mondays than other days of the week. The stress of returning to work at the beginning of the week has been postulated as a possible trigger factor. This project examined the weekly variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of nontraumatic ...
Kotoh Keiju - - 2005
PURPOSE: We examined the changes in evoked spinal cord potentials (ESCP) during profound hypothermic circulatory arrest to estimate the safe ischemic time. METHODS: We monitored ESCPs during surgery for descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysms in five patients. Evoked spinal cord potential recordings were obtained before cooling (baseline), then every few ...
Casner Michael - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The San Francisco Fire Department deployed an automated, load-distributing-band chest compression device (AutoPulse, Revivant Corporation) to evaluate its function in a large urban emergency medical services (EMS) service. A retrospective chart review was undertaken to determine whether the AutoPulse had altered short-term patient outcome, specifically, return of spontaneous circulation ...
Polena Sotir - - 2005
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as necrosis of myocardial cells. Several studies have shown that cardiac markers are elevated after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to physical as well as electrical trauma. Correlation has never been established ...
Maclean K - - 2005
We report on a favourable case of MCAD deficiency (homozygous 985A > G) that presented as lethargy, poor feeding, pulmonary haemorrhage and cardiac arrest without hypoglycaemia. The cessation of intralipid and the commencement of carnitine supplementation were associated with a rapid clinical improvement. Mild carnitine depletion and secondary impairment of ...
Paul Robert H RH Center for Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School, Providence, R.I. 02903, - - 2005
In the present study, we examined the relationships between whole brain volume (WBV), subcortical hyperintensities (SH), indices of cardiac disease and cognitive function in nondemented cardiac patients with evidence of mild cerebrovascular disease. A total of 27 individuals with evidence of cardiac disease underwent neuropsychological examination, neuroimaging, and cardiac assessment. ...
Simpson John - - 2004
The development of high-resolution ultrasound has allowed detailed examination of the fetal heart. The accuracy of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of malformations of the fetal heart has been established in the second trimester and, more recently, at a much earlier stage in gestation (Allan et al., 1980; Allan et ...
Cook Andrew C - - 2004
The heart is often perceived as a difficult organ to understand by ultrasound during fetal life. This is undoubtedly reflected in the low detection rate of cardiac abnormalities as compared to those of most other organ systems in the fetus. In this article we start by updating classical concepts of ...
Nozari Ala - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown in dogs that exsanguination cardiac arrest of up to 120 minutes without trauma under profound hypothermia induced by aortic flush (suspended animation) can be survived without neurologic deficit. In the present study, the effects of major trauma (laparotomy, thoracotomy) are explored. This study is designed ...
El-Menyar Ayman A - - 2004
What is the successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation? It is the few minutes postcardiopulmonary arrest that can answer. Twenty to 40 percent of patients who sustained cardiac arrest are initially resuscitated, but only 10% survive to hospital discharge, and more than 60% of victims succumb within 24 hours. This high fatality rate ...
Szabó Gábor - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the ultrapotent poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor INO-1001 on cardiac and mesenteric function during reperfusion in an experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, and blinded experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Twelve anesthetized dogs underwent cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic ...
Bernard Stephen - - 2004
Randomised, controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia have demonstrated improved outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, where the initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation. This therapy is now endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The role of therapeutic hypothermia in patients with anoxic neurological injury due to stroke, spinal cord ...
Murphy G J - - 2004
Despite many years of clinical and experimental research, the contribution of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardioplegic arrest to morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery remains unclear. This is due, in part, to lack of suitable control group against which bypass and cardioplegic arrest can be compared. The recent success of ...
Mort Thomas C - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and etiology of cardiopulmonary arrest during emergency intubation in the remote location by comparing two periods (1990-1995 vs. 1995-2002) at the same institution to assess whether immediate access to advanced airway devices and endotracheal tube-verifying devices altered the incidence of hypoxemia-driven cardiac arrest. DESIGN: ...
Rady Mohamed Y - - 2005
Over the past decade the practice of acute resuscitation and its monitoring have undergone significant changes. Utilization of noninvasive mechanical ventilation, goal-directed therapy, restricted fluid volume, blood transfusion and minimally invasive technology for monitoring tissue oxygenation have changed the practice of acute resuscitation. Early diagnosis and definitive treatment of the ...
Adams Bruce D - - 2004
Even with the benefit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the prognosis of cardiac arrest remains poor. Multiple case series describe survival with the use of thrombolytic therapy for refractory cardiac arrest. Presumably thrombolysis treats that subset of cardiac arrest cases resulting from fulminant pulmonary embolism, or perhaps massive myocardial infarctions. Published reports ...
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