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Campbell N P - - 1977
A prospective study of the energy required for transthoracic ventricular defibrillation in adults showed that in 42 (81%) out of 52 episodes of ventricular fibrillation shocks of 100 watt-seconds (Ws) of stored energy were successful. Out of 233 episodes, 222 (95%) were converted by 200 W s shocks. Among patients ...
Boor P J - - 1977
An accurate postmortem method of planimetrically estimating the extent of myocardial infarction was employed in 16 cases. Delineation of necrotic myocardium was enhanced by a macroscopic staining technique, which utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Comparison of infarct size with peak serum creatine phosphokinase levels showed a general correlation between the two ...
Kennelly B M - - 1977
The hospital courses of 882 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) during a 3-year period were evaluated. Their courses after discharge from the CCU were assessed with reference to the following serious complications which had occurred during their stay in the CCU; ventricular ...
Weil M H - - 1977
Our findings confirm that acute pulmonary edema, when caused by left ventricular failure, represents a form of acute perfusion failure (shock) with metabolic acidemia, lactacidemia, and a reduction in forward blood flow. It is associated with a marked increase in peripheral resistance and an increase in venous capacitance. Most importantly, ...
Bardet J - - 1977
Twenty-one patients with postinfarction angina (2 to 15 days after acute myocardial infarction) unresponsive to medical therapy were treated by intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP). Anginal pain and electrocardiographic (ECG) ST-segment changes were prevented in all patients. Coronary angiograms were obtained during IABP without complication and confirmed severe coronary artery disease. ...
Hyson E A - - 1977
The intraaortic counterpulsation balloon is being used with increasing frequency in the setting of cardiogenic shock and/or high risk cardiac surgery. The radiologist should be aware of the normal function of this cardiac assist device, as well as its potential complications. The principal complications apparent on the plain chest radiograph ...
Rotmensch H H - - 1977
In a retrospective study of 304 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction admitted to the coronary care unit, 22 percent (67 patients) exhibited low voltage on their electrocardiograms within 72 hours of admission. The course of hospitalization of these patients was compared with an equal number of consecutive patients with ...
Jackson G - - 1977
Sixty-eight patients were referred for consideration of intra-aortic balloon assistance, 55 of whom were accepted. Thirty-one patients were in cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction and the remaining 24 were cardiac surgical patients. Twenty-three of the myocardial infarct group were established on IABA and all 24 of the cardiac surgical patients. ...
Wellons H A HA - - 1977
Cardiac operations were performed on 21 patients for treatment of complications of acute myocardial infarction unresponsive to vigorous drug therapy. There were six hospital deaths (28.5 per cent) and 15 survivors 3 to 50 months postoperatively. Fourteen of the 15 survivors are asymptomatic (Class I N.Y.H.A.); one patient remains in ...
Johnson S A - - 1977
Thirty-seven patients in cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction were treated with intraaortic balloon counterpulsation and/or surgery. Eighteen of these patients were treated with counterpulsation alone; eight survived and five were in functional class I or II at the time of follow-up; two were in functional class III, and ...
Baltaxe H A - - 1977
Left ventriculography with selective coronary angiography was performed on 13 patients with acute myocardial infarcts complicated by cardiogenic shock of left ventricular failure and hypotension. Twelve patients (92-3%) tolerated the procedure well. Irreversible ventricular fibrillation resulting in death occurred in one patient 7-7%) during the opacification of the left coronary ...
Bleifeld W - - 1977
In 50 patients with proven acute myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular hemodynamics (pulmonary end-diastolic pressure [PAEDP]; cardiac index [CI]; stroke volume index [SVI]; and SVI/PAEDP were related to the size of the acute infarct. Acute infarct mass was calculated from serial determinations of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) every two hours, ...
O'Rourke M F - - 1977
Arterial counterpulsation is a major advance in the treatment of myocardial ischaemia in association with myocardial infarction. Counterpulsation is based on sound physiological principles and can be expected to limit ischaemia and necrosis when applied within the first 12 to 24 hours of infarction. It has been used in massive ...
Acheson R M - - 1977
(1) Over 15 months, 532 consecutive admissions to the CCU at the Radcliffe Oxford were studied; of these 333 were cases of myocardial infarction, and 319 were first admissions for this condition. Information about survival and return to work was collected for 300. A further 30 had artificial pacemakers inserted; ...
David D - - 1977
Hypovolemic shock was maintained for 6 hours in dogs in which the heart was hemodynamically protected by a biological model described earlier. Blood of these dogs was exchanged with that of healthy dogs in which myocardial tension and heart rate were continuously monitored. It was found that rate and force ...
Watt-Boolsen S - - 1977
In a retrospective study of all post-mortem examinations and all celiotomies carried out at Glostrup Hospital in the period 1959-76, 81 patients with non-mechanical intestinal infarction were identified. Of these patients, 23 had suffered non-occlusive intestinal infarction. In 15 of the 23 patients the infarction was associated with cardiac disease ...
Golikov A P - - 1977
Fifty patients with acute extensive myocardial infarction, with unfavourable course, were continuously survelled from the beginning of the disease till the terminal stage with the aim to study the interdependences between changes in the sympatho-adrenal and kallikrein-kinin systems in blood. The blood levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were determined fluorometrically. ...
Sammel N - - 1976
One hundred patients were treated with arterial counterpulsation over a 52-month period, indications being acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock or refractory cardiac failure, or elective cardiac surgery complicated by continued dependence on cardiopulmonary bypass. Virtually all patients showed initial improvement and 45 were hospital survivors. Serious complications of ...
Ledingham I M - - 1976
Severe haemorrhagic shock was studied in a series of animal experiments. Reduction in myocardial oxygen and substrate utilisation in association with cardiac failure was demonstrated when the duration of shock was prolonged. The probable aetiological factors included ischaemia and the presence in the blood of certain vasoactive and metabolic depressant ...
Daniel A M - - 1976
The elevated arterial lactate concentration in shock was investigated by measuring lactate production and clearance rate using a constant infusion of 14C-labeled lactate. In addition, the pathways of lactate metabolism were characterized by determining the percentage of lactate under-going oxidation and the percentage of the total carbon dioxide production which ...
- - 1976
Cardiogenic shock as a result of myocardial infarction demands an aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach to improve survival. First, the patient likely to develop shock should be identified early in his course so that interventions to reduce or contain infarct progression and thus prevent shock can be instituted. If the ...
Wackers F J - - 1976
Pathological findings in the heart and particularly in the coronary arteries are reported from 70 patients dying from pump failure after acute myocardial infarction. Fifty of the patients had died in cardiogenic shock, the remainder from refractory congestive heart failure. Three-vessel disease (greater than or equal to 75% occlusion) was ...
Lee J C - - 1976
The relationships between left ventricular function and myocardial O2 availability and metabolism were studied in cats with hemorrhagic shock (AP=30 mm. Hg) with the use of a right heart bypass preparation. Aortic flow and heart rate were held constant. Oxygen-carrying capacity was reduced by diluting donor blood with an equal ...
Boland J - - 1976
The anaphylactic shock of the rabbit is characterized by an acute right ventricular overload, accompanied by severe alterations of cardiac electrogenesis. During shock, the mean QRS vector, as measured from the algebraic sum of the Q, R, and S deflections on the three leads, shifts to the right, inferiorly and ...
Krämer K D - - 1976
In tests on guinea pig hearts in situ asphyxia tolerance was found to be increased early in hemorragic shock four times control value. These results are suggestive of an energy saving mechanism in shock whereby the heart is not damaged out metabolically relieved. Myocardial analyses showed that, owing to shock-related ...
Carabello B A - - 1976
The coronary sinus and coronary veins offer an access route for delivery of increased oxygen to ischemic myocardium surrounding the central dead zone of heart muscle in cardiogenic shock due to myocardial infarction. This investigation was conducted to determine if transvenous retrograde coronary capillary perfusion with oxygenated blood would prevent ...
Prescott L F - - 1976
Plasma concentrations of lignocaine were measured during and after infusion of lignocaine at 1.4 mg/min for 36-46 hours in 12 patients with myocardial infarction and one patient with cardiac failure due to uncontrolled ventricular tachycardia. In six patients without cardiac failure the plasma concentrations of lignocaine rose progressively during the ...
Beach P M PM - - 1976
A review of thirty-four consecutive penetrating wounds of the heart is presented. Thirty-one patients were in shock at the time of admission, and fourteen had no obtainable blood pressure and were comatose or moribund. The weapon used, clinical status of the patient on arrival, size of the cardiac wound, and ...
Caulfield J B - - 1976
Patients with cardiogenic shock were arbitrarily divided into groups, those in whom shock appeared within 6 hours after the onset of acute infarction and those in whom the symptoms appeared more than 6 hours after the onset of acute infarction. The patients with more rapidly developing shock had larger areas ...
Baron D W - - 1976
Thirty patients were discharged from hospital after treatment with arterial counterpulsation for acute severe heart failure complicating myocardial infarction. Seventeen patients had been in cardiogenic shock--13 with power failure alone, and 4 with a mechanical complication which required corrective surgery. Thirteen patients were in impending or 'preshock'. The follow-up period ...
Maximov M J - - 1976
The possibility that failure of vascular resistance to increase during hypotension in cardiogenic shock is a generalized phenomenon affecting many vascular beds was investigated in anesthetized dogs subjected to coronary arterial embolization. Blood flow in the carotid, mesenteric and renal vascular beds was monitored. Efferent vagus nerve stimulation, which, through ...
Del Bianco P L - - 1976
Kinin has been hypothesized to be involved in the mechanism of the procordialgia, collapse, and shock in myocardial infarction. In spontaneous and experimental animal infarction, the long-lasting lowering of plasma kininogen is perhaps the expression of kinin release from the plasma precursor. More recently, a durable reduction of plasma prekallikrein ...
Goiti J J - - 1976
In two groups of dogs a cardiogenic shock was induced and their circulation assisted by counterpulsation. In the second group aside from the counterpulsation, 4 mgrs/Kg of morphine was administered when stable ventricular arrhythmias appeared. Morphine showed to eliminate the ventricular arrhythmias in three cases and lessened them considerably in ...
Widomska-Czekajska T - - 1976
In order to trace the changes in blood oxygenation and disturbances of the acid-base equilibrium in myocardial infarction, investigations were carried out in 136 patients aged 39-83 years. The values of blood oxygenation and the acid-base status were determined on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of the disease, and ...
Spitzer J J - - 1976
Changes in myocardial substrate utilization were studied in anesthetized dogs following the production of anaphylactic shock. Mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and pH decreased significantly during this form of shock. Myocardial FFA oxidation was greatly diminished especially within the first hour following challenge and lactate uptake more than doubled ...
Hagemeijer F - - 1975
Elective cardioversion with titrated energy was carried out under diazepam anaesthesia (38 procedures) in 26 patients on digitalis who presented with supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias. Low energy shocks were given to establish the absence of latent digitalis intoxication, not unmasked by previous carotid sinus massage, and to restore sinus rhythm ...
Evans R W - - 1975
The prognosis in cardiogenic shock remains poor despite improvements in treating other complications of acute myocardial infarction. In some situations, left ventricular function can be improved by increasing the vascular volume, but the benefits of increasing the cardiac uutput must be balanced agains the risk of pulmonary edema. Monitoring of ...
Reid P R - - 1975
Dopamine is a direct-acting catecholamine with a short half-life that has many advantages in treating visceral hypoperfusion states such as shock and refractory heart failure. Unlike other inotropic drugs, dopamine directly dilates the mesenteric, renal, and cerebral vessels and redirects blood flow to essential viscera. This dopaminergic effect is prominent ...
Fallah-Nejad M - - 1975
Penetrating cardiac injuries frequently first appear in an unusual and insidious manner, and their diagnosis may not be immediately obvious. In a series of 20 cases of cardiac injury, ten cases were indicative of such subtle symptoms, several of which were life-threatening. These unusual manifestations can be categorized as early, ...
Housman L B - - 1975
Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) has been used successfully in the treatment of shock following myocardial infarction. This report describes eight patients who developed medically refractory cardiogenic shock following cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass and who were treated with IABC. None of the eight became balloon dependent and seven of eight (87.5%) ...
Honet J C - - 1975
Six patients from a group of 39 who survived after treatment with the intraaortic balloon pump (lABP) had significant neurological deficits in one or both legs associated with the use of the lABP. The device was used in a group of 89 patients initially for cardiogenic shock but its use ...
Rhodes G R - - 1975
The effects of various combinations of streptokinase-induced hyperfibrinolysis, electric shock, myocardial ischemia, and ventricular fibrillation on cat pericardial and epcardial fibrinolytic activity were studied. Streptokinase alone or electric shock alone slightly increased the periepicardial fibrinolytic activity but epicardial rebleeding did not occur. However, streptokinase infusions followed by electric shock and/or ...
Rigo P - - 1975
Twenty-seven patients with acute myocardial infarction not complicated by cardiogenic shock and ten normal volunteers were studied with gated cardiac blood pool scans. The ratio right vetricular area/left ventricular area (RVA/LVA) determined from the left anterior oblique end-diastolic scans was examined. The ratio was 1.11 +/- .06 in the normal ...
Leigh J M - - 1975
As the physiology of deliberate hypotension has been unravelled, and as each new pharmacological agent has become available which either depresses or blocks peripheral vascular tone, depresses myocardial performance, or interferes with the conducting tissues within the myocardium, its possible incorporation into the armamentarium of the anaesthetist who offers induced ...
Wakabayashi A - - 1975
In order to determine whether myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) is decreased during left heart bypass (LHB), two groups of 6 dogs each were subjected to 2 hours of heparinless LHB. Group 2 differed from Group 1 in that cardiogenic shock was induced by temporary coronary artery occlusion prior to LHB. ...
Spath J A - - 1975
The ability of increased circulating activities of lysosomal hydrolases to disrupt myocardial cellular membranes was studied in anesthetized cats. Increased activities of lysosomal hydrolases were achieved by splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock or by infusion of liver extract (LE). Myocardial ischemia (MI) was produced by ligation of the left coronary ...
Archer L T - - 1975
1 There is a growing concensus that myocardial performance in the early stages of experimental endotoxic and septic shock is relatively normal; however, recent reports have identified an intermediate phase of shock when myocardial dysfunction is clearly apparent.2 The mechanism of dysfunction has become a subject of intense investigation. A ...
Broder M I - - 1975
External counterpulsation represents a rational extension of the basic principles of counterpulsation as developed over the past 20 years. Its unique properties of being totally noninvasive, free of significant morbidity, and easily and quickly instituted clinically suggest that it may have a significant therapeutic role in the prevention and treatment ...
Proctor H J - - 1975
Previous work has documented prolonged survival in dogs subjected to hemorrhagic shock when intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation (IABC) was instituted in the presence of a 25%-50% reduction in the slope of the left ventricular function curve. Little benefit was noted in the presence of a 75% reduction in slope. In this ...
Bregman D - - 1975
Intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been shown to reverse the cardiogenic shock syndrome, but the long-term results (16 to 53% survival) have, in general, been disappointing. The most productive areas for the use of IABP are in the treatment of acute myocardial ischemia where in one report of 16 patients ...
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