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Chee San-San A SS Center for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, - - 2014
The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat ...
McQuail Joseph A JA Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University Graduate School, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, ...
Dianati Maleki Neda N University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
To identify modifiable factors associated with sensitisation to laboratory animals. Animal husbandry staff (group 1) and researchers (group 2) were recruited from a University animal facility together with health researchers not working with animals (group 3). Sensitisation was evaluated using skin prick tests to rat and mouse allergens. Current tasks, ...
Murphy Caitlin J - - 2014
The mechanism by which noninfectious testicular inflammation results in infertility is poorly understood. Here the infiltration of CD11b+ immunoreactive testicular interstitial cells (neutrophil, macrophages, dendritic cells) in immature (postnatal day; PND 21, 28, 35) and adult (PND 56) Fischer rats is described at 12, 24, and 48h after an oral ...
Arndt Tanja T Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2014
The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat is an animal model of human type 1 diabetes (T1D), which arose through a spontaneous mutation within the MHC-congenic background strain LEW.1AR1. The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat is characterised by two phenotypes: diabetes development with a diabetes incidence of 60% and a variable T cell frequency in peripheral blood. ...
Mamidi Rao N V S RN Janssen Research & Development - - 2014
Canagliflozin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that blocks the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubule by inhibiting the sodium glucose co transporter 2. This article describes the in vivo biotransformation and disposition of canagliflozin after a single oral dose ...
Macolino Christine M CM Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Jefferson Alumni Hall Room 236, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study identifies the relationship between a test for post-traumatic headache and a marker for acute stress in rodent models of traumatic brain injury. C57BL/6 mice and Spague Dawley rats were divided into Controlled Cortical Impact (CCI) injury, craniotomy (CR), and incision groups. Periorbital and paw allodynia were evaluated using ...
Faber Willem W WFTC, - - 2014
Tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) was tested for subchronic toxicity in rats and mice and reproductive toxicity in rats at inhalation concentrations of 0, 100, 400 or 1600 ppm. An oral maternal toxicity study was conducted in rats at dose levels of 0, 400, 800, 1000 and 1600 mg kg-1 d-1. In ...
Hildebrandt Britny A BA Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, - - 2014
Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current ...
Baldwin Roger A RA Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA, 95695, USA, - - 2014
Roof rats (Rattus rattus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout California and in many other parts of the USA and beyond. In general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides ...
Huo Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China ; Department of College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, - - 2014
Although it is well-known that defective signaling of the 5-HT system in the brain and stressful stimuli can cause psychological disorders, their combined effects on male-male aggression and sexual attractiveness remain unknown. Our research aimed at examining such effects using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) knockout male mice vs. a rat- ...
Jin Meilan - - 2014
J. Toxicol. Sci., 37, 711-721 (2012).Error : Data for gpt and Spi(-) MFs in the lungs of male and female gpt delta rats treated with safrole for 13 weeks are summarized in Tables 7 and 8, respectively.-> Correction : Data for gpt and Spi(-) MFs in the lungs of male ...
Okawara Masaki M Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai - - 2014
Orally administrated diosgenin, a steroidal saponin found in the roots of Dioscorea villosa, improves reduced skin thickness in ovariectomized mice, and plays an important role in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Diosgenin has been noticed as an active element in cosmeceutical and dietary supplements. We have already elucidated that the absolute ...
Simon Lacey C - - 2013
Abstract A review of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) biodistribution was conducted with the intent of identifying particle behavior for drug delivery applications. Databases such as Science Direct and Web of Science were used to locate papers on biodistribution of intravenous (i.v.) and orally delivered PLGA NPs in mice and ...
Veeramachaneni D N Rao - - 2013
Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have been noted; e.g., following foetal exposure, abnormal clustering of Leydig cells or decreased production ...
Filser Johannes Georg - - 2013
The gaseous olefin ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic epoxide ethylene oxide (EO). Although ET is the largest volume organic chemical worldwide, the EO burden in ET-exposed humans is still uncertain and only limited data is available on the EO burden in ET-exposed rodents. Therefore, EO was ...
Thakur Sheetal A - - 2013
Propargyl alcohol (PA) is a high production volume chemical used in synthesis of many industrial chemicals and agricultural products. Despite the potential for prolonged or accidental exposure to PA in industrial settings, the toxicity potential of PA was not well characterized. To address the knowledge gaps relevant to the toxicity ...
Asarian Lori - - 2013
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amount eaten in rats, mice, monkeys and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects ...
Dunnick June K - - 2013
Because of the potential for exposure to N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) in medical devices and the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity information available in the literature, the National Toxicology Program conducted toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of DMPT in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice. In these studies, a treatment-related macrocytic ...
Aizawa-Abe Megumi - - 2013
Leptin is one of the key molecules in maintaining energy homeostasis. Although genetically leptin deficient Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice made a great contribution in elucidating leptin physiology, using more than one species can improves accuracy of analysis result. Using the method with ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis, we generated a leptin deficient Lep(mkyo)/Lep(mkyo) rat ...
Zhou Y - - 2013
/st>HX0969w is a novel water-soluble prodrug designed to release propofol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and has a sedative-hypnotic effect. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of HX0969w with fospropofol in mice and rats. /st>We performed hydrolysis studies in the plasma from mice and rats. The half-maximal effective doses (ED50) ...
Broide Ron S - - 2013
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are approved for a number of therapeutic indications, including blepharospasm, cervical dystonia and hyperhydrosis, and have also shown efficacy in a variety of pain disorders. The potency of any given BoNT preparation can be routinely assessed by using the Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay, which measures the ...
Kieran Ingrid - - 2013
Cutaneous scarring affects up to 100 million people per annum. There is no effective scar reducing/preventing therapeutic developed to date. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic cytokine. In the embryo it is important for scarless wound repair. We investigated the effect on wound healing and scarring of a double deletion ...
Tang Xiaojiang - - 2013
Extensive uses of methyltin compounds in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production have led to a dramatic increase of occupational-related methyltin poisoning accidents and the widespread contamination of methyltins in various environmental media. Here, we conducted studies to compare the acute toxicity induced by trimethyltin (TMT) and dimethyltin (DMT), and investigated the ...
Hyndman Kelly A KA Section of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, - - 2013
Nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase 1 (NOS1) maintain sodium and water homeostasis. The NOS1α and NOS1β splice variants are expressed in the rat inner medulla, but only NOS1β is expressed in the mouse. Collecting duct NOS1 is necessary for blood pressure control. We hypothesized that NOS1 splice variant expression ...
Nambiar Prashant R - - 2013
A factor limiting widespread use of the transgenic rasH2 mouse model for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals is the paucity of published data on actual drug candidates in rasH2 mice. This report addresses this gap by highlighting rasH2 mouse study data for 10 pharmaceutical candidates. These results were compared with findings ...
Uva Paolo - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs acting as post-transcriptional gene expression regulators in many physiological and pathological conditions. During the last few years, many novel mammalian miRNAs have been predicted experimentally with bioinformatics approaches and validated by next-generation sequencing. Although these strategies have prompted the discovery of ...
Bert B B Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Freie, Universität Berlin, Koserstr. 20, 14195 Berlin, - - 2013
The free exploratory paradigm is regarded as a reliable test for trait anxiety in mice but it may also be useful in rats. Previously, we showed that rat strains differ in their free exploration of novel areas, i.e. the surroundings of their familiar home cage when the lid was removed. ...
Hayashimoto Nobuhito N ICLAS Monitoring Center, Central Institute for Experimental Animals, 3-25-12 Tonomachi, Kawasaki, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821, - - 2013
On the basis of our 2011 microbiological monitoring tests, we report here the current microbiological status of mice and rats housed in experimental facilities in Japan. We tested more than 14,000 mice, 6,000 serum samples, 500 fecal or cecal samples, and 200 lung samples from 3,549 mouse facilities within Japanese ...
Deacon Robert M J - - 2013
Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. ...
Shitara Yoshihisa - - 2012
Phenformin causes lactic acidosis in clinical situations due to inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. It is reportedly taken up by hepatocytes and exhibits mitochondrial toxicity in the liver. In the present study, uptake of phenformin and [(14)C]tetraethylammonium (TEA), and complex I inhibition by phenformin were examined in isolated ...
Xu Meihong - - 2012
With the multifaceted activities of nucleotides, there is a history of safe consumption of dietary nucleotides (NTs) in the human diet. This study investigated the multigenerations cumulative toxicity on rats' development after weaning. Weaning rats (F0) were fed with NTs at the dosage of 0.01, 0.04, 0.16, 0.64, and 1.28% ...
Ness Rob W - - 2012
Although the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is widely used as a model mammal throughout biological sciences, little is known about genetic variation in wild rat populations or the relationship of commonly used inbred strains to their wild relatives. We sampled wild brown rats from the species' presumed ancestral range in ...
Metushi Imir G - - 2012
Isoniazid (INH) is associated with serious liver injury and autoimmunity. Classic studies in rats indicated that a reactive metabolite of acetylhydrazine is responsible for the covalent binding and toxicity of INH. Studies in rabbits suggested that hydrazine might be the toxic species. However, these models involved acute toxicity with high ...
Beason David P DP McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
More than one-quarter of Americans have hypercholesterolemia and/or are being treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. Given the systemic nature of hypercholesterolemia and remaining questions regarding its effect on tendons at a local level, we sought to assess the utility of small versus large animal model systems for translational studies by exploring ...
Boudreau Mary D MD Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA. - - 2013
Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 ...
Abelson Klas S P - - 2012
An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste for voluntary ingestion. This method ...
Mashimo Tomoji - - 2012
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, the most widely used animal model of DNA-PKcs (Prkdc) deficiency, have contributed enormously to our understanding of immunodeficiency, lymphocyte development, and DNA-repair mechanisms, and they are ideal hosts for allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue transplantation. Here, we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate rats that lack either ...
Hadi Mackenzie - - 2012
N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat and human, the toxicity of ...
McGill Mitchell R - - 2012
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that ...
Park Joung-Hyun - - 2012
Recommendations to increase the consumption of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are challenged by the global problem of declining fish stocks. Non-traditional and more sustainable sources of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are needed. Squid (Todarodes pacificus) represents a uniquely sustainable source of these fatty acids. A 13-week oral toxicity ...
Milton Nathaniel G N - - 2012
Full-length native rat amylin 1-37 has previously been widely shown to be unable to form fibrils and to lack the toxicity of the human amylin form leading to its use as a non-amyloidogenic control peptide. A recent study has suggested that rat amylin 1-37 forms amyloidogenic β-sheet structures in the ...
Hosseini Azar A Pharmacological Research Centre of Medicinal Plants, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, - - 2012
PDE3 has a functional role in insulin secretion and action. We investigated the metabolic effects of new synthetic PDE3 inhibitors (mc1, mc2, mc5 and mc6), on mice and hyperglycemic rat. The test compound or solvent was injected subcutaneously to mice, for 7 days. On day 8, blood and liver samples ...
Yang Shih-Ying - - 2012
St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300, 150mg/kg of SJW and ...
Lee Jung-Min - - 2012
Reference ranges of standard experimental parameters are useful for comparisons in toxicology. The aim of this study was to collect data from 13-week repeated toxicity studies in Crl:CD (SD) rats, a strain widely used for toxicity and efficacy research, for establishing domestic reference values. Data on body weight, food consumption; ...
Rennison David - - 2012
Norbormide [5-(α-hydroxy-α-2-pyridylbenzyl)-7-(α-2-pyridylbenzylidene)-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, one major drawback of NRB as a viable rodenticide relates to an evolutionary aversion developed by the rat leading to sub-lethal dosing due to ...
Zheng Jue-Cun - - 2012
Background and aim: α-momorcharin (α-MMC), a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Momordica charantia, is well known for its antitumor and antivirus activities. However, the immunotoxicity and hepatotoxicity hampers its potential therapeutic usage. In order to reduce its toxicity, we had modified the α-MMC with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and detected ...
Ikemura Mayumi - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in normal rats and in rats with fatty liver disease. A therapeutic dosage (0.1mg/kg) and a toxic dose (15mg/kg) of haloperidol were administrated to normal 9-week-old male rats or those with severe fatty liver disease, ...
Cross David M - - 2012
Anidulafungin and voriconazole are potent antifungal agents that may provide a powerful therapeutic option over current therapies when coadministered. A non-clinical combination toxicity study was required as part of the voriconazole Paediatric Investigation Plan. Rats received anidulafungin or voriconazole alone or in combination once daily from postnatal day (PND) 21-56 ...
Boyle Michael C - - 2012
To investigate the toxicity and carcinogenic potential of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the National Toxicology Program has conducted 13-week subchronic studies in Fisher 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice, and chronic 2-year bioassays in Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. While the chronic study results are not yet available, subchronic study results and short-term ...
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