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Wacker M - - 2001
The 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE-dGp-adducts) were quantitated in tissues of rats treated with trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) or carbon tetrachloride, respectively, using a 32P-postlabeling method. The method development was based on chemically synthesized HNE-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct standard, which was characterized by NMR and mass spectra. The adducts were enriched by Nuclease P1. ...
Wright M C - - 2001
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis and stimulating their apoptosis could be an effective treatment for liver fibrosis. METHODS: Activated HSCs, hepatocytes, and rats with liver fibrosis were treated with gliotoxin. RESULTS: Addition of gliotoxin to activated (alpha-smooth muscle actin positive) rat ...
Melin A M - - 2001
We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen ...
Tanaka E - - 2001
In this study, we have carried out an investigation to determine if chlorzoxazone (CZX) is a suitable probe drug for predicting hepatic injury in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rats. The animals received oral doses of CCl4 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 ml/kg) 24 h prior to intraperitoneal administration of CZX. The total ...
Marwah P - - 2001
The 7-oxo derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone is more active than the parent steroid and is devoid of adverse side effects in rats, monkeys and humans. In anticipation of possible therapeutic use we have sought more active, longer lasting forms of 7-oxo- and 7beta-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterones. The 7-oxo- and 7-hydroxy steroids have been converted ...
Nunes J - - 2001
To determine if additive or synergistic toxic effects would occur, adult male rats were exposed orally to lead carbonate (2,000 mg/kg) for 9 days before trichloroethylene (TCE), 2,000 mg/kg, was given concurrently for an additional 7 days. Comparisons were made with groups of vehicle-treated rats and rats given only lead ...
Shimizu H - - 2001
Acute liver injury induced by CCl4 injection (0.5 ml/kg b.w.) was compared between Mini and Wistar rats. Mini rats (Jcl:Wistar-TgN (ARGHGEN)1Nts strain) are Wistar-derived transgenic animals in which the expression of growth hormone (GH) gene is suppressed by the presence of an antisense transgene. The hepatic lesion appeared earlier and ...
Benson J M - - 2001
Carbon tetrachloride is hepatotoxic in rats, mice, and hamsters. However, rats are less sensitive to the hepatotoxic effects of CCl(4) than the other two species. The purpose of this study was to compare the uptake, tissue distribution, and elimination of CCl(4) by these three rodent species. Groups of 20 F344/Crl ...
Sakadamis A K - - 2001
In an effort to develop a reproducible model of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices, we administered phenobarbital (PhB) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in 32 rats that had previously undergone complete devascularization of the left renal vein (DLRV). The operation was conducted to enhance the development of cephalad collaterals mainly responsible ...
Kang J O - - 2001
Astaxanthin is one of many carotenoids present in marine animals, vegetables and fruits. Since carotenoids are known to have antioxidant properties, we tested to determine if astaxanthin could have protective effects in the CCl4-treated rat liver by activating the antioxidant system. Astaxanthin blocked the increase of glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and ...
Park T J - - 2001
To clarify the sequential changes in pRB and p16 during different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), male Fischer 344 rats were singly injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), immediately followed with phenobarbital for 1 wk and then thioacetamide (TAA) for 39 wk in ...
Melin A M - - 2001
Among the physico-chemical methods that can be used to investigate induced peroxidation in living cells, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy appears to be a valuable technique as it is non-destructive and sensitive for monitoring changes in the vibrational spectra of samples. We examined microsomal fractions from rat liver and brain ...
Huang X - - 2001
AIM: To examine the expression of activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGFbeta) superfamily, recently has been reported to be overexpressed in liver cirrhosis, in the course of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of 40% carbon tetrachloride ...
Jeong D H - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in the alteration of signal transduction in the liver, which may contribute to the development of liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the subcellular redistribution of PKC isozymes in rat liver cirrhosis, which is ...
Rao M R - - 2001
Effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were studied individually and in combination on rat endothelial (ET) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in vivo, inhibition of ET and SMC NOS activity in CCl4 treated rats was reversed in FDP + CCl4 treated animals. ...
Liu H J - - 2001
This study investigated the effects of acupuncture on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver injury in male rats (n=36). The experimental groups were injected with CCl4 before, during, or after acupuncture therapy. Acupoints similar to the human Tsu-San-Li (St-36) and Tai-Chung (Li-3) were needled bilaterally. Rats treated with CCl4 had ...
Plummer J L - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gut flora play a significant role in the disposition of many foreign substances, as well as producing nutrients and toxins that may be absorbed and reach the liver. This study examines the influence of antibiotic-induced alterations in gut flora on the development of hepatic fibrosis in ...
Arosio B - - 2000
Aloe contains several active compounds including aloin, a C-glycoside that can be hydrolyzed in the gut to form aloe-emodin anthrone which, in turn, is auto-oxidized to the quinone aloe-emodin. On the basis of the claimed hepatoprotective activity of some antraquinones, we studied aloe-emodin in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride ...
Lakatos P L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a cell surface ectoenzyme widely distributed in the rat body, present on the epithelial cells of the brush border membranes (e.g. bile canaliculi) and on the surface of reactive lymphocytes and fibroblasts. DPP IV has been implicated in hepatocyte-extracellular matrix interactions, fibroblast activation ...
Stringer J L - - 2000
Topiramate is a relatively new antiepileptic drug with several putative anticonvulsant mechanisms. Among them is the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase, a property in common with the anticonvulsant acetazolamide. This study examined the effects of topiramate and acetazolamide on the duration of epileptiform activity and on paired-pulse inhibition in the ...
Bondy G S - - 2000
The sensitivity of elevated serum ornithine carbamyltransferase (OCT) as an index of hepatotoxicity in rats was assessed in different studies conducted over a number of years and originally designed to examine the toxicity or carcinogenicity of a variety of test chemicals and diets. Changes in serum OCT activities were compared ...
Yoon S - - 2000
We have investigated the accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG) induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-derived radicals in the liver of female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after intraperitoneally injecting CCl4. DAG is an intracellular activator of protein kinase C (PKC) which regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. The electron spin resonance (ESR) study gave the ...
Lu K L - - 2000
The hepatoprotective effects of Tao-shang-tsao, Ixeris laevigata Sch.-Bip. var. oldhami Kitam., were studied on cholestatic hepatitis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT, 100 mg/10 ml/kg, in olive oil, i.p.) and acute hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (20% CCl4/olive oil, 1.5 ml/kg, i.p.) in rats by post-treatment with the crude methanolic extracts of ...
Fineschi V - - 2000
The aim of this study was to define the status of the myocardium in selected human cases of acute, fatal carbon monoxide intoxication and the myocardial changes in rats exposed to carbon monoxide in relation to the type of cardiac arrest and the effects of reoxygenation following pre-fatal CO intoxication. ...
Abraham P - - 1999
To investigate the cause of accumulation of oxidised proteins in the livers of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver cirrhosis, the activity of alkaline protease (a high molecular weight, multisubunit cysteine proteinase) was determined in the cirrhotic livers. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of hepatic ...
Inder R E - - 1999
In the mouse, retinol administration attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in this interaction. Male Swiss Webster mice were administered retinol (75 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 3 days prior to CCl4 (30 microl/kg, ip). Hepatotoxicity produced by CCl4 was assessed by ...
Wakefield T W - - 1999
Thrombus organization after venous thromboembolism leading to recanalization occurs at a variable rate. The angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been found in thrombus months after thrombus initiation. We hypothesize that thrombus organization involves neovascularization and leukocyte influx and that IL-8 administered at thrombus induction will promote thrombus organization. A group ...
Suzuki K T - - 1999
A zinc (Zn)-binding protein that is present specifically in the livers of male adult rats was detected by HPLC with in-line detection by mass spectrometry (ICP MS). The Zn-binding protein was purified on Sephadex G-75 and G3000SW HPLC columns. and was identified as carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) based on the ...
Singh K - - 1999
Administration of CCl4 to normal rats and consequent oral feeding with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg) provided a significant protection against the biochemical alterations in serum and liver produced by CCl4. In vitro experiments showed that liver microsomes from animals treated with ellagic acid and CCl4, decreased lipid peroxidation compared to ...
Longo M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the effects of authentic nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on the contractile activity of pregnant human and rat myometrium. STUDY DESIGN: Strips were prepared from uterine biopsy specimens of 10 pregnant, nonlaboring women at term gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. In addition, rings were prepared from ...
Fernández-Llama P - - 1999
Semiquantitative immunoblotting was used to investigate the expression levels of the four major renal aquaporins, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb, the type 3 Na-H exchanger, and the Na-K-ATPase in kidneys from rats with cirrhosis secondary to common bile duct ligation (CBDL). These rats had significant water retention ...
Stoyanovsky D A - - 1999
Extensive ESR spin-trapping studies with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) have shown that carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is metabolized to trichloromethyl radical ((*)CCl(3)). However, the ESR analysis of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN)-spin trapped (*)CCl(3) in biological systems appears to be complicated. It has been reported that after in vivo administration of PBN and CCl(4) to rats, ...
Rosowsky A - - 1999
Twenty-one conformationally restricted tricyclic pyrimethamine and metoprine analogues with one or two chlorine atoms, or other substituents, at different positions of the phenyl ring were tested for potency and species selectivity against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis carinii, and rat liver. Heterocyclic systems studied included indeno[2,1-d]pyrimidines, benzo[f]quinazolines, and ...
Huang Ying-Qiu - - 1999
AIM:To observe the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) distribution in the esophageal mucosa and hemodynamic changes in cirrhotic rats.METHODS:NOS distribution in the lower esophagus of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis was assessed by using NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemical method.Concentration of NO in serum were measured by fluorometric assay. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), ...
Pfeuffer J - - 1999
Resolved localized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of 1H bound to 13C label in the carbon positions of glutamate C4, C3 and glutamine C4, C3, as well as in aspartate C3, lactate C3, alanine C3, gamma-aminobutyric acid C3, and glucose C1 were simultaneously observed in spectra obtained from rat brain ...
Sakaida I - - 1999
The effects of a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor (HOE 077) on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and procollagen type I were examined in rat liver fibrosis. HOE 077 (200 ppm) prevented fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of liver type I procollagen and TIMP-1 mRNAs, with liver hydroxyroline content correlated with the ...
Rikans L E - - 1999
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured in livers of young-adult and old rats administered carbon tetrachloride or vehicle. IL-1beta levels were higher and IL-6 levels were lower in old rats than in young-adult rats. Carbon tetrachloride treatment increased IL-1beta and decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6. ...
Camandola S - - 1999
Experimental acute intoxication by prooxidant haloalkanes produces marked stimulation of hepatic lipid peroxidation and cytolysis, which is followed by tissue regeneration. Our aim was to clarify the role of oxidative imbalance in the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is involved in tissue repair. Rats were ...
Silva C C - - 1999
Heme oxygenase degrades heme to form carbon monoxide. It has been reported that heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide may interact with L-glutamate (L-Glu) receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Integrative studies suggest that heme oxygenase inhibitors raise blood pressure, in part, by inhibiting carbon monoxide formation in the NTS. The ...
Holmes J M - - 1999
PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature ...
Karan M - - 1999
The methanol extract of Swertia chirata was evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in experimental rats. The extract was found to be active and on fractionation into butanol soluble and chloroform soluble fractions, the activity was traced and found more profound in the chloroform soluble fraction. ...
Rivera M - - 1999
Singly and doubly labeled delta-aminolevulinic acid derivatives were used to prepare rat liver outer mitochondrial membrane (OM) cytochrome b5 containing a 13C-labeled heme active site. A variety of NMR experiments, including HMBC and INADEQUATE in conjunction with the more commonly used HMQC, NOESY, and COSY, were conducted to make unambiguous ...
Lai T Y - - 1999
The hepatoprotective effect of a preparation of human urine (PHU) was assessed against short-term carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment in rats. Significant prevention of liver injury by PHU was found after CCl4 treatment, judging by the changes of serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic protein and triglyceride contents. The increased liver lipid ...
Wasser S - - 1999
The rat is a frequently used experimental model in studies involving human disease. We review several methods of inducing hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats. These include induction by hepatotoxins and hepatocarcinogens such as carbon tetrachloride, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide and furan; the hepatoxin-cum-nutrient, alcohol; a high fat-low choline-low protein diet; immunologic ...
Zafar R - - 1998
The natural root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus were compared for their anti-hepatotoxic effects in Wistar strain of Albino rats against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. The increased levels of serum enymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and bilirubin observed in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride were very much ...
Winter P M - - 1998
A method is presented to measure the absolute concentration of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) in vivo by using interleaved 23Na- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and TmDOTP5- as shift reagent and chemical marker of tissue extracellular space (ECS). The technique was used to determine [Na+]i and relative ECS in livers ...
Junnila M - - 1998
Carbon tetrachloride-injected rats were given liquid diets with and without betaine for 7 d. Hepatic lipidosis was induced by 4 daily injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Animals were killed and their livers and blood taken for analysis of betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate ...
Erve J C - - 1998
Previous in vivo studies have supported protein cross-linking by CS2 as both a mechanism of neurotoxicity and a potential biomarker of effect through the detection of a structure responsible for CS2-mediated protein cross-linking, namely, lysine-lysine thiourea. In this study, the structure of a previously uncharacterized stable protein cross-link produced by ...
Dalu A - - 1998
We have previously reported that rats are resilient to the hepatotoxic and lethal combination of chlordecone (CD) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) during early postnatal development. The overall findings pointed to stimulated cell division and tissue repair mechanisms as the underlying cause of resistance. The objective of the current study was ...
Sepúlveda-Saavedra J - - 1998
Peroxisomes are single-membrane-bound organelles present in almost all eukaryotic cells. Hypolipidemic agents such as clofibrate, herbicides and plasticizers induce an increase in the number and size of peroxisomes from mammalian cells. However, there is no evidence of drugs causing a decrease in the number of these organelles. In this paper, ...
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