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Results 351 - 400 of 1064
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Carratù M R - - 2000
Prenatal exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, 150 ppm) causes long-term alterations in sphingomyelin (SM) homeostasis in peripheral nervous system, but not brain of male rat offspring. In particular, unlike sphinganine (intermediate of complex sphingolipid biosynthesis de novo), the concentrations of sphingosine (intermediate of complex sphingolipid turnover) were ...
Carratù M R - - 2000
Prenatal exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, 75 and 150 ppm from day 0 to day 20 of gestation), resulting in maternal blood HbCO concentrations equivalent to those maintained by human cigarette smokers, leads to subtle myelin alterations in the sciatic nerve of male rat offspring. The rapid ...
Rygh L J - - 2000
Mechanisms of neuropathic pain are not clear. Recently we showed long-term potentiation (LTP) of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurones after electrical conditioning stimulation of the sciatic nerve in normal rats. In this study we investigated the effects of the same conditioning on both the evoked responses of WDR cells and ...
Peinad M A - - 2000
The immunohistochemical analysis of the HNK-1 epitope presence in the liver and upper digestive tract nerves was carried out in 12- to 18-day-old rat embryos embedded in acrylamide-agarose and observed with laser scanning confocal microscopy. The vagus and sympathetic trunk were intensely immunostained at all ages; branches of both structures ...
Fujiki N - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of microgravity (muG) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) in rats. Additionally, we estimated the participation of the vestibular system in the response of RNA to muG. Eight normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and five chemically and bilaterally labyrinthectomied SD rats ...
Cavallotti D - - 2000
The occurrence and distribution of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were examined in the thymus of normal and immuno-stimulated adult and aged rats using biochemical and enzymehistochemical methods. Specific AChE reactivity was found primarily in the arteries and, to a lesser extent, in the veins. Only a small amount of activity could ...
Shibuya K - - 2000
Bilateral anophthalmia was discovered in a male rat (No. 1) and unilateral anophthalmia was found in the left eye of two female rats (Nos. 2 and 3) derived from a Fischer 344 inbred colony. One male rat (No. 4), a littermate of No. 3, had externally normal eyes, but his ...
Yang Q - - 2000
Threshold electrotonus (TE) is a new tool for investigating axonal function noninvasively in vivo. To increase its potential clinical value, we developed a rat model of TE, and examined the effects of maturation and pharmacological intervention. We recorded TE in 92 male rats (body weight 90-650 g) by stimulating the ...
Nuñez J L - - 2000
Previous work reported increases in the number of myelinated axons in the splenium of the rat corpus callosum between 25 and 60 days of age. In the present study, we quantified the area occupied by myelinated axons using a light microscopic point counting technique at 60, 120 and 180 days. ...
Katada E - - 2000
A novel peptide, hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), originally purified from young rat hippocampus, affects the development of specific cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system in vitro. In this study, HCNP-like-immunoreactive nerve processes and nerve cell bodies were identified by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry in the rat small intestine. Labeled ...
Asato F - - 2000
We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in ...
Donzelli J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To test whether irrigation during bipolar cautery confers thermoprotection from neuronal injury. DESIGN: A rat animal model (15 rats for each treatment group) was used to test the thermoprotective effects of irrigation during bipolar cautery. In this model, the sciatic nerve was exposed, and a 1-second stimulus was applied ...
Samsam M - - 2000
The central terminals of the primary sensory trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons projecting into the caudal trigeminal nucleus (CTN) of the rat exhibit neurokinin A (NKA)-, substance P (SP)-, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactivities (IRs). We stimulated the TG in the rat to induce some of the alterations which might occur ...
Kohane D S - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Saxitoxin and its homologues are naturally occurring compounds that block the sodium channel with high potency. They have the potential for providing prolonged duration local anesthesia when coinjected with vasoconstrictors or conventional local anesthetics and are devoid of local neurotoxicity. Here, we compare sciatic nerve block with ...
Takata H - - 1999
Peripheral nerve homografts 35 mm long were inserted in rats to study rejection and regeneration of nerves after suspension of an immunosuppressant (cyclosporin), and the correlation between the Schwann cells of the host and the donor during the course of regeneration. Sciatic nerve homografts from 36 ACI-RT1a rats were transplanted ...
St John J A - - 1999
The olfactory neuroepithelium is characterised by the mosaic distribution of primary olfactory neurons that express different odorant receptors and cell surface glycoconjugates. Carbohydrates are believed to form a glycocode that mediates sorting out and fasciculation of primary olfactory axons through interactions with carbohydrate-binding proteins such as galectin-1. In the present ...
Ohtori S - - 1999
STUDY DESIGN: The vertebral levels of dorsal root ganglia innervating the dorsal portion of the L5-L6 intervertebral disc were investigated in rats using a retrograde transport method. The pathways and functions of nerve fibers supplying the dorsal portion of the disc were determined by denervation and immunohistochemistry. OBJECTIVES: The dorsal ...
Hayakawa K - - 1999
We examined the preventive effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) against neurotoxicity induced in aged rats by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, vincristine and taxol using a superior cervical ganglion explant culture system. The inhibition of neurite outgrowth by cisplatin, vincristine and taxol was markedly prevented by co-treatment with NGF. ...
Zhang X H - - 1999
AIM: To investigate the effect of cavernous nerve injury on the nNOS-containing nerve fibers in rat corpus cavernosum. METHODS: Thirty-three male SD rats were randomized into 3 groups: 5 rats underwent pelvic exploration without transection of cavernous nerve as the sham-operated controls, the unilateral injury group (14 rats) had the ...
Tsao C M - - 1999
Gonadal hormones may modulate analgesia responses induced by acute stress in humans and rats. To evaluate the effects of gonadal hormones in modifying neuropathic pain, we measured autotomy changes following sciatic nerve resection in ovariectomized rats and in the presence of estrogen replacement. Two groups of female rats were subjected ...
Campo P - - 1999
It is well established that organic solvents such as toluene and styrene are ototoxic in the rat; however, the intoxication route used to reach the organ of Corti is still questionable. The distribution of toluene and styrene in various tissues of Long-Evans rats (n = 2 x 8) was studied ...
Vannucchi M G - - 1999
The substance P (SP)-containing nerves at the deep (DMP) and myenteric (MP) plexuses and the related interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-DMP and ICC-MP) were immunohistochemically studied in rat and guinea-pig ileum. All the ICC expressed SP-preferred receptor NK1r: the ICC-DMP showed an intense and the ICC-MP a faint NK1r-immunoreactivity(IR). c-kit-labeling ...
de Castro F - - 1999
During development, growth cones can be guided at a distance by diffusible factors, which are attractants and/or repellents. The semaphorins are the largest family of repulsive axon guidance molecules. Secreted semaphorins bind neuropilin receptors and repel sensory, sympathetic, motor, and forebrain axons. We found that in rat embryos, the olfactory ...
Ba┼čar M M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the electrical activity of the corpus cavernosum after intracavernous papaverine injection in rats that had been denervated experimentally. METHODS: Twenty-four male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (i) controls (n=8) (ii) unilateral cavernous nerve resection on the right side (n=8); and (iii) bilateral cavernous ...
Tsai M L - - 1999
Transfer function analysis was used to examine the coupling between the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and the blood pressure (BP) fluctuations. In pentobarbital anesthetized Wistar rats, linear regression of the relationship between frequency (X-axis) and the logarithmic transfer magnitude, i.e. log (BP power density/renal SNA power density) (Y-axis), in the ...
Gong H - - 1999
In the present study the changes in the optic nerve due to dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency has examined in Wistar Kyoto rats, since there is a lack of information on the significance of manganese in the optic nerve. After 5 months on a Mn-deficient diet, the optic nerve was examined ...
Smith-White M A - - 1999
This study observed the effects of stimulation of the cardiac sympathetic nerve on vagal slowing of the heart in rats, and compared these with any actions of exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). In rats anaesthetised with pentobarbitone, stimulation of the cardiac sympathetic nerve for 2 min at 20 ...
Yan Q - - 1999
Adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC) undergo degeneration after optic nerve transection. Studies have shown that exogenously applied neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can attenuate axotomy-induced as well as developmental RGC death. Here, we examined whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a known neurotrophic factor for ...
Kang T C - - 1999
Osteopontin (OPN) was initially identified as glycosylated phosphoprotein in bones of vertebrates. Recently, OPN is reported to express in the primitive neuroepithelia of early chick embryonic hindbrain. We have demonstrated that rat OPN is immunohistochemically localized in the white matter of chick CNS. We have further confirmed the specificity of ...
Lillesaar C - - 1999
This study examines the hypothesis that neural factors influence the growth of rat vibrissae. We divided the vibrissae in rows alpha-delta, 1 and 2 and examined their regrowth during the first complete growth period in normal and nerve-lesioned rats. The lesions used were denervation through neonatal capsaicin treatment, surgical sympathecomy ...
Fessenden J D - - 1999
The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were localized in the cochlea, the cochlear nucleus (CN), and the superior olivary complex (SOC) of Fisher 344 rats. In the cochlea, nNOS was identified in spiral ganglion cells by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry ...
Lane R D - - 1999
Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these ...
Catre M G - - 1999
Retrograde tracing with Fluoro-Gold (FG) was used to identify the complete population of knee joint sympathetic postganglionic efferents in the lumbar sympathetic chain of adult female Wistar rats. In 6 rats, the total number and distribution of FG-labelled neurons in the lumbar sympathetic chain was determined. The rat knee joint ...
Liu S H - - 1999
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated peripheral nerve disturbance in lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS)-treated rat was studied. The impaired Na+,K+ -ATPase activities in sciatic nerves from LPS-treated rats were prevented by aminoguanidine (NO synthase inhibitor) and corrected by PKC agonist in vitro. Using Western blot to ...
Deacon T - - 1999
The anatomical specificity of axon growth from fetal pig septal xenografts was studied by transplanting septal cells from E30-35 pig fetuses into cholinergic deafferented (192-IgG-saporin-infused) rats or into aged rats (> 18 months). Cell suspensions (100,000 cells/microl) were injected bilaterally into the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of immunosuppressed rats (10 ...
Dumanian G A - - 1999
We developed a new quantitative rat sciatic nerve model to test whether free fat grafts can reduce postoperative perineural scar formation. Epineurectomies of sciatic nerves were performed to create scar. The force required to distract the nerve a unit distance was measured after surgery to determine the time of maximal ...
Higashi S - - 1999
In rodents, the somatosensory cortex has a cell aggregation cluster termed the barrel, reflecting a whisker vibrissa, and this barrel formation is disrupted by infraorbital nerve cut at birth. In the present study, we prepared thalamocortical slice preparations from rats that received infraorbital nerve cut either at birth or at ...
Ueta Y - - 1999
Adrenomedullin-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract in colchicine-treated and hypophysectomized rats was examined by immunohistochemistry. Adrenomedullin-like immunoreactive (AM-LI) neurons were localized in the hypothalamic areas, including the paraventricular nuclei and the supraoptic nuclei. Abundant AM-LI fibers and varicosities were found in the hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract and the internal zone of the ...
Shi T J - - 1999
The expression of galanin and neuropeptide Y in rat lumbar 5 (L5) dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn (L4-5) was studied after four types of peripheral nerve injury using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The possible correlation between these two peptides and tactile allodynia-like behaviour was analysed as well. The ...
Krsulovic J - - 1999
Taiep is an autosomal recessive mutant rat that shows a highly hypomyelinated central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocytes accumulate microtubules (MTs) in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes forming MT-ER complexes. The microtubular defect in oligodendrocytes, the abnormal formation of CNS myelin and the astrocytic reaction were characterized by immunocytochemical and ...
Ramer M S - - 1998
We investigated a possible link between galanin expression and evoked pain accompanying painful partial sciatic nerve lesions. Increased galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in the dorsal horn, in gracile nucleus, and in sensory neurons following chronic constriction injury (CCI) compared to complete sciatic transection suggested a facilitatory role in thermal and mechanical ...
Sotgiu M L - - 1998
The effect of vincristine (Vin, a fast axonal transport blocker) to prevent any alteration in the excitability of dorsal horn neurons, following peripheral nerve injury, was investigated on 31 rats: 20 with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and 11 sham preparations. In 15 of the 20 CCI ...
ThyagaRajan S - - 1998
Previously, we have hypothesized a causal relationship between some measures of immunosenescence and the age-related decline in sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) nerve fibers in spleen and lymph nodes of F344 rats. In the present study, we investigated this interrelationship further by measuring NK cell activity, Con A-induced IL-2 production, norepinephrine (NE) ...
Micera A - - 1998
We recently reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) and the brain tissues of rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) contain elevated levels of nerve growth factor (NGF). In the present study, we demonstrate that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes particularly localized in the white matter, ...
Heredia M - - 1998
We produced and characterized two monoclonal antibodies, termed 1.9.E and 4.11.C, that specifically recognize olfactory bulb ensheathing glia. Both antibodies were generated using the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) of newborn rat olfactory bulbs (P0, P1) as immunogens. The specificity of these antibodies was tested by immunofluorescence techniques on tissue sections ...
Rothschild A M - - 1998
Cephalic stimulation by food elicits, among other responses, dilatation of mesenteric blood vessels preparatory for digestion. The possible participation of bradykinin (BK), a powerful endogenous vasodilator, in this response was studied in fasted rats prior and following stimulation by sight and scent of food (sensory stimulation, SS), actual ingestion being ...
Turner C P - - 1998
It has been hypothesized that the main olfactory bulb, with its relatively rich source of neurotrophins, may provide trophic support for neurons that project to the bulb. We monitored expression of the common, low affinity receptor for neurotrophins, p75NGFR, in the olfactory bulb and basal forebrain of unilaterally bulbectomized and ...
Belfer I - - 1998
Taurine is an inhibitory amino acid in the CNS. When supplied to rats it produces analgesia in some acute pain tests. Here we examined the effect of taurine supplementation on sensitivity to pain in intact rats, and whether perioperative dietary supplementation with taurine in rats would suppress autotomy, a behavior ...
Paden C M - - 1998
An extensive network of nerve fibers immunoreactive for the neuronal growth associated protein GAP-43 (GAP-43-IR) is present within the anterior pituitary (AP) of the rat, and the density of these fibers has been reported to increase 4 days after adrenalectomy (ADX). In the present study, we employed confocal dual-label immunofluorescence ...
Shibuya K - - 1998
Unilateral and bilateral dysplasias of the optic nerve (ON) were observed in 20/114 male and 14/110 female Sprague-Dawley rats at 12 weeks of age. Grossly, the intracranial segment of the affected ON had nodular thickening, bifurcation, and curvature. Nodular thickenings were seen in 20 males and 11 females. One female ...
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