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Results 301 - 350 of 1064
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Phokeo Vinay - - 2002
Myelin in the central nervous system (CNS) is hypothesized to help guide the growth of developing axons by inhibiting sprouting of aberrant neurites. Previous studies using animal models lacking CNS myelin have reported that increasing capacity for sprouting axons is negatively correlated with the degree of myelination. In the present ...
Yiangou Yiangos - - 2002
Precursors of NGF have been shown to be the predominant forms of this neurotrophin in human brain and peripheral tissues, and proNGF has been shown recently to preferentially bind p75NTR with high affinity. In our studies of human and rat skin and nerve extracts, a 53 kDa band was detected ...
von Boyen G B T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A homozygous mutation of the endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) gene in spotting lethal (sl/sl) rats leads to Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) with long segmented aganglionosis. However, the effects on the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) promoted by a heterozygous mutation of the EDNRB gene are not known. The ...
Shin T - - 2002
Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) expression in the sciatic nerve was studied in induced experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats. PLD1 immunoreactivity was seen in some Schwann cells in the sciatic nerves of normal rats. In parallel with the progression of EAN, PLD1-positive Schwann cells significantly increased in number and showed ...
Ebara Satomi - - 2002
Our confocal three-dimensional analyses revealed substantial differences in the innervation to vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) in the rat and cat. This is the first study using anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) immunolabeling and confocal microscopy on thick sections to examine systematically the terminal arborizations of the various FSC endings and ...
Benoliel Rafael - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to test the behavioural effect of infraorbital (IO) chronic constriction injury (CCI) on the development of neuropathic pain in the rat hindpaw following sciatic nerve CCI performed 7 days later. Control groups consisted of rats that underwent sham infraorbital surgery followed by sciatic ...
Sawada Kazuhiko - - 2002
Pregnant rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet between gestational days 10 and 21. The optic nerves of their litters at 49 days of age were examined using quantitative stereological procedures. Cross-sectional areas of the optic nerve in ethanol-exposed rats were significantly smaller than those in controls. This was reflected ...
Sohn Yoon-Kyung - - 2002
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has recently become known as an alternative cleaning material with less damage to the ozone layer. However, its toxicity is not fully evaluated. This study was designed to investigate the repeated inhalation toxicity of 1-BP on the nervous systems in Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment was done by repeated ...
Tallkvist Jonas - - 2002
Deposition of cadmium onto the olfactory epithelium results in transport of the metal along the primary olfactory neurons to the olfactory bulbs of the brain. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the intracellular ligand binding of cadmium during this process. (109)Cd(2+) was applied on the olfactory epithelium of rats ...
Lin Su-Man - - 2002
Sex-related differences exist in nociception and gonadal steroids influence the analgesic response in animals and humans. As we have shown previously, estrogen could modify autotomy in female rats using the sciatic nerve transection model. To further characterize the relationship between gonadal steroid and nociception, the role of testosterone on autotomy ...
Ke H Z - - 2002
Estrogen replacement therapy is reported to reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, however, its compliance is limited because of side effects and safety concerns. Estrogen's side effects on breast and uterine tissues leading to the potential increased risk of uterine and breast cancer limit widespread estrogen usage. ...
Dong Chenghai - - 2002
Experimental backgrounds of ectopic discharges were made by i.p. administrating of 4-aninopyriding (4-AP), a K(+) channel blocker, or anisodamine, a muscarinic receptor blocker, in CCI rats, and the sympathetic sprouting in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as well as the heat-hyperalgesia was observed. It was demonstrated that the increased ectopic ...
Kurosawa Mieko - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of the hepatic sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) nerves on the hepatic blood flow (HBF), both tonically and when stimulated, using urethane-anesthetized rats as an in vivo experimental model. HBF was measured at the surface of the lateral left lobe ...
Korochkin L I - - 2002
The influence of xenografts of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic nerve cells on the development of embryonic neurohomografts in the adult rat brain has been investigated. Embryonic nerve cells, marked with bacterial galactosidase gene (lacZ) from D. melanogaster strain with a mutation in the Delta locus, were transplanted into adult rat brain. ...
Bervar M - - 2002
The rat sciatic nerve is a well-established animal model for the study of recovery from peripheral nerve injuries. Footprint analysis is the most widely used non-invasive method of measuring functional recovery after injury in this model. We describe a new, alternative video analysis of standing (or static footprint video analysis) ...
KaczyƄska Katarzyna - - 2002
Respiratory effects of an intravenous injection of capsaicin were investigated in nine vagotomized and subsequently laryngeally deafferentated, urethane- and chloralose-anaesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats. Bolus injection of capsaicin (5 micrograms/kg) into the right femoral vein induced an expiratory apnoea of 4.23 +/- 0.63 s duration (mean +/- SEM). In post-apnoeic ...
Kawamoto S - - 2002
The aim here was to observe the immunohistochemical localization of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF)/receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the rat periodontium. Rat mandibles were demineralized and embedded in paraffin, and horizontal and frontal sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. In horizontal sections, immunolocalization of RANKL was ...
Haeberle A S - - 2001
Avian and rodent trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons share common features in their neurotrophin requirements and axonal projections between the sensory periphery and the brainstem. In rodents, the whisker pad (WP) is a major peripheral target of the infraorbital (IO) nerve component of the TG. The chick IO nerve is much ...
Touil T - - 2001
In multiple sclerosis (MS) the mechanisms of injury caused by peroxynitrite remain uncertain. To study histological, ultra structural and molecular alterations caused by peroxynitrite in brain, the peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine was injected in rat corpus callosum. Peroxynitrite induces strong primary axonal damage with characteristics of primary acute axonopathy, together with ...
Yagami T - - 2001
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is proposed to play a role in the repair of the ruptured membrane after axotomy. In neonatal rats, we examined the effect of Group IIA secretory PLA2 (sPLA2-IIA) on axotomy-induced cell death of motoneurons. sPLA2-IIA significantly induced death of axotomized motoneurons. Indoxam, a specific inhibitor for sPLA2-IIA, ...
Rubin A D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) could be delivered to the rat brainstem by remote injection into the recurrent laryngeal nerve. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: rAAV-GFP is a serotype 2 adeno-associated vector containing the cDNA of GFP and woodchuck hepatitis ...
Ohtori S - - 2001
Based on a study using a retrograde neurotracer, we have previously found that the dorsal portion of the L5/6 disc in the rat is multisegmentally innervated by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from the level of T13 to L6, and that sensory nerve fibres from DRG of T13, L1 and L2 ...
Carp J S - - 2001
In order to assess the long-term effects of implanted electrodes on motor unit properties, we studied triceps surae (TS) motor units in rats implanted for 3-10 months with a tibial nerve cuff electrode for H-reflex elicitation and intramuscular electrodes for recording TS electromyographic activity. Motor units with sag from implanted ...
Aniksztejn L - - 2001
Rat perinatal (E20-P0) CA1 pyramidal neurons were either synaptically active or silent. We show here that, during this developmental period, active but not silent cells form recurrent axon-collaterals that invade the radiatum and the lacunosum moleculare strata. These recurrents were never observed in adult rats. We propose that these transient ...
Eliav E - - 2001
Inflammation along a nerve trunk with no frank axonal nerve damage produced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or Carrageenan is known to induce a painful peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, we examined the electrophysiological properties of myelinated axons (spontaneous discharge and mechanical sensitivity) at the inflamed nerve site. The ...
Artico M - - 2001
The effects of interleukin 1beta administration on the thymus of adult and old rats were studied in order to study the interactions between the nervous and immune systems and to confirm the important role played by catecholaminergic nerve fibres (CNF) in the regulation of thymic functions. Moreover, chemical sympathectomy was ...
Vachon P - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to the development of penile erection in rats and was accomplished by evaluating the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH) content of juvenile penile tissues. NADPH is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of NO, a ...
Kryger G S - - 2001
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroma formation as well as in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study we attempted to antagonize NGF by using trkA-IgG, an inhibitor of NGF, consisting of the NGF receptor linked to an immunoglobulin. It ...
Loh N K - - 2001
In this study we demonstrate the potential for combining biocompatible polymers with genetically engineered cells to elicit axon regrowth across tissue defects in the injured CNS. Eighteen- to 21-day-old rats received implants of poly N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) hydrogels containing RGD peptide sequences that had been infiltrated with control (untransfected) fibroblasts (n ...
Lorant M - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to quantitate and compare the density of nerve terminals (NTD), as well as of their synaptic vesicle population (SyVD) in saphenous and brachial vein and artery, obtained from rats maintained in the horizontal or head-down tilted (HDT) position for two weeks. The same ...
Hiraiwa M - - 2001
The myelinotrophic action of Prosaptide D5 was investigated in developing rats. Sulfatide concentrations in brain and sciatic nerve were determined to assess the development of myelination. Subcutaneous D5-injection significantly increased sulfatide concentrations in both brain and sciatic nerve by 250 and 150% over controls, respectively. D5 promoted ERK phosphorylation in ...
Calvert G T - - 2001
The rat model is commonly utilized in peripheral nerve research. Due to the short length of the rat limb and the animal's inherent neuroregenerative capacity, the timing of assessment of nerve regeneration is critical, and significant differences between groups can be lost if assessment is done too late. Additionally, the ...
Shir Y - - 2001
As in humans, levels of neuropathic pain produced by nerve injury are highly variable among animals. This variability was attributed to genetic and environmental factors. For example, we reported that chronic neuropathic sensory disorders developing following total (autotomy) or partial nerve injury (allodynia and hyperalgesia) depended on the diet rats ...
Saito T - - 2001
Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) was detected in the rat cochlea by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry using anti-MRP monoclonal antibody MRPr1. Use of primers specific for rat mrp1 gene resulted in the amplification of an expected 394 bp fragment prepared from brain and cochlear tissues. Immunohistochemically, MRP was found ...
Gavazzi I - - 2001
Altered neuronal responses to trophic factors may play a role in neuronal maintenance in adulthood and may also be involved in neuronal atrophy in old age. We have investigated this issue in the rat iris, studying responsiveness of sympathetic and sensory iridial nerves to a range of NGF concentrations in ...
Benoliel R - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in trigeminal ganglia following infraorbital nerve injury. Two experimental procedures were performed in three groups of rats: a unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve (n=13), nerve manipulation without CCI (n=13) and unoperated controls (n=8). All ...
Shamir M H - - 2001
This double-blind randomized study evaluated the therapeutic effect of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on peripheral nerve regeneration, after complete transection and direct anastomosis of the rat sciatic nerve. After this procedure, 13 of 24 rats received postoperative LPLI, with a wavelength of 780 nm laser, applied transcutaneously, 30 min daily ...
Wu H Y - - 2001
We have studied developing oligodendrocytes in tissue sections as they initiate myelination and have found that the transition from premyelinating oligodendrocytes into myelin-bearing cells is accompanied by a dramatic upregulation in expression of the RNA binding QKI proteins. We show that in mature oligodendrocytes in culture, the localization of cytoplasmic ...
Engelmann R - - 2001
Despite a massive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) after optic nerve crush (ONC) in hooded rats only a minor increase in retinal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactivity was found in the inner retina. Interestingly, a combination of ONC with the administration of the proinflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not ...
Antunes bras J - - 2001
The demonstration of preproenkephalin A gene expression in rat dorsal root ganglia has raised the question of the physiological role of met-enkephalin-containing primary afferent fibres. Recently, we showed that systemic infection with a recombinant Herpes simplex virus encoding preproenkephalin A (HSVLatEnk1) yielded a marked increase in the density of met-enkephalin-like ...
Kitahara T - - 2001
Several lines of evidence have suggested that acetylcholine is a possible neurotransmitter/neuromodulator involved in vestibular compensation. However, details of cholinergic effective sites during vestibular compensation remain unclear. In this study, we selectively damaged the rat vestibulo-floccular cholinergic mossy fibers using ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion. In these animals, unilateral labyrinthectomy caused ...
Smith C E - - 2001
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is constituted by the perineurium and the endothelium of endoneurial microvessels. We investigated the age at which the vascular component of BNB function is established in the rat and the ultrastructural modifications accompanying changes in permeability. BNB permeability was assessed with injections of Evans blue albumin ...
Bellinger D L - - 2001
The existence of nerve fibers containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactivity in primary and secondary lymphoid organs from three strains of young adult male rats was examined. Spleens and thymuses from Fischer 344 (F344), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Lewis (LEW) rats were prepared for immunocytochemistry using antisera directed against CRH. In F344 ...
Romanovsky A A - - 2000
The multiple effects of vagotomy on the thermoregulatory response to systemic inflammation are reviewed (primarily, for the model of intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration in the rat). The following conclusions are drawn. (1) Vagotomy-associated thermoeffector insufficiency is likely to account for the attenuation of the fever response observed in some--but not all--studies; ...
Mizunuma Y - - 2000
Experiments were carried out to examine whether endogenous angiotensin II (A-II) is involved in the regulation of release of norepinephrine (NE) elicited by the stimulation of spinal sympathetic nerves in pithed rats. It was assessed in terms of the alterations in concentrations of arterial blood plasma A-II and NE elicited ...
Chen Y - - 2000
AIM: To test the hypothesis that sympathectomy could induce novel purinergic sensitivity in sciatic afferents. METHODS: Teased-fiber recordings were made from 32 spontaneously active A afferents from the sciatic nerves in surgically sympathectomized rats and 30 spontaneously active A afferents from the sciatic nerves in intact rats. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) ...
Liu W - - 2000
In the researches of the innervation relationship between trigeminal ganglion and a particular structure in the head, it is usually necessary to apply neural tracers into the ganglion for anterograde nerve tracing study or perform bilateral trigeminal nerve transecting for degeneration study. A common surgical approach for exposing these structures ...
Mohseni S - - 2000
It is believed that hyperglycaemia underlies diabetic neuropathy. However, low blood glucose values may also cause pathological changes in peripheral nerves and in neuronal perikarya. This study examined spinal roots, dorsal root ganglia and the ventral horn at the segmental level L5 in long-term insulin-treated eu-/hypoglycaemic diabetic rats with an ...
Fernandez P A - - 2000
It was previously shown that newly formed oligodendrocytes depend on axons for their survival, but the nature of the axon-derived survival signal(s) remained unknown. We show here that neuregulin (NRG) supports the survival of purified oligodendrocytes and aged oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) but not of young OPCs. We demonstrate that ...
Petrausch B - - 2000
To determine whether netrin receptors (DCC, UNC5H1, UNC5H2) and netrin-1 are present in the adult rat retina and may affect regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafts, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining experiments were performed in normal and operated rats. Netrin-1 expression was not ...
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