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Results 251 - 300 of 1064
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Yamasaki Masao - - 2004
The effects of microgravity on the histological characteristics of the aortic depressor nerve, which is the afferent of the aortic baroreflex arc, were determined in 10 female adult rats. The rats were assigned for nursing neonates in the Space Shuttle Columbia or in the animal facility on the ground (NASA ...
Hong-Ju Yang - - 2004
A series of mutual prodrugs derived from gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, venlafaxine were synthesized and their pharmacological properties to treat neuropathic pain were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI). In vivo evaluation demonstrated that the mutual prodrugs 2002413A, 2002823A composed of two gabapentins, 2002414 composed ...
Colado M Isabel - - 2004
The majority of experimental and clinical studies on the pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) tend to focus on its action on 5-HT biochemistry and function. However, there is considerable evidence for MDMA having marked acute effects on dopamine release. Furthermore, while MDMA produces long-term effects on 5-HT neurones in most ...
Tomita R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released by stimulation of nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves. In order to evaluate the function of VIP in jejunal isografts, we examined the enteric nerve responses in isografted rat jejunum compared with normal jejunum. METHODS: Orthotopic entire small bowel transplantation (SBT) with portocaval drainage ...
Wang Xioadong - - 2004
In this study, the biocompatibility of the electrically conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) with nerve tissue was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The extraction solution of PPy powder, which was synthesized chemically, was tested for acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, pyretogen, quantitative measure of cell viability, hemolysis, allergen, and micronuclei. The ...
Ootsuka Youichirou - - 2004
Sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction of cutaneous vessels is critical for thermoregulation in the cold. We determined whether cold-induced sympathetic discharge depends on activity of neurons in the rostral medullary raphé. In urethane-anesthetized rats and rabbits, cooling the trunk skin by a water jacket reproducibly increased cutaneous sympathetic discharge recorded in the tail ...
Zhu Guo-Qing - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on the central integration of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) in normal rats and in rats with coronary ligation-induced chronic heart failure (CHF). Under alpha-chloralose and urethane anesthesia, mean ...
Kanda Hiroyuki - - 2004
PURPOSE: Assessment of a novel method of retinal stimulation, known as suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS), which was designed to minimize insult to the retina by implantation of stimulating electrodes for artificial vision. METHODS: In 17 normal hooded rats and 12 Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a small area of the ...
Ozgenel Güzin Ye┼čim - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of human amniotic membrane wrapping and hyaluronic acid injection on peripheral nerve scarring in an adult rat model. After circumferential epineurectomies of right sciatic nerves were performed in each of 72 rats, nerves were randomly divided into ...
Uchida Atsuko - - 2004
We have made a detailed comparison of neurofilaments (NFs) in the axons of the sciatic nerves between young and aged rats. In young rats, NF density was similar between proximal and distal sciatic nerve, but it became higher in the proximal region of sciatic nerve of aged rats. In accordance ...
Fukushima N - - 2004
The purpose of the present study is to investigate functional role of the facial nerve on suckling in developing rats. The bilateral resection of facial nerves on postnatal day 1 (P1) resulted in cell loss of facial motoneurons and complete facial paralysis without any whisker movement or nictitating reflex at ...
Flatters Sarah J L - - 2004
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is markedly upregulated in the peripheral and central nervous systems following nerve injury; however, the functional effects of this are unclear. This study investigates the effect of peripheral interleukin-6 on nociceptive transmission in naive and neuropathic states. Using an in vitro rat skin-nerve preparation, 50 ng interleukin-6 inhibited ...
Wang Hsing-Won - - 2004
We employed a glyoxylic catecholaminergic histofluorescence method to study the sympathetic innervation present in the rat tongue. One percent neutral red was used as a counterstain. Many noradrenergic fibers were demonstrated around the blood vessels, muscles, glands and submucosa of the tongue, but not in the epithelium or papilla. In ...
Smit Xander - - 2004
Walking track analysis is a widely accepted technique for functional evaluation after sciatic nerve repair in rats, but it is labour-intensive. In 2000, Bervar described a time-saving digitised static footprint analysis. In that study there were good correlations between the traditional sciatic function index (SFI) and the newly-developed static sciatic ...
Batulevicius Darius - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to elucidate both the topography and architecture of the rat intrinsic cardiac nerve plexus, as this species becomes a frequent mammalian model for electrophysiological investigations of the intracardiac nervous system. Fifteen adult rats were examined employing histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase to visualize the intracardiac ...
Ozden Sidar - - 2004
Following transection of the optic nerve (ON) in the adult rat, 85% of axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo degeneration within 14 days. Here, we examined the effects of various anesthetic and analgesic compounds on the number of RGCs surviving ON lesion. Five different protocols for rodent anesthesia were used ...
Coggeshall Richard E - - 2003
Substance P (SP) is released peripherally from nociceptive terminals and has a direct effect on vascular cells. The present study suggests an indirect effect as well. In normal rats and rats with one hindpaw inflamed for 48 h following intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors were ...
Dogan M Devrim - - 2003
Intraperitoneal capsaicin desensitizes sensory fibers traveling within both the vagus and splanchnic nerves. Because capsaicin desensitization blocks the first phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever, whereas surgical vagotomy does not, splanchnic mediation of the first phase was proposed. However, all phases of the febrile response of splanchnicotomized rats to intravenous LPS ...
Stavisky Ronda C - - 2003
Protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) increase the rate of degeneration, as measured by compound action potential (CAP) conduction, in segments of rat PNS and CNS axons. Sciatic axonal segments maintained in vitro in Krebs at 37-38 degrees C generate CAPs for 24 h compared to 8 h for axons exposed to ...
Yasuda Yoshikazu - - 2003
We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of the novel neuropeptide orexin A on electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous system activity in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The administration of orexin A changed burst suppression patterns to arousal patterns on the EEG at 1.0 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane and ...
Lonergan Tina - - 2003
Anatomical and in vitro studies suggest that mu opioid receptors (MOR) on pre-Bötzinger complex neurons are responsible for opioid induced respiratory depression (Grey et al., Science 286 (1999) 1566). However, mu opioid agonists injected in vivo, in other regions of the ventral respiratory group (VRG), produce respiratory depression, suggesting that ...
Somers David L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between axon terminal neurotransmitter content in the dorsal horn and allodynia in neuropathic rats treated with high-frequency transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS). DESIGN: A completely randomized experimental design. Two groups of rats received a chronic constriction injury to the right sciatic nerve, and 2 groups ...
Komori Naoka - - 2003
beta-Arrestin-1 (betaArr1) plays a major role in the desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors. We previously localized betaArr1 in the sensory neurons of rat lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and reported the predominant presence of betaArr1 in the small-diameter DRG neurons that are often implicated with ...
Dwyer Kelley W - - 2004
We hypothesize that blockade of the sympathetic nervous system degrades ligament. We tested this hypothesis in a rat medial collateral ligament (MCL) model. Fifteen animals were treated for 10 days with the sympathetic chemotoxin guanethidine using osmotic pumps, whereas 15 control rats received pumps containing saline. A reduction in plasma ...
Batulevicius Darius - - 2003
The study was designed to determine the three-dimensional organization of the rat intrinsic cardiac neural plexus (ICNP) and to ascertain whether the rat heart undergoes a decrease in neuronal number with aging as has been reported for other mammalian species, including human. Juvenile (3-4 weeks of age, n = 14) ...
Sugimoto Kazuhiro - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia can precipitate or worsen peripheral neuropathy in patients with insulinoma or in diabetic patients on an intensive insulin regimen. It still remains unclear as to whether hyperinsulinemia itself is involved in neuropathic changes in these patients. We, therefore, explored the possible isolated effects of chronic hyperinsulinemia on neuropathic ...
Danko J - - 2003
Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE)-positive nerve fibres in the thymus of the rat form perivascular plexuses as well as free ACHE-positive nerves, which do not follow the course of the vessels. A higher number of ACHE-positive nerves was observed in corticomedullary border and the medulla, a lower number in the cortex of the ...
Saviuc P - - 2003
Ingestion of Clitocybe amoenolens, a mushroom collected in Savoie (France), induced erythermalgia in 5 patients. To assess C. amoenolens toxicity, increasing doses were given randomly to 4 rats corresponding to 1 to 25 fold the dose eaten by the most severely poisoned patient. The 2 rats receiving the highest doses ...
Amendola Tiziana - - 2003
Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats are a well established animal model of inherited retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Using RCS rats we examined the distribution of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex, geniculate nucleus and retina at three different postnatal ages. It was ...
Haug Sivakami Rethnam - - 2003
Accumulating evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system modulates inflammatory responses and bone remodeling. We have studied the effects of sympathectomy and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) on root resorption, immunocompetent cell recruitment, neuropeptide, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1-R), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression. Experimental rats (n=8) had the right superior cervical ganglion ...
Zhu Wei - - 2003
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that serves as a model for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in humans. The facial nerve paralysis is relatively commonly found in GBS patients. Here, EAN was established in Lewis rats by immunization with ...
Sato Takayuki - - 2003
By a white noise approach, we characterized the dynamics of the sympathetic baroreflex system in 11 halothane-anesthetized rats. We measured sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and systemic arterial pressure (SAP), while carotid sinus baroreceptor pressure (BRP) was altered randomly. We estimated the transfer functions from BRP to SNA (mechanoneural arc), from ...
Julien Claude - - 2003
The role of arterial baroreceptors in controlling arterial pressure (AP) variability through changes in sympathetic nerve activity was examined in conscious rats. AP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured continuously during 1-h periods in freely behaving rats that had been subjected to sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD) or a ...
Shen Aiguo - - 2003
The cell surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I (beta-1,4-GalT-I) functions as one of the receptors of laminin during the neurite outgrowth on basal lamina by binding to N-linked oligosaccharides in the laminin E8 domain. In this study, we demonstrated that the purified rat Schwann cells transfected with the expression plasmid of beta-1,4-GalT-I cDNA ...
Kawakami Mamoru - - 2003
We studied whether applying nucleus pulposus tissue, obtained from tail intervertebral discs that had been subjected to chronic mechanical compression, to the lumbar nerve roots produces hyperalgesia, which is thought to be a pain-related behavior in the rat. An Ilizarov-type apparatus was used for immobilization and chronically applied compression of ...
Tanida Mamoru - - 2003
Leptin produced in white adipose tissue activates sympathetic nerve activity via the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) within the central nervous system (CNS). Using an electrophysiological technique, we investigated whether direct microinjection of leptin into the VMH elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. Microinjection of ...
Sakakibara Shunsuke - - 2003
Shaking Rat Kawasaki (SRK) is a Reelin-deficient rat, that shows significant cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices in a similar manner to the reeler malformation. In the present study, we investigated the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the superior colliculus (SC) of this mutant rat. The Nissl staining clearly ...
Yabe T - - 2003
The effect of a kampo medicine, Ninjin-yoei-to (NYT; Ren-shen-yang-rong-tang in Chinese) on nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion from the cultured rat astrocytes was examined in vitro. When rat embryo astrocytes were cultured in the presence of NYT for 24 h, the amount of NGF in the medium was significantly increased ...
Kato Naoki - - 2003
An experimental study was performed to investigate the influence of the inflammation in peripheral target tissue on growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and on recovery of crushed nerve. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were used for this study. The sciatic nerve was operatively crushed unilaterally with an ...
Yamamoto Yoshio - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to define the age-related changes in sensory and secretomotor nerve endings in the larynx of F344/N rats. For this purpose, laryngeal tissue sections obtained from 12-, 24- and 35-month-old F344/N rats were compared with respect to the density, distribution and morphology of various ...
Chávez Andrés E - - 2003
PURPOSE: To study the histology and the physiological function of the retina in the neurological myelin mutant, taiep rats during the postnatal developmental period (P20-P360). METHODS: Electroretinography (ERG) was applied to evaluate intensity dependence and spectral sensitivity of the responses to light. Retinal histology, morphometry, and immunocytochemistry were used to ...
Hayashi Naoyuki - - 2003
I investigated whether muscular contraction evokes cardiorespiratory increases (exercise pressor reflex) in alpha-chloralose- and chloral hydrate-anesthetized and precollicular, midcollicular, and postcollicular decerebrated rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and minute ventilation (Ve) were recorded before and during 1-min sciatic nerve stimulation, which induced static contraction of the triceps ...
Shinoda Masamichi - - 2003
The innervation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has attracted particular interest because of the close association with complex mandibular movement. Although the pathological changes of disk innervation may have a crucial role in the development of TMJ pain, the innervation of the TMJ disk by experimentally induced arthritis has rarely ...
Marta Cecilia B - - 2003
Previous findings from our laboratories indicate that the intracranial injection of apotransferrin (aTf) in neonatal rats produces an accelerated oligodendrocyte maturation and an enhanced production and deposition of myelin membranes in the brain. To evaluate the anatomical distribution and the morphological characteristics of the myelin in these rats, we analyzed ...
Tomov Toma L - - 2002
Abnormally associated movements inevitably occur after surgical repair of the facial nerve. The reason for this postparalytic syndrome is poor navigation of regrowing axons. Despite the valuable functional advantage provided by the easily detected movement of vibrissae in rats, the major investigative tools for establishing the degree of misdirected reinnervation ...
Odekunle A - - 2002
Collateralization of the abdominal vagal trunks was investigated in the rat using double labelling fluorescence dye technique. A total of 20 adult male and female rats were used for the study. The anterior and posterior walls of the corpus and fundus of the stomach were injected with 0.1 microliter (microliter) ...
Pittman David W - - 2002
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary NaCl level on the integrated responses of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve to salt stimulation alone and mixed with the sodium-channel blocker, amiloride hydrochloride. Five groups of adult male rats were reared on regular chow containing either basal 0.1%, intermediate ...
Sugiyama Ichiro - - 2002
Recent studies have revealed a significant decrease in white matter volume, including loss of myelin, with age but minimal decrease in gray matter volume (Guttmann et al., [1998] Neurology 50:972-978). Myelin is necessary for the rapid conduction of impulses along axons. Myelinated nerve includes various domains, the node of Ranvier, ...
Dallimore Elizabeth J - - 2002
Rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are generated between embryonic day (E) 13 and E19. Retinal axons first reach the superior colliculus at E16/16.5 but the time of arrival of axons from late-born RGCs is unknown. This study examined (i) whether there is a correlation between RGC genesis and the timing ...
Kontani Hitoshi - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We reported sex difference in the urethral pressure (UP) response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the hypogastric nerve in rats. The purpose of the present study was to report on sex difference in the UP response to ES of the pudendal nerves (PN) in rats before and after injection ...
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