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Results 451 - 500 of 1064
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Stern J E - - 1997
The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of the pineal gland in modulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin release found in rats after changes in activity of cervical sympathetic nerves. The response of serum PTH to a hypocalcemia produced by EDTA injection, and of serum calcitonin ...
Takahashi Y - - 1997
In vitro brainstem slice preparations have provided the opportunity to obtain accurate information about the neuropharmacology of the vestibular system. By stimulating the root of the eighth cranial nerve, excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat medial vestibular nucleus has been observed and analyzed with extra- and intra-cellular recordings. Recently, tight-seal, ...
Jung M - - 1997
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rats regenerate axons in the presence of a PNS nerve graft. To determine if axon-regenerating RGCs synthesize cell adhesion/recognition molecules which they possessed during development, retinae were subjected to in situ hybridization with antisense cRNA probes of L1, TAG-1, and SC-1 (and GAP-43 for comparison). ...
Ozaki K - - 1996
We report that the morphological characteristics of the peripheral neuropathy in WBN/Kob rat, a diabetic animal model that develops persistent diabetes, were primary segmental demyelination and secondary axonal degeneration. These findings are similar to those in human patients with diabetes mellitus and unlike those in rodents with streptozotosin-induced diabetes. However, ...
Jones M A - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of ocular sympathetic nerves on corneal epithelial proliferation in the rat. METHODS: Osmotic pumps filled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were implanted subcutaneously in adult rats to label corneal epithelial cells entering the S-phase of the cell cycle during a 24-hour period. Corneas in some animals were ...
Lawrence A J - - 1996
The present study has investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in neurotransmission of rat vagal afferent neurons. The diethylamine-NO complex (diethylamine-NO, 10-100 microM) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (3-100 microM) both elicited a concentration-dependent depolarisation of the isolated rat nodose ganglion preparation. Pre-treatment with 1 H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 300 nM), 6-(phenylamino)-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83,583, 30 ...
Gazelius B - - 1996
The incidence of behavioural signs of mononeuropathy in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve is unpredictable and often low. In the present study, an ischaemic lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was induced photochemically using a low power laser. In these rats tactile allodynia developed ...
Takasugi H - - 1996
Since peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) and carboxypeptidase H (CPH) are transported by a rapid anterograde axonal flow in rat sciatic nerves, different properties of those enzymes were examined in the cell body (dorsal root ganglia) and axon (sciatic nerves) of rat. The relative enzyme activities of soluble to membrane-associated forms ...
Holmberg H - - 1996
1. In adult decerebrate spinal rats whose plantar nerves (PLN) had been transected at either postnatal day 1 (P1) or P21 the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) of musculi extensor digitorum longus (EDL), peroneus longus (PER) and semitendinosus (ST) were characterized with respect to receptive field (RF) organization, magnitude and time ...
Minear M M - - 1996
In a two-bottle test, Sprague-Dawley rats preferentially consume a greater amount of hypotonic and isotonic NaCl solutions relative to water, whereas inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats fail to prefer NaCl solutions at any concentration relative to water. To determine whether taste contributes to this strain difference, we measured the integrated ...
Takahashi Y - - 1996
This study was designed to investigate neural mechanisms of referred pain in lumbar intervertebral disc lesions. Patients with a degenerative disc in lower lumbar segments occasionally complain of groin pain, which cannot be explained anatomically as having a radicular origin. In rats pretreated with intravenous application of Evans blue dye, ...
DiBona G F - - 1996
Characteristics of renal sympathetic nerve activity in conscious rats with established congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome were analyzed using three methods: mean integrated voltage over time, power spectrum analysis, and sympathetic peak detection analysis. Compared with control rats, all three disease models had increased mean integrated voltage. On ...
Amann R - - 1996
Intraplantar injection of mouse beta (2.5S) nerve growth factor (NGF) caused thermal hyperalgesia and stimulated release of immunoreactive leukotriene B4 from the rat paw skin. Both effects of NGF were prevented by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, (R)-2-[4-quinolin-2-yl-methoxy)phenyl]-2-cyclopentyl acetic acid (BAY X1005). BAY X1005 did not affect bradykinin-induced thermal hyperalgesia. These results ...
Kondo M - - 1996
Noradrenergic (NA) nerve fiber density was investigated in the subepicardium and myocardium of ventricles in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and was compared with that of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fluorescent NA nerve fibers in the subepicardium of the right and left ventricles of both strains at the ages ...
Crissman R S RS Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo 43699, - - 1996
Neonatal transection of the infraorbital nerve (ION; the trigeminal, V, branch that supplies the mystacial vibrissae follicles) results in an upregulation of galanin in the central arbors of primary afferent axons. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the synaptic organization of these galanin-positive primary afferents and compare it with ...
Asada H - - 1996
We have previously reported that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) mRNA is upregulated in the rat striatum following trauma and that its peak is coincident with a peak in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes. CNTF, or other neurotrophic factors present in the traumatized striatum, may be involved in the dopaminergic fiber ...
Sereda M - - 1996
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy in humans and has been associated with a partial duplication of chromosome 17 (CMT type 1A). We have generated a transgenic rat model of this disease and provide experimental evidence that CMT1A is caused by increased expression of the gene for ...
Sodeyama T - - 1996
The response of periodontal nerves to experimentally induced occlusal trauma in rat molars was assessed by immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) at light and electron microscopic levels, and by computerized image analysis. The occlusal surface on the left upper first molar of 8-wk-old male Wistar rats was ...
Belai A - - 1996
The effect of acrylamide intoxication (a widely used model for autonomic neuropathy) on the fluorescence intensity and density of catecholamine- and peptide-containing nerve fibres and tissue content of noradrenaline and the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neuropeptide Y in the enteric nerves of rat ileum ...
Capani F - - 1996
Ultrastructural synaptic changes of retinal origin in the pars dorsalis lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGN) after enucleation have been studied in this laboratory, showing a filamentous hypertrophy with maximal expression at 4-6 days post-lesion in monkeys (Pecci Saavedra et al., 1970, 1971). The aim of this work was to elucidate the ...
D'Albora H - - 1996
The present study describes ganglia and isolated neurones in the ovary of the Wistar rat, employing histological and histochemical techniques. Four kinds of ganglia in the postpubertal and young adult rat were identified: the mesovarial, hilar, medullary and cortical ganglia. Isolated neurones were also found, being dispersed along blood vessels ...
Nohr D - - 1996
Changes in the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and polyneural protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) in hilar peribronchial innervation was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specific pathogen-free rats chronically infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis. Image analysis of immunostained sections revealed a reduction of approximately 62% in the amount of CGRP- and ...
Sugimoto K - - 1996
Peripheral nerve structure was systematically examined in rats with insulinoma induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Normal Wistar rats, aged 3 months (n = 10), were treated with intravenous injections of STZ (20 mg/kg) and housed in plastic cages with free access to water and chow until 24 months of age. Three ...
Finn T - - 1996
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was first identified as a trophic activity that was able to support the survival of chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons in vitro. CNTF from rabbit and rat were subsequently purified from sciatic nerve and their cDNA sequences cloned. Another trophic molecule for CG neurons was identified ...
Neuberg D H - - 1996
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are increasingly appreciated to play a crucial function in the development, homeostasis and regeneration of the nervous system. In an attempt to determine the set of PTPs that are expressed in the PNS, we have employed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategies. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers which were ...
Saita K - - 1996
Acrylamide (ACR) monomer produces neuropathy of the dying-back type and 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) is a potent stimulator of endogenous nerve growth factor synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of 4-MC in promoting recovery from experimental ACR neuropathy in rats. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were made neuropathic by ACR injections. ...
Salonen T - - 1996
Selegiline is a selective and irreversible monoamine B inhibitor with the capacity to increase the level of several antioxidative enzymes in rat brain. It can protect adrenergic neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins such as MPTP, DSP-4 and AF64A in animal studies. In addition, the protective action is not limited ...
Johansson C S - - 1996
Large myelinated fibres in the rat inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) exhibit age-related aberrations partly similar to alterations in target-deprived nerves. Shortly after entering the mandibular canal the rat IAN splits into a mental (MN) and an inferior dental (IDN) portion. This offers a possibility to compare the occurrence of age-related ...
Ohara S - - 1995
Sciatic nerve axotomy induces the transganglionic expression of the growth associated protein GAP-43 and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in lumbar DRG projections to the gracile nucleus. Four weeks after axotomy young animals had developed delicate GAP-43 and NPY-immunoreactive axonal sprouts in the gracile nuclei; however, an identical insult to aged (14-26 ...
Miao F J - - 1995
The rat is often used when the sympathetic nervous system contribution to various physiological and pathological processes is studied. These experiments require a detailed knowledge of the lumbar sympathetic chain anatomy since the macroscopic anatomy of the L2 and L3 levels of the sympathetic chain, which innervate a major portion ...
David G - - 1995
1. Intra-axonal recording and electron microscopy were applied to intramuscular myelinated axons in lizards and rats to investigate factors that influence the amplitude and time course of the depolarizing after-potential. 2. Depolarizing after-potentials in lizard axons had larger peak amplitudes and longer half-decay times than those recorded in rat axons ...
Jacob J M - - 1995
The maximum rate of fast axonal transport in motor axons at 6 and 24 months was measured in F344 rats. Tritiated proline was injected near sciatic motoneurons and rats were killed after 2-5 h. Nerves were processed for liquid scintillation spectroscopy and fast transport rates calculated. The rates, in 6- ...
Ichikawa M - - 1995
The vomeronasal organ and the olfactory bulb of the rat were cocultured from 15-day embryo siblings on collagen-coated membrane in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing fetal calf serum, horse serum, and antibiotics. At 4 days in vitro (DIV), vomeronasal axons forming two to three large fascicles were seen originating from ...
Fernandez E - - 1995
The anatomic reorganization of the subnucleus that controls the stylohyoid muscle (the stylohyoid subnucleus) within the brain stem facial nucleus was studied after regeneration of the facial nerve in adult rats. Horseradish peroxidase was injected into the right stylohyoid muscle 3 to 21 months after transection and repair of the ...
Desmeules J A - - 1995
This study evaluated the effect of surgical sympathectomy on pain-related behaviours in a well established model of peripheral mononeuropathy produced by loose ligatures around the common sciatic nerve in the rat. Behavioural abnormalities include spontaneous abnormal position of the hindpaw after the nerve constriction, indicative of "spontaneous pain", and changes ...
Cheah S H - - 1995
The effects of exogenously introduced oestradiol-17 beta (E) and relaxin (RLX) on cervical extensibility and collagen organisation were tested in rats ovariectomised in late pregnancy. When the cervices were stretched in vitro by 1 mm increments, it was found that those from rats given E alone generated significantly higher tensions ...
Okoyama S - - 1995
We evaluated the consequences of unilateral ablation of the inferior colliculus (IC) upon the ascending projection from the medial superior olive (MSO) to the IC. Ablation of the IC was performed in rats aged between postnatal day 1 (P1) and maturity. All the rats were given injections of Fluoro-Gold (FG) ...
Karhula T - - 1995
Localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity was studied in the rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex and in the porcine superior and inferior mesenteric ganglia by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. In normal rats, only 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactive SIF cells were seen in the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex. In the rats, pretreated with a 5-hydroxytryptamine ...
Maves T J - - 1995
Recent observations using both clinical and animal models have suggested that acidosis may initiate pain and sensitization. In the present study, we examined if changing the acidic environment around the rat sciatic nerve resulted in thermal hyperalgesia. Fresh solutions of preservative-free saline (PFS) and unbuffered PFS acidified to pH 3.5 ...
Wagner R - - 1995
Gender differences reported in nociceptive and nerve injury research should be considered before conclusions about basic pathologic mechanisms are drawn. Holtzman male rats are routinely used in the mononeuropathy model produced by a peripheral nerve freeze lesion, sciatic cryoneurolysis (SCN). SCN reproducibly results in abnormal behaviors which include autotomy, the ...
Neahring J C - - 1995
Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity is increased in experimental nephrotic syndrome and exhibits attenuated cardiopulmonary baroreflex inhibition during volume expansion in anesthetized rats. Additional studies were performed in conscious rats to avoid the potentially confounding influences of anesthesia; these studies used another more specific standardized stimulus for cardiopulmonary baroreflex activation. ...
Tabrizchi R - - 1995
The influence of the nonpeptide angiotensin antagonist losartan on andrenergic/purinergic cotransmission in pithed rat preparation before and after treatment with prazosin (alpha 1-antagonist), rauwolscine (alpha 2-antagonist), and/or the P2x desensitizing agent alpha, beta-methylene ATP (mATP) was examined. Stimulation of the spinal sympathetic outflow (T6-T8) through the pithing rod (1.0-cm electrode) ...
Catalano S M - - 1995
The effect of day of birth (postnatal day 0; P0) infraorbital nerve section on the morphology of individual thalamocortical axons in rat somatosensory cortex was examined on P3. Thalamic fibers were labeled in fixed brains with the carbocyanine dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate, and individual photo-converted thalamocortical fibers were reconstructed. In normal ...
Yasui Y - - 1995
It was revealed in the rat that single neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) innervated both the superior colliculus (SC) and the parvicellular reticular formation (RFp) in the pons and medulla oblongata by way of axon collaterals. After injecting Fluoro-gold into the lateral part of the SC and ...
Yu C - - 1995
Several lines of evidence support a role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in the sympathetic sprouting response that occurs following septal cholinergic denervation of the rat hippocampal formation. The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of NGF-like immunoreactivity and the topography of sympathetic sprouting in rats receiving medial ...
Di Giulio A M - - 1995
This study examined the sciatic nerve axonal transport of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) and its basal content in stomach, sciatic nerve and lumbar spinal cord of 8- and 12-week alloxan-diabetic rats, respectively. One group of diabetic rats received acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) throughout the experimental period. Alloxan treatment caused hyperglycemia and reduced ...
Morrison J - - 1995
To define the architecture and extracellular matrix composition of the lamina cribrosa in rodents, normal, adult pigmented rat and guinea pig eyes were frozen and sectioned for light microscopic immunohistochemistry. Antibodies specific for collagens I, III, IV and VI, laminin, elastin, and chondroitin and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were exposed to ...
Ohta K - - 1995
We used the polymerase chain reaction to show that CNTF mRNA is widely expressed in the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and testis of the rat, in addition to preferential expression in the sciatic nerve. We produced the recombinant CNTF in E. coli using rat sciatic nerve cDNA and obtained ...
Bähr M - - 1995
We have directly compared the abilities of astrocytes from newborn and adult rats to support or inhibit the growth of regenerating axons in vitro. Astrocytes prepared from newborn rats were able to promote retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon growth from embryonic and adult rat and from adult fish retinal explants. ...
Nawwar A M - - 1995
Compression (or crushing) is used to induce nerve injury in test rats to study nerve degeneration and regeneration. The compression forces could be applied using a variety of techniques developed by several investigators. The lack of precise control of the applied compression may be the source of significant variations among ...
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