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Qureshi I Z - - 2012
The receptors for sulphonylurea (SURs) are known to be expressed in the mouse kidney, but their expression in the ureter is undefined. Owing to the physiological and pharmacological significance of SURs, the localization of SUR in ureters of adult mice and rats was investigated through immunohistochemistry. Animals were perfused transcardially ...
Stong David B - - 2012
The results of 18 months mouse and 24 months rat carcinogenicity studies with the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran are presented. In the mouse, gavage doses of ximelagatran up to 180 μmol/kg per d produced no neoplastic changes in any of the tissues examined. In the rat, gavage doses up ...
Kobayashi Toshihiro - - 2012
Recent discovery of a method for derivation and culture of germline-competent rat pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) enables generation of transgenic rats or knock-out rats via genetic modification of such PSCs. This opens the way to use rats, as is routine in mice, for analyses of gene functions or physiological features. ...
Eckardt Kathrin - - 2012
The benzimidazole carbamate albendazole (ABZ), a potent anthelmintic, is a teratogenic compound in rats. At present it is unclear to which degree this effect is caused by the parent compound or its major metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ASO). Both substances were studied separately and in combinations to mimic incomplete bioactivation in ...
Schmidt Joachim - - 2012
Ileus is caused by the initiation of a complex cascade of molecular and cellular inflammatory responses within the intestinal muscularis, which might be species specific. Our objective was to investigate a possible immunological divergence in the mechanisms of postoperative- and endotoxin-induced ileus in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Gastrointestinal transit ...
Hu Yongjun - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine whether glycylsarcosine (a model dipeptide) and oseltamivir (an antiviral prodrug) exhibited a species-dependent uptake in yeast Pichia pastoris expressing the rat, mouse, and human homologs of PEPT1. Experiments were performed with [(3)H]glycylsarcosine (GlySar) in yeast P. pastoris expressing human, mouse, and rat ...
Muti D - - 2012
The aim of our study was to measure the concentration of Mus m1 and Rat n1 in randomly selected dwellings in Strasbourg and the suburbs.
Yen Wan-Yi WY Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031, - - 2012
The glycocalyx on the surface of endothelium lining blood vessel walls modulates vascular barrier function, cell adhesion and also serves as a mechano-sensor for blood flow. Reduction of glycocalyx has been reported in many diseases including atherosclerosis, inflammation, myocardial edema, and diabetes. The surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) is composed of ...
Laulederkind Stanley J F - - 2012
The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier repository of rat genomic and genetic data and currently houses over 40 000 rat gene records, as well as human and mouse orthologs, 1857 rat and 1912 human quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 2347 rat strains. Biological information curated for these data objects ...
Baker Sandra E - - 2012
Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive ...
Murakami Takashi - - 2012
Specifically, gene-encoded biological probes serve as stable and high-performance tools to visualize cellular fate in living animals. The rat, as with the mouse, has offered important animal models for biology and medical research, and has provided a wealth of physiological and pharmacological data. The larger-body animals, in comparison to the ...
Nemmar Abderrahim - - 2012
Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, ...
Rudakova E V - - 2011
Acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and paraoxonase activities in human, mouse, and rat blood were measured. The proportions of these enzymes activities differed significantly. In humans, the most significant were cholinesterase activities, while in rats and mice the contribution of carboxylesterase activity was the greatest. High arylesterase activity of paraoxonase was observed ...
Saghir Shakil A - - 2011
Metabolism of diiodomethyl-p-tolylsulfone (DIMPTS) was investigated in rats to determine the role of iodide in its toxicity. Fischer 344 (F-344) (5 or 50mg/kg) or Sprague Dawley (SD) (5mg/kg) rats were gavaged with (14)C-DIMPTS or dermally applied with 5mg/kg (F-344 only) and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) determined. Additional experiments ...
Peterson Lisa A LA Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. - - 2011
Furan is toxic and carcinogenic in rodents. Because of the large potential for human exposure, furan is classified as a possible human carcinogen. The detailed mechanism by which furan causes toxicity and cancer is not yet known. Since furan toxicity requires cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, we have characterized the ...
Zhang Xiaodong - - 2011
The recombinant soluble human TRAIL mutant (DATR), derived from tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is a promising agent for cancer therapy. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DATR in rats and monkeys. Based on the results, the safety and toxic doses of DATR intravenously injected to rats for ...
Socolovschi Cristina - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which weather conditions, the incidence of Leptospira in reservoir populations, and various socio-ecological factors are driving the emergence of leptospirosis in Marseille, France. METHODS: Over the last 30 years our laboratory has surveyed all human cases of leptospirosis ...
Waidyanatha S - - 2011
In the National Toxicology Program's toxicity studies, rats were more sensitive than mice to Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane (CEM) - induced cardiac toxicity following dermal application to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) is a major metabolite of CEM in rats. It has been implicated that chemicals metabolized ...
Qu Wei - - 2011
Arsenic is a cancer chemotherapeutic but hepatotoxicity can be a limiting side effect. O(2)-vinyl 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (V-PROLI/NO) is a nitric oxide (NO) donor prodrug and metabolized by liver cytochromes P450 (CYP450) to release NO. The effects of V-PROLI/NO pretreatment on the toxicity of arsenic (as NaAsO(2)) were studied in a rat ...
Wang Changhong - - 2011
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are considered to be one of the most hepatotoxic groups of compounds of plant origin and are present in about 3% of the world's flowering plants. Most PAs represent a considerable health hazard to both livestock and humans through the consumption of plants and PA-contaminated products such ...
Lin Shuhai - - 2011
Metabolomics, the exponentially developing technique, could provide a systemic mapping in toxicology by directly measuring small molecular metabolites. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was found to be neurotoxic in mammalian animals. In this study, we employed liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-targeted analysis of metabolic profiling in hippocampal sample sets of the ...
Noguchi Chihiro - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to provide a method for evaluating bone toxicity induced by drugs in various bones in aged rats. Male Crl:CD (SD) rats at 46 weeks of age were administered 15 mg/m(2) body surface area of doxorubicin, which effects the growth plate in weanling rats, ...
Saunders Norman R - - 2011
The rat is a useful model for studies of embryonic blood-CSF function in that the embryos are large enough to collect sufficient fluid samples for analysis and exteriorized embryos can be kept viable for several hours in order to conduct longer term experiments. Both quantitative and qualitative methods that are ...
Shin Beom Soo - - 2011
The objectives of this study were to develop physiologically based models for the pharmacokinetics (PK) and organ distribution of apicidin in rats and mice and to predict human PK in blood and organs. The PK of apicidin was characterized in rats and mice after i.v. bolus injection, and distribution to ...
Pastrana Erica - - 2010
A new study reports the first viable rat-mouse chimeras and uses rat induced pluripotent stem cells to rescue organ deficiency in mice.
Richmond Wendy - - 2010
With the extensive use of different strains of mice and rats in in vivo efficacy models, lack of relevant metabolic clearance data among strains has been a concern. Metabolic clearance is an important parameter impacting drug discovery, and it is often used as a compound selection filter. Metabolically stable compounds ...
Jacob Howard J - - 2010
The rat has long been a model favored by physiologists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists. However, over the past two decades, many investigators in these fields have turned to the mouse because of its gene modification technologies and extensive genomic resources. Although the genomic resources of the rat have nearly caught up, ...
Kobayashi Toshihiro - - 2010
The complexity of organogenesis hinders in vitro generation of organs derived from a patient's pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), an ultimate goal of regenerative medicine. Mouse wild-type PSCs injected into Pdx1(-/-) (pancreatogenesis-disabled) mouse blastocysts developmentally compensated vacancy of the pancreatic "developmental niche," generating almost entirely PSC-derived pancreas. To examine the potential ...
Solter Davor - - 2010
In a tour-de-force study, Kobayashi et al. (2010) describe the first viable rat-mouse chimeras and demonstrate that rat induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can rescue organ deficiency in mice. Rat iPS cells formed a fully functional pancreas when injected into mouse blastocysts lacking the Pdx1 gene required for pancreas formation.
Zhu Q Q Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246, - - 2010
Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is processed into dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein. A molecular variant of rat DSP, referred to as "HMW-DSP", has been speculated to be a proteoglycan form of DSP. To determine if HMW-DSP is the proteoglycan form of DSP and to identify the glycosaminoglycan side-chain attachment site(s), ...
Wang Qiong - - 2010
We have previously identified that the predominant metabolic pathway for tanshinone IIa (TSA) in rat is the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated quinone reduction and subsequent glucuronidation. The present study contributes to further research on its glucuronidation enzyme kinetics, the identification of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms, and the interaction potential with ...
Kramer Jeffrey A - - 2010
The rat has been the preferred rodent toxicology species since before regulatory requirements have been in place, and there exists in the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory agencies a significant amount of historical data for the rat. The resulting experience base with the rat makes the possibility of replacing it ...
Hickman Debra L - - 2010
Simple and noninvasive methods of assessing health and wellbeing are valuable when performing clinical evaluation of rodents used in biomedical research. Body condition score (BCS) techniques have been described for a variety of species, including mice. This method can be a sensitive objective assessment of weight loss in animal models ...
Gottumukkala Vijay V Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
Fluorine-18-labeled rhodamine B was developed as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, but preliminary studies in mice showed no accumulation in the heart suggesting that it was rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo in mice. A study was therefore undertaken to further evaluate this hypothesis. ...
Schäffer Michael W - - 2010
We report the validation of a reversed-phase gradient HPLC method allowing simultaneous quantification of retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in lung, liver and plasma of mouse, rat and guinea pig (gp) using a diode array detector. A significant species difference was observed regarding the distribution of retinol and ...
Webb Robin L RL Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of - - 2010
Over the last decade a number of species, from farm animals to rodents, have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT). This technique has the potential to revolutionize the way that genetically modified animals are made. In its current state, the process of SCNT is very inefficient (<5% ...
Usami Makoto - - 2010
A presumed embryotrophic factor for early postimplantation rat embryos, partially purified from rat serum, was identified as complement component C3 (C3), the central component of the complement system, by sequence analysis of its N-terminal. Purified rat C3 showed embryotrophic activity for rat embryos cultured from day 9.5 of gestation for ...
Croizier Sophie - - 2010
Sub-populations of neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are characterized by distinct projection patterns, birthdates and CART/NK3 expression in rat. Evidence for such sub-populations has not been reported in other species. However, given that genetically engineered mouse lines are now commonly used as experimental models, a better characterization of the anatomy ...
Weber Klaus - - 2009
Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal ...
Mirzaee Saeedeh - - 2010
Cytosolic and mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases (dNKs), as well as 5'deoxynucleotidases (5'-dNTs), control intracellular and intramitochondrial phosphorylation of natural nucleotides and nucleoside analogs used in antiviral and cancer chemotherapy. The balance in the activities of these two groups of enzymes to a large extent determines both the efficacy and side effects ...
Wang Yongming - - 2010
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) contribute to a range of germline, as well as somatic mutations in mammals. However, autonomous retrotransposition of potentially active elements has not been demonstrated in the rat genome. We cloned an insertion that disrupted the normal splicing of the Cntrob gene that was subsequently identified as a ...
Zhao Zhan-Sheng - - 2009
We previously reported that the portal venous pressure (PPV) response of perfused mouse livers to various vasoactive agents was much weaker than that of other mammals such as rat, rabbit, and guinea pigs. The purpose of this study was to determine the responsiveness of PPV in in vivo BALB/c mouse ...
Seluanov Andrei - - 2009
The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails ...
Zhao Zhan-Sheng - - 2009
We previously reported that the portal venous pressor response of perfused mouse livers to various vasoactive agents was much weaker than that of other mammals such as rat, rabbit, and guinea pigs. The purpose of this study was to determine the responsiveness of portal venous pressure (Ppv) of in vivo ...
Geurts Aron M AM Human and Molecular Genetics Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 52336, - - 2009
The toolbox of rat genetics currently lacks the ability to introduce site-directed, heritable mutations into the genome to create knockout animals. By using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to target an integrated reporter and two endogenous rat genes, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Rab38, we demonstrate that a single injection of ...
Seita Yasunari - - 2009
Embryo cryopreservation is a valuable tool for efficient production of animals as well as banking of genetic resources. Even though the laboratory rat is one of the most important experimental animals for various research fields, it has been reported that survival and developmental ability of cryopreserved rat embryos are generally ...
Voigt Birger - - 2009
Although the rat is a preferred model in many fields of biomedical sciences, the inability to generate germline competent embryonic stem (ES) cells was a major drawback for research activities that aimed to elucidate gene functions. Several alternative strategies like N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) or transposon-mediated mutagenesis were developed successfully for this ...
Hagiwara Mie - - 2009
Though cryopreservation of mouse sperm yields good survival and motility after thawing, cryopreservation of rat sperm remains a challenge. This study was designed to evaluate the biophysics (membrane permeability) of rat in comparison to mouse to better understand the cooling rate response that contributes to cryopreservation success or failure in ...
Sabbieti M G - - 2009
The role of two estrogen-mimicking compounds in regulating osteoblast activities were examined. Previously, our attention was focused on benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) since previous works showed that they enter the cytoplasm, bioaccumulate, modify actin cytoarchitecture and exert mitogenic effects involving microfilament disruption, and nuclear actin and ...
Benedikz Eirikur - - 2009
As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that of mice. In ...
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