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Results 401 - 450 of 1320
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Willmore C B - - 2006
Human depression is partly a congenital disorder. Aspects of the behavior accompanying depression can be magnified by genetic manipulation of bred animal species. Learned Helplessness (LH) is a trait-mark behavior that successfully breeds in rodents. Here, 'congenital' LH (cLH) rats were trained to recognize and respond to 12s long interval ...
Koob Andrew O - - 2006
The wide range of tests for laboratory animal behavior after neurological injury or disease each have their benefits and detriments. The varied behavior an animal exhibits makes it difficult to decide which test to use. However, a fundamental instinct for the laboratory animal is to explore when placed in a ...
Pérez-Acevedo Nivia L - - 2006
Three different behavioral tasks were used to study the role of the neurosteroid 5alpha -androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol (3alphaDIOL) in affective components of behavior when infused into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of both sexes. Female rats were ovariectomized; half received implants containing estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB), whereas the other half received empty implants ...
Salomé Nicolas - - 2006
Exposure to the open arm of the elevated-plus maze was used to assess the neurobiological correlates of anxiety in the high-anxiety-related behavior (HAB) and low-anxiety-related behavior (LAB) rat lines. The authors sought to determine whether this mild stressor could be considered a valuable anxiety test revealing specific behavioral differences. Behavioral ...
Schweitzer Cyril - - 2006
The bronchodilator effect of deep inhalation (DI) may be assessed from the time course of respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) measured by the forced oscillation technique at a single frequency. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of DI in the closed chest rat. Under ...
Lomanowska Anna M AM Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. N2L 3G1, - - 2006
Artificial rearing (AR) of infant rats permits precise control over key features of the early environment without maternal influence. The present study examined the behavioral response of AR rats towards natural and drug-mediated rewards, as well as their exploratory and affective behaviors. Adolescent AR rats showed increased preference for sucrose ...
Lenoir Magalie M Laboratoire de Neuropsychobiologie des Désadaptations, University Victor-Segalen Bordeaux2, CNRS-UMR 5541, Bordeaux, - - 2007
Increased drug availability can precipitate a rapid transition to compulsive drug use in both vulnerable humans and laboratory animals. Recent studies have shown that despite equivalent levels of psychomotor sensitization, only rats with prolonged, but not limited, access to cocaine self-administration respond to the priming effects of cocaine on drug ...
Görisch Jutta - - 2006
Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in terms of behavior and physiology. Such individual differences, which can be detected by specific behavioral screening tests, are rather stable, that is, they probably reflect a behavioral disposition or trait. Here, ...
Cheppudira Bopaiah Pooviah - - 2006
The paw withdrawal latency to thermal radiant heat stimuli is a widely used nociceptive measure to study hyperalgesic mechanisms. In the present study, in addition to the paw withdrawal latency, two behavioral components of pain behaviors, paw licking and paw lifting have been characterized and quantified. The thermal stimuli were ...
Goldman Sharry L - - 2006
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are fossorial, eusocial rodents that live in colonies which typically include 60-80 individuals. Generally, only one of the females and 1-3 of the males in a colony are reproductives. The reproductives engage in mutual genital nuzzling behavior that is rarely exhibited by subordinates (non-reproductives). Thus, genital ...
Ahmed Serge H - - 2006
The transition from drug use to drug addiction is associated with a process of escalation, whereby drug use becomes excessive and difficult to control. Several mechanisms have been advanced to explain escalating patterns of drug use as opposed to nonescalating patterns. Although current evidence favors hedonic tolerance, there remains some ...
Kruzich Paul J - - 2006
Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in a number of self-administration behaviors. Whether or not these strains differ in methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of extinguished responding is unknown. F344 and LEW rats were trained to self-administer intravenous (i.v.) methamphetamine (0.06 mg/kg) during daily 2-h limited access sessions for 14 days. ...
Kozlov Andrey P - - 2006
The present study compared intake of sweet (saccharin), bitter (quinine), and neutral (water) tastants available either in the context of suckling behavior through a surrogate nipple or independent adultlike feeding through an intraoral cheek cannula in 3-hr-old newborn rats lacking any suckling experience and 24-hr-old rats with regular experience with ...
Pohorecky Larissa A - - 2006
RATIONALE: Psychosocial stress is known to alter behavior of rodents. While psychosocial stress may alter the response to some drugs, the response to ethanol (EtOH) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To examine open-field behaviors of triad- and singly housed rats treated acutely or voluntarily ingesting EtOH. METHOD: Triad-housed rats were ...
Friedman Elliot E Psychology Department, Williams College Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267, USA. - - 2006
The Flinders sensitive line (FSL) genetic animal model of depression exhibits marked immobility during forced swimming, an accepted index of depressive like behavior in rodent depression models. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that swim test behavior in the FSL rats is influenced in part by early experience, specifically maternal ...
Wu T J - - 2006
In the female rat, ovulation is preceded by a marked increase in the release of the decapeptide, LHRH, culminating in a preovulatory LH surge, which coincides with a period of sexual receptivity. The decapeptide, LHRH, is processed by a zinc metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15) that cleaves the hormone at the ...
Petralia Sandra M - - 2006
RATIONALE: Previous reports indicate that the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or progesterone (P) can modulate the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, and sexual behavior. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if, in the VTA, P's membrane-mediated actions for lordosis involve dopamine type 1 receptors (D(1)). Also, whether P's actions at D(1) ...
Tai Siew Kian - - 2006
In the present study using extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques, we explored the temporal characteristics of hippocampal theta activation in relation to formalin nociception. Results indicate that, compared to hind paw injection of saline, formalin injection in behaving rat evoked biphasic increase in duration of dorsal CA1 theta. Such an increase ...
Cucchiaro Giovanni - - 2006
The mechanisms and sites of action of epibatidine-induced antinociception and side effects are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the locus coeruleus is a site of action of epibatidine. Behavioral responses of rats to hindpaw formalin injection were compared after direct administration of epibatidine into the locus ...
Tsai Houng-Wei - - 2006
The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but ...
Siviy Stephen M - - 2006
The effects of predatory odors on play were assessed in juvenile rats. When rats were exposed directly to a collar previously worn by a cat, play was abolished and remained suppressed for up to 6 days. Providing rats with an opportunity to hide did not alter cat odor's ability to ...
Olazábal D E - - 2006
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in the regulation of affiliative behavior and maternal responsiveness in several mammalian species. Rodent species vary considerably in the expression of juvenile alloparental behavior. For example, alloparental behavior is spontaneous in juvenile female prairie voles (approximately 20 days of age), takes 1-3 days of ...
Kruzich Paul J - - 2006
RATIONALE: Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in cocaine self-administration behaviors. Whether or not these inbred strains of rats differ in pharmacological reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to determine if inbred strains of rats demonstrate differences in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid ...
Collins P - - 2006
Cypermethrin (CY) effects were evaluated in freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus, a common member of the aquatic fauna in the vegetated littoral of lotic and lentic environment of La Plata basin. LC50 was calculated, and oxygen uptakes together with ammonia-N excretion were related to biocide concentrations. Behavioral and growth changes were ...
Emgård Mia - - 2007
Prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids is commonly used as a treatment for women at risk of preterm delivery. However, little is known about the life-long consequences of these treatments on the fetus. In the present study, we evaluated cognitive function as well as susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to (192)IgG-saporin immunolesion ...
McKay B E - - 2006
The concept of a neuromatrix as a determinant of behavior proposes that complex neuroelectromagnetic patterns supported by specific spatial configurations of neurons underlie the generation of behaviors. When the pattern of neuronal connectivity is changed, as occurs during limbic epilepsy, neuroelectromagnetic patterns change in parallel to sustain behavioral output. Thus, ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2006
The progesterone (P(4)) metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), acts in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) to modulate the intensity and duration of lordosis. 3alpha,5alpha-THP can also have anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects in part through actions in the hippocampus. Separate reports indicate that manipulating 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in the VTA or hippocampus respectively ...
Schneider Tomasz - - 2006
Environmental enrichment has been repeatedly shown to affect multiple aspects of brain function, and is known to improve cognitive, behavioral, and histopathological outcome after brain injuries. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the effect of an enriched environment on behavioral aberrations observed in male rats exposed to ...
Huddleston Gloria G - - 2006
In male rats, copulatory behavior depends on estrogen-responsive neurons located in brain areas known to be crucial for mating. Blocking the aromatization of testosterone (T) to estradiol (E(2)) either throughout the brain or within the medial preoptic area (MPO) reduces mating, whereas E(2) treatment of either the MPO or the ...
Kiyokawa Yasushi - - 2006
Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that ...
Rees Stephanie L - - 2006
Maternal behavior of the sensitized virgin rat is affected by approach-avoidance systems as well as by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is also activated during stress. The present experiments investigated the effects of adrenalectomy and of varying corticosterone concentrations on the onset and expression of maternal behavior in sensitized virgin rats. ...
Tóth Miklós - - 2006
We investigated acid-catalyzed rearrangement of thebaine 14 and its N-propyl analog 15 with methanesulfonic acid in the presence of the nucleophiles methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide. R(-)-2-methylthioapocodeine 16, R(-)-2-methylthioapomorphine 18, and their N-n-propyl analogs 17, 19 were obtained by rearrangement in the presence of methanethiol. However, with hydrogen sulfide, rearrangement of ...
Patin V - - 2005
Deficits in social behavior are found in several neuro-psychiatric disorders with a presumed developmental origin. The aim of the present study is to determine if prenatal stress at a given day of gestation alters social behavior in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute stress (presence of a ...
Crespo Jose A - - 2005
RATIONALE: The ultra-short-acting mu opioid agonist analgesic/anesthetic remifentanil (RMF) is extremely rapidly eliminated from blood (half-life in rats, 0.3-0.7 min). This extremely fast elimination is thought to be the main reason why RMF maintains such high rates of responding in animal operant-conditioning models of drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: The present study ...
Webb Laura - - 2006
Four UDP-glucuronosyltransferases from the rat UGT1A family were tested for activity towards benzo[a]pyrene phenols and dihydrodiols. UGT1A1 and UGT1A7 were found to be broadly active towards BaP metabolites. Antisera recognizing rat UGT1A1 and UGT1A7 were used to assess UGT levels in relation to UGT activity towards benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (BPD). The rank ...
Larson Erin B - - 2005
Avidity for behaviors mediated by nondrug rewards, such as novelty seeking or intake of sweets or fats, is predictive of enhanced vulnerability to the locomotor-activating and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether avidity for wheel running was predictive of subsequent ...
Arakawa Hiroyuki - - 2005
The effect of isolation on exploratory behavior has been shown to differ depending on the developmental stages of male rats. However, there has been little systematic comparison of the frequencies and the patterns of exploratory behavior across the developmental stages. The present study assessed the frequencies of exploration using the ...
Hines Dustin J - - 2005
Spatial theory proposes that the hippocampus contributes to exploratory behavior allowing animals to acquire information about their environment. In the present study, the exploratory movements of control rats, bulbectomized (anosmic) rats and hippocampectomized rats using the neurotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were monitored on a large circular table without walls and around ...
Malkesman O O Interdisciplinary Program in the Brain Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, - - 2005
One of the most important criteria for major depressive disorder in adults and in children and adolescents as well, is the loss of interest in or pleasure from typically enjoyable experiences or activities: anhedonia. Anxiety is frequently co-morbid with depression. We examined reward and anxiety in genetic animal models of ...
Mani Shaila K - - 2005
The mitogenic agent that disrupts male and female sexual behavior has been isolated from corncob bedding. The disrupting activity resides in an isomeric mixture of linoleic acid derivatives with a tetrahydrofuran ring and two hydroxyl groups (THF-diols) that include 9, (12)-oxy-10, 13-dihydroxtstearic acid and 10, (13)-oxy-9, 12-dihydroxystearic acid. We examined ...
Izídio G S - - 2005
The behavioral characterization of rodent strains in different studies and laboratories can provide unreplicable results even when genotypes are kept constant and environmental control is maximized. In the present study, the influence of common laboratory environmental variables and their interaction with genotype on the results of behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality ...
Sackett T E - - 2005
The mechanisms by which kaolin, a clay particle film formulation, affects the fitness and behavior of larvae of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), were investigated. Feeding experiments tested kaolin as a physical barrier versus a physiological toxin for larvae that consumed kaolin applied either to apple (Malus spp.) leaves or ...
Houpt Thomas A - - 2005
It has been reported previously that exposure to static high magnetic fields of 7 T or above in superconducting magnets has behavioral effects on rats. In particular, magnetic field exposure acutely but transiently suppressed rearing and induced walking in tight circles; the direction of circular locomotion was dependent on the ...
Hiroi Ryoko - - 2006
The ovarian steroids, estrogen (E) and progesterone (P), have been shown to affect anxiety and fear in humans and animals, although with inconsistent results. These ambiguous findings may be due to differential actions of ovarian steroids on anxiety versus fear. To investigate such a role, we used the open field ...
Haile Colin N - - 2005
Lewis and Fischer 344 (F344) rats differ in responses to cocaine and characteristics of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Compared to F344 rats, Lewis rats have lower D2 receptor and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc). We showed previously that altering D1 and D2 receptor levels pharmacologically had strain-dependent ...
Ray Jeremy - - 2005
Behavioral continuity and change was studied in 32 (16 male) Wistar rats observed in the hole board and canopy tests, considered to measure exploration and anxiety, respectively. Subjects were tested at 6, 11, 16, 21, 37, and 52 weeks of age. In comparison to 16-week-old rats (the standard age of ...
Hranilovic Dubravka - - 2005
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) plays important roles in both embryonic development as a mediator of neurogenesis and in the mature brain as a neurotransmitter. Disturbances in serotonergic transmission have been indicated in several psychiatric disorders. In the search for the biological substrates of psychiatric diseases, studies using animal models represent complementary ...
Ahn Dong K - - 2005
Microinjection of formalin (5%, 50 microl) into a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) causes noxious behavioral responses in freely moving rats. In the present study, we investigated the role of central cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways in IL-1beta-induced hyperalgesia with formalin-induced TMJ pain model. Intra-articular injection of 100 pg or 1 ng of IL-1beta ...
Adamec Robert E - - 2006
Aggression takes at least two, an attacker and a target. This paper will address the lasting consequences of being a target of aggression. We review the lasting impact of predatory attack on brain and behavior in rodents. A single brief unprotected exposure of a rat to a cat lastingly alters ...
Maries Eleonora - - 2006
Dyskinesias are a common consequence of dopaminergic therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Little is known about the influence of cellular replacement strategies upon drug-induced dyskinesias. In the current study, we employed parkinsonian rats to test whether the distribution of dopamine neuron grafts could differentially alter striatal circuitry and levodopa-induced ...
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