Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1320
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Frye C A CA Department of Psychology, The University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222, USA. - - 2008
The progesterone metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), acts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to facilitate exploratory, anti-anxiety, and socio-sexual behavior among ovariectomized (OVX), estrogen (E(2))-primed rats and gonadally-intact rats with high (proestrus) or low (diestrus) endogenous E(2) levels. The extent to which E(2) is required for these effects of 3alpha,5alpha-THP ...
Ohara Peter T - - 2008
The importance of glial cells in the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain is becoming widely accepted. We examined the role of glial-specific gap junctions in nociception in the rat trigeminal ganglion in nerve-injured and -uninjured states. The connexin 43 (Cx43) gap-junction subunit was found to be confined to the ...
Pellegrini Santiago S Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. - - 2008
Previous research suggests that pigeons and rats show differences in their behavioral adjustments in spaced-trial, incentive-downshift situations. Also, Papini and Pellegrini [Papini, M.R., Pellegrini, S., 2006. Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 37, 357-378] and Pellegrini and Papini [Pellegrini, S., Papini, M.R., 2007. Scaling relative incentive value ...
Stratford Jennifer M - - 2008
Previous studies suggest that the chorda tympani nerve (CT) is important in transmitting fat taste information to the central nervous system. However, the contribution of the CT in this process may depend upon the presence of other taste stimuli and/or differ in males and females. Accordingly, the present study investigated ...
Chu Xi - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Earlier studies have shown that sildenafil may modify some aspects of male rat sexual behavior and sexual incentive motivation. Stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has also been reported to affect sexual motivation in old rats. AIM: To determine the effects of sildenafil and a compound stimulating eNOS ...
Chen Joyce C - - 2008
The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of ...
Gastens Alexandra M - - 2008
PURPOSE: Patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit an increased risk of psychiatric comorbidity, including depression, anxiety, psychosis, and learning disorders. Furthermore, a history of psychiatric comorbidity has been suggested as a predictor of lack of response to therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with epilepsy. However, clinical ...
Wu Tung-Huan - - 2008
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, is well known as a mediator in early stage inflammatory immune reactions. In recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that IL-6 is concomitant with the occurrence of major depression. However, the identification of the role of IL-6, as either an illness causation or immunotherapy in ...
Pobbe Roger L H - - 2008
Recently obtained evidence points to the involvement of the lateral habenular nuclei (LHb) in the mediation of coping defensive responses to threatening/stressful stimuli. Nevertheless, the role of this brain area in the regulation of defensive responses that have been associated with specific subtypes of anxiety disorders recognized in clinical settings ...
Towal R Blythe - - 2008
During exploratory behaviors, the velocity of an organism's sensory surfaces can have a pronounced effect on the incoming flow of sensory information. In this study, we quantified variability in the velocity profiles of rat whisking during natural exploratory behavior that included head rotations. A wide continuum of profiles was observed, ...
Amat J J Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA. - - 2008
The degree of behavioral control that an organism has over a stressor determines the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of the stressor, with the presence of control preventing the typical outcomes that occur when the stressor is uncontrollable (e.g. failure to learn, exaggerated fear, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT activation). Furthermore, ...
Ping Ansong - - 2008
Investigation of the role of choice between use of drugs of abuse and pursuit of alternative non-drug reinforcers is receiving greater attention. An understanding of the determinants influencing choice between drugs and alternative reinforcers will eventually lead to an understanding to the neural substrates of the drug altered brain. We ...
Schneider Tomasz - - 2008
Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity ...
Burn Charlotte C - - 2008
Daily handling of preweanling rats reduces their adult anxiety. Even routine cage-cleaning, involving handling, reduces adult anxiety compared with controls. Cage-cleaning regimes differ between animal breeders, potentially affecting rodent anxiety and experimental results. Here, 92 adult male rats given different cage-cleaning rates as pups, were compared on plus-maze, hyponeophagia, corticosterone, ...
Goddard Matthew - - 2008
Despite many studies of the postural and ocular reflex deficits caused by chronic bilateral vestibular loss in rats and guinea pigs, there have been few systematic studies of the effects of vestibular loss on locomotor activity and exploratory behavior over a period of several months following the lesion. In this ...
Woodlee Martin T MT Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, - - 2008
In this paper we present two new assays of rat motor behavior which can be used to assess function linked to postural stability in each forelimb independently. Postural instability is a major deficit in Parkinson's disease that is resistant to levodopa therapy and contributes to the risk of falling. We ...
Chan Johnny S W - - 2008
The existence of sexual dysfunctions in men, including premature and retarded ejaculation poses challenges to develop translational models in rats that may help in improving treatment and delineate the neural mechanisms of action. Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function ...
Pohorecky Larissa A - - 2008
Psychosocial stress is known to enhance anxiety levels in rodents. The present study evaluated the effect of long-term ingestion of ethanol (EtOH) on anxiety levels of male Long Evans rats housed either singly or in triads (three/cage). Based on measures of offensive and defensive behaviors, triad-housed rats were designated as ...
Ferraz Anete Curte - - 2008
In this work we investigated the effect from fish oil (FO) supplementation, rich in n-3 fatty acids, on an antidepressant effect on adult rats in Phase A (supplementation during pregnancy and lactation) and phase B (supplementation during post-weaning until adulthood). During Phase A, female rats, used as matrix to obtain ...
Scalera G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Three experiments were performed to verify whether melatonin (MEL) may influence hoarding behavior in rats. This hypothesis was supported by the consideration that leptin treatment decreases food hoarding in hamsters and that an inverse relation exists between plasma leptin concentration and MEL treatment. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats housed individually ...
Zhang Ming - - 2008
Environmental stimuli during neonatal periods play an important role in the development of cognitive function. In this study, we examined the long-term effects of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on spatial working memory (SWM) and related mechanisms. We also investigated whether TS-induced effects could be counteracted by repeated short periods of ...
Lee Younglim Y Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. - - 2008
Increased extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been suggested as one putative factor in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. We have previously reported that administering repeated subanxiogenic doses (termed 'priming') of the CRF receptor agonist urocortin 1 (Ucn1) into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats elicited long-lasting behavioral changes in ...
Shultz Sandy R - - 2008
Environmental, dietary, and gastrointestinal factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid, a metabolic end-product of enteric bacteria in the gut, and a common food preservative. Recent evidence indicates that PPA can cause behavioral abnormalities and a neuroinflammatory response in rats. ...
Uriarte Natalia - - 2008
Female rats have a fertile postpartum estrus, which can result in a simultaneous gestation and lactation and later in the overlapping of two different-age litters. These different physiological and contextual situations may affect the maternal behavior of lactating rats and provoke long-lasting changes in the affective behavior of the litter. ...
Siviy Stephen M - - 2008
The effects of brief daily separation, also known as "handling," during the first 2 weeks of life on play behavior and fearfulness toward a predatory odor were assessed in juvenile rats. Handled rats were more playful than nonhandled control rats, and while handling had no effect on the direct response ...
Lamprea M R - - 2008
The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of thigmotaxis (the tendency to remain close to vertical surfaces) in rat exploratory behavior in an open-field. Thigmotaxis was investigated in a parametric way, using 24 experimentally adult naive male Wistar rats (210-230 g). Exploratory behavior was studied in ...
Jones Holly P - - 2008
Invasive rats are some of the largest contributors to seabird extinction and endangerment worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies on seabird-rat interactions to examine which seabird phylogenetic, morphological, behavioral, and life history characteristics affect their susceptibility to invasive rats and to identify which rat species have had the largest ...
Cline Michael - - 2008
The purpose of our study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of linalool and its potential interaction with the GABAA receptor in Sprague-Dawley rats. Lavender has been used traditionally as an herbal remedy in the treatment of many medical conditions, including anxiety. Linalool is a major component of the essential ...
Lindema Sven - - 2008
There is increasing evidence that developmental anomalies of cerebral asymmetry are involved in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. Thus, rodents with abnormal cerebral lateralization are interesting tools to study the association between such anomalies and behavioral dysfunction. The most studied indicator of cerebral asymmetry in ...
Zeng Qing Q MGH Center for Translational Pain Research, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2008
Although a clinical connection between pain and depression has long been recognized, how these two conditions interact remains unclear. Here we report that both mechanical allodynia and depression-like behavior were significantly exacerbated after peripheral nerve injury in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a genetic variation of Wistar rats with demonstrable depression-like behavior. ...
Waters R P RP Department of Biology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, - - 2008
A positive genetic relationship between aerobic capacity and voluntary exercise has been suggested from earlier studies of mice selected for increased wheel-running activity. To further investigate the relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise behavior, wheel-running activity was studied in female rats bidirectionally selected for intrinsic aerobic capacity (high capacity runners ...
Reed Abbey L - - 2008
RATIONALE: Currently, there are limited treatment options for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents compared to the options available for adults. Many effective treatments used for adult depression, such as the tricyclic antidepressants, lack efficacy when given to children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To more quickly identify compounds that could ...
Rubino Tiziana - - 2008
Few and often contradictory reports exist on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabinoid consumption in adolescents. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role during the different stages of brain development as cannabinoids influence the release and action of different neurotransmitters and promote neurogenesis. This study tested whether long-lasting interference by ...
Stryjek RafaƂ - - 2008
Wild rodents, and especially rats, are significantly more difficult to handle, maintain and breed than laboratory rats and mice. They can be characterized as more skittish, neophobic and aggressive. While establishing a breeding colony of wild Norwegian rats (Rattus norvegicus) I developed some helpful devices and I will describe them ...
St-Pierre L S - - 2008
More than 100 adult male and female albino Wistar rats that had been exposed during their entire prenatal development to one of two patterns of magnetic fields and one of four intensities (reference: 5 to 20 nT; low: 30 to 50 nT; medium: 90 to 580 nT; high: 590 nT ...
Park Thomas J - - 2008
In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack ...
Osechas Okuary O Faculty of Biology, Tübingen University, 72076, Germany. - - 2008
The goal of our project is to describe the behavior of rats. For this purpose we are using wireless sensor networks, monitoring various quantities that yield important information to complement current knowledge on the behavioral repertoire of rats. So far, on the sensing and processing side we have developed innovative, ...
Dobryakova Yulia V YV Biological Faculty, Department of Human and Animals Physiology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation. - - 2008
In this study we quantified maternal behavior in genetic epileptic rats with deficiencies in the DA system known to be involved in maternal behavior in order to assess whether these rats have disturbances in maternal care. Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats, a genetic model for generalized absence epilepsy and Wistar ...
Ludwig V - - 2008
Using the elevated plus-maze (EPM), Wistar rats can be distinguished into high (HA) or low anxiety (LA) subjects. These differences seem to reflect traits, since HA and LA rats vary also in other anxiety-dependent tasks, neurochemical mechanisms, and psychopharmacological reactivity, including lasting consequences after single treatment with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Here, ...
Xie Ying - - 2008
Paeonol, a principal bioactive component of the Chinese herb Moutan Cortex with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, was comparatively studied to determine its pharmacokinetic behavior and metabolic profile in rat following oral administration of the pure paeonol alone and an herbal preparation "Qingfu Guanjieshu" (QFGJS) containing paeonol. An HPLC-DAD method was ...
Zamblé A - - 2008
In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of ...
Farrell William J - - 2007
Rat pups are capable of behavioral thermoregulation, both in the nest and on a thermocline, as early as the 1st week of postnatal life, and these pups can also produce heat metabolically without shivering. The rat pup's primary source of nonshivering thermogenesis is the sympathetically mediated metabolism of brown adipose ...
Albert Frank W - - 2008
To better understand the biology of tameness, i.e. tolerance of human presence and handling, we analyzed two lines of wild-derived rats (Rattus norvegicus) artificially selected for tameness and defensive aggression towards humans. In response to a gloved human hand, tame rats tolerated handling, whereas aggressive rats attacked. Cross-fostering showed that ...
Stoffel Erin C - - 2008
Behavioral disinhibition, a component of impulsivity, has been associated with cocaine abuse and dependence. To examine the relationship between behavioral disinhibition and vulnerability to cocaine use disorders, we employed the high responder (HR)/low responder (LR) rodent model, in which rats that exhibit high levels of activity in response to a ...
Avni Reut - - 2008
Exploration is an initial phase of constructing spatial representation. In an illuminated environment, exploration by nocturnal rodents takes the form of home-base behavior, with the rodents organizing their activity in relation to the base, repeatedly orienting and returning to it. In the dark, home base behavior in gerbils is preceded ...
Hosseinzadeh H - - 2008
In this study, the aphrodisiac activities of Crocus sativus stigma aqueous extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated in male rats. The aqueous extract (80, 160 and 320mg/kg body wt.), crocin (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body wt.), safranal (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml/kg), sildenafil (60mg/kg body wt., as a ...
Antoniou K - - 2008
Experimental animals can be differentiated on the basis of their horizontal or vertical activity to high responders (HR) and low responders (LR) upon exposure to a novel environment. These individual differences have been associated with behavioral and neurobiological differences in a number of experimental procedures used for studying sensitivity to ...
Guitart-Masip M - - 2008
Genetically selected for high or low two-way active avoidance, Roman high-avoidance (RHA) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA) rats differ in their central dopaminergic activity, sensation/novelty- and substance-seeking profiles. These animals are, therefore, well suited to identify anatomical and neurochemical concomitants of behavioral sensitization, a phenomenon linked to addictive liability. We submitted ...
Nakayama Hironao - - 2007
Organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) is expressed in several tissues including the brain. We have previously demonstrated that rats with behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH) increased the brain penetration of METH with decreased expression of OCT3 in brain. Considering the earlier in vitro studies demonstrating that 1) OCT3 could transport dopamine ...
Yaski Osnat - - 2008
The present study examines how rats process object information in relation to other objects as well as to the global shape of an enclosure. Rats were introduced into either a round or a square arena with various arrays of freestanding portable corners (objects) that differed in spacing, orientation, and number. ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >