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Results 251 - 300 of 1320
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Moreno Margarita M Departamento de Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Almería, Almería, - - 2010
The selective breeding of Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats for rapid vs extremely poor acquisition of active avoidance behavior in a shuttle-box has generated two phenotypes with different emotional and motivational profiles. The phenotypic traits of the Roman rat lines/strains (outbred or inbred, respectively) include differences in sensation/novelty ...
Inagaki Hideaki - - 2010
Propylene glycol (PG) is commonly used as a solvent for odorous chemicals employed in studies of the olfactory system because PG has been considered to be odorless for humans and other animals. However, if laboratory rats can detect the vapor of PG and if exposure to this influences behaviors, such ...
Meerts Sarah H SH Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH 03755, United - - 2010
The present study tested whether the topical application of a local anesthetic (Lidocaine) to the vaginocervical region altered the pattern of paced mating behavior displayed by gonadectomized, hormone-primed female rats. Both rats receiving Lidocaine and rats receiving vehicle exhibited the expected lengthening of contact-return latency as the intensity of the ...
Macinnis Mika L M - - 2010
The goal was to determine whether a signal (e.g., a click) at food availability affects timing behavior in rats. Twenty-four rats were trained on an appetitive lever-press procedure that varied on two dimensions: shape of the interreinforcer distribution (i.e., fixed-interval 60s or random-interval 60s) and number of signals (i.e., the ...
Kawaguchi Maiko M Faculty of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Musashino University, Tokyo, - - 2010
Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), a widely used preservative, exhibits estrogenic activity. We analyzed the effects of exposure to IBP during gestation and lactation via dam on social recognition behavior in ovariectomized offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats. Offspring were ovariectomized at 7 weeks of age, and were used in a social recognition test at ...
Urbach Yvonne K - - 2010
Each translational approach in medical research forces the establishment of neurobehavioral screening systems, dedicated to fill the gap between postgenomic generation of state-of-the-art animal models (i.e. transgenic rats) on the one hand and their added value for really predictive experimental preclinical therapy on the other. Owing to these developments in ...
Green Thomas A TA Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. - - 2010
Previous research has shown that rats reared in an enriched condition (EC) are more sensitive to the acute effects of amphetamine than rats reared in an isolated condition (IC); yet, EC rats self-administer less amphetamine than IC rats. The present study used cocaine to further explore this environmental enrichment behavioral ...
Ono Kenichi - - 2010
While numerous studies have focused on identifying and characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating upper airway defense reflexes in the anesthetized or decerebrate adult cat, little is known about these behaviors in in vivo rodent models. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether the in vivo decelerate adult rat might ...
Baran Halina - - 2010
The endogenous neuroinhibitory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) has been hypothetically linked to physiological processes and to the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. The aim of this study was to search KYNA metabolism i.e. KYNA levels and enzymes synthesising KYNA kynurenine aminotransferase I and II (KAT I and ...
Weatherhead Patrick J - - 2010
Nest predators can adversely affect the viability of songbird populations, and their impact is exacerbated in fragmented habitats. Despite substantial research on this predator-prey interaction, however, almost all of the focus has been on the birds rather than their nest predators, thereby limiting our understanding of the factors that bring ...
Simpson Sarah M - - 2010
Subchronic treatment with a non-competitive glutamate NMDA-receptor antagonist [e.g., MK-801 or phencyclidine] or social isolation (SI) from weaning (age 21 days) to adulthood (age 56 days) produce deficits similar to some of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Few studies have evaluated the effects of these treatments on emotional ...
Inagaki Hideaki - - 2010
Previously, we demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. Thus, we believe that this pheromone may increase anxiety levels in rats. In the current study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this alarm pheromone-induced anxiogenic effect in ...
Goh Dilys P Q - - 2009
In this study, the correlation between the metabolic profiles of rats undergoing cognition enhancement drug therapy and their associated cognitive behavioral outcomes were investigated. Male Lister Hooded rats were administered either with donepezil, galantamine, or vehicle and subjected to Atlantis watermaze training and novel object recognition tests. An UPLC/MS/MS method ...
Aguilar Raúl - - 2009
In the present study the authors sought to establish whether the range of effects of neonatal handling stimulation (H), that is, brief daily periods of infant isolation, could be extended to the domain of social motivation. With this aim, the authors studied the innate motivation to engage in rough-and-tumble play ...
Narita Masaaki - - 2010
Autism is a behaviorally characterized disorder with impairments in social interactions, as well as stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Exposure of rat fetuses to thalidomide (THAL) or valproic acid (VPA) on the ninth day of gestation has been reported as a useful model for human autism. We have ...
Roman Erika - - 2009
The present investigation continues previous behavioral profiling studies of selectively bred alcohol-drinking and alcohol non-drinking rats. In this study, alcohol-na??ve adult Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and non-preferring (sNP) rats were tested in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The MCSF test has an ethoexperimental approach and measures general activity, exploration, ...
Kalueff A V - - 2010
The serotonin transporter knockout (SERT(-/-)) mouse, generated in 1998, was followed by the SERT(-/-) rat, developed in 2006. The availability of SERT(-/-) rodents creates the unique possibility to study the conservation of gene function across species. Here we summarize SERT(-/-) mouse and rat data, and discuss species (dis)similarities in neurobehavioral ...
Lee Li-Jen - - 2009
The significance of very early experience in the maturation of whisker-to-barrel system comes primarily from neonatal whisker or infraorbital nerve lesion studies conducted prior to the formation of cortical barrels. However, the surgical procedures damage the sensory pathway; it is difficult to examine the consequence after the recovery of sensory ...
Hwang Yong Sup - - 2009
Hydrocephalus is a pathological enlargement of the cerebral ventricle that results from an obstruction of the space containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Motor abnormalities, such as abnormal gait and posture, are frequently seen in patients with hydrocephalus. The present study was designed to investigate locomotor activity in the ...
L??scher Wolfgang - - 2010
Circling or rotational behavior is the most studied indicator of cerebral asymmetry in the rat. In humans, disturbances in cerebral asymmetry are involved in the etiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Abnormal rotational behavior in rodents is indicative of either an imbalance of ...
Smith Mark A - - 2009
Environmental enrichment produces functional changes in mesolimbic dopamine transmission and alters sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. These manipulations also alter the control rate of many behaviors that are sensitive to stimulant administration, which can make comparison of drug effects between isolated and enriched subjects difficult. The purpose of this study was ...
Clark Callie A M - - 2009
External cues, including familiar music, can release Parkinson's disease patients from catalepsy but the neural basis of the effect is not well understood. In the present study, posturography, the study of posture and its allied reflexes, was used to develop an animal model that could be used to investigate the ...
Cunningham Miles Gregory MG Laboratory for Neural Reconstruction, McLean Hospital, Program in Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02478, USA. - - 2009
Transplantation experiments have shown that neurologic deficits may be reversed by engrafting fresh tissue or engineered cells within dysfunctional neural circuitry. In experimental and clinical settings, this approach has provided insights into the pathology and treatment of neurologic diseases, primarily movement disorders. The present experiments were designed to investigate whether ...
Stevenson Carl W CW School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG72UH, UK. - - 2009
We examined the effects of brief or long durations of repeated maternal separation (MS) on ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rat dams. 50-kHz USVs putatively identified as maternal in origin were emitted only immediately after pups were returned following MS. Maternal USV emission also depended on separation duration and pup age. ...
Liu Xiangqian - - 2009
Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is prevalent among individuals with HIV infection. We hypothesize that HIV-positive individuals are more prone to METH use and to the development of METH dependence. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of METH (daily intraperitoneal injection 2.5 mg/kg for 6 days) on rearing and head ...
Llaneza Danielle C DC Dept. of Psychology, The University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222, - - 2009
Steroid hormones, progesterone and estradiol, may influence approach and/or anxiety behavior. Female rats in behavioral estrous, have elevated levels of these steroid hormones and demonstrate more approach and less anxiety behavior than do diestrous rats. Ovariectomy obviates these cyclic variations and systemic progesterone and/or estrogen replacement can enhance approach and ...
Davis J F JF Department of Psychiatry, GRI-E, Laboratory 334, 2170 East Galbraith Road, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA. - - 2009
Risk-taking behavior is a vital aspect mediating the formation of social structure in animals. Here, we utilized the visible burrow system (VBS), a model in which rats form dominance hierarchies, to test the hypothesis that dominant rats in the VBS are natural risk takers and display an increased motivational state ...
Tai Wei-Cheng - - 2009
The postnatal day (P) 3 rat model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury provides valuable information regarding the cellular response to HI injury in a very immature brain. Our present study is the first to examine growth, metabolic, and behavioral outcomes following a P3 HI brain injury. Rats were injured by ...
Foo H H Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, MC 0926, 947 East 58th St., Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2009
Feeding is critical for survival. Yet, patients with chronic pain often lose their appetite and eat less. We previously showed that ad libitum fed male rats continue to feed rather than withdraw from a brief noxious stimulus. This study examined the effects of a sustained noxious stimulus on feeding by ...
Shaw F-Z - - 2009
Depression and/or anxiety are major comorbidities of epilepsy. However, the contribution of absence epileptic discharges in psychiatric syndromes is inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the influence of absence seizure in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors using normal Wistar rats and Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Anxiety-like behaviors were ...
Hayashida Maiko - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia show a significantly higher frequency of hyperbilirubinemia than patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders and the general healthy population. We examined the hyperbilirubinemia on behavioral and neuropathological changes in rats as a possible animal model of schizophrenia. METHODS: Gunn rats with severe hyperbilirubinemia (j/j), Gunn rats ...
LaVinka Pamela Colleen - - 2009
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) naturally lack neuropeptides associated with the signaling of chemical irritants from C type trigeminal nerve fibers. The goal of the present study was to assess behavioral responses of these animals to stimulation of the trigeminal chemosensory system, and to determine if stimulation would increase post-synaptic activity ...
Fowler Stephen C - - 2009
A differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule (DRL) delivers reinforcement only when the interresponse time (IRT) exceeds a fixed time interval, thereby shaping rats to discriminate the timing of their responses. However, little is known about the motor behavior and location of the rats in the chamber during the IRTs that lead to reinforcement. ...
Ishii Hiroyuki H Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan. - - 2009
This paper presents the design and development of a novel biomimetic quadruped robot for behavior studies of rats and mice. Many studies have been performed using these animals for the purpose of understanding human mind in psychology, pharmacology and brain science. In these fields, several experiments on social interactions have ...
Shultz Sandy R - - 2009
Propionic acid (PPA) is a dietary short chain fatty acid and a metabolic end-product of enteric bacteria. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of PPA can result in brain and behavioral abnormalities in rats similar to those seen in humans suffering from autism. To evaluate cognition and sensorimotor ability in the PPA model, ...
McLachlan Craig S - - 2009
BC-264 a CCK(2) agonist reverses chronically developed habituated predatory fear freezing behavior in PVG hooded rats. However, the acute effects of BC264 have not been previously examined. The effects of BC-264 (0.1-30microg/kg) on the mean percentage of PVG hooded rat freezing during an initial first time 20min cat exposure were ...
Redina O E - - 2009
Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was used to identify the loci of polygenic characteristics in a study of the genetic determination of the behavior of rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH rats). Analysis was performed using males of two populations of F2 hybrids (ISIAH x WAG) of different ages: ...
Grant Robyn A - - 2009
Animals actively regulate the position and movement of their sensory systems to boost the quality and quantity of the sensory information they obtain. The rat vibrissal system is recognized to be an important model system in which to investigate such "active sensing" capabilities. The current study used high-speed video analysis ...
Khonicheva N M - - 2008
Studies of identical groups of male Wistar rats after preliminary selection to give groups including extreme behavioral types with low and high rankings on the anxiety scale showed that blood testosterone concentrations in intact rats (controls) correlated negatively with anxiety ranking, i.e., minimal hormone concentrations (no greater than 5 nM) ...
Waki Hidefumi - - 2009
Although rats often show an upright standing behavior the cardiovascular response during the behavior has not yet been fully clarified. In this study we quantified the activity of upright standing behavior in rats using infrared beam detectors and measured cardiovascular variables during the behavior. Rats demonstrated a high level of ...
Clark Ann S AS Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH 03755, USA. - - 2009
Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary mediator of blood flow in female genital tissues and drugs that enhance the activity of nitric oxide, such as phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, increase vaginal blood flow in anesthetized rats. The goal of the present study was to test the effects of one PDE-5 ...
Johannesson Martina M Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford OX3 7BN, United - - 2009
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key tool for the study of medicine and pharmacology for human health. A large database of phenotypes for integrated fields such as cardiovascular, neuroscience, and exercise physiology exists in the literature. However, the molecular characterization of the genetic loci that give rise to ...
Ennaceur A - - 2009
Three set of experiments were performed in an enclosed space (open-field) and in an open space (elevated platform). The surface of the open-field and the elevated platform were divided in nine equal squares. Rats were exposed (without previous habituation) in a unique session (experiment 1) or three consecutive sessions (experiment ...
Korenova Miroslava - - 2009
We have previously shown that transgenic rats expressing misfolded tau protein developed neurofibrillary tangles and axonal degeneration in the brain and spinal cord, which led to impairment of sensorimotor and neuromuscular functions. To quantify neurobehavioral phenotype of the transgenic rats we have designed a testing protocol and a novel scoring ...
Casarrubea Maurizio - - 2009
Aim of present paper was to carry out an analysis of rat behavior in hole-board following different multivariate approaches. Thirty male Wistar rats were observed in a hole-board apparatus and their behavior recorded for 10 min through a digital videocamera for a following frame-by-frame analysis. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses ...
Klavir Oded - - 2009
In recent years there have been several attempts to establish high frequency stimulation (HFS) as an additional treatment strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two studies reported that bilateral HFS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) dramatically alleviated compulsions and improved obsessions in three patients with co-morbid Parkinson's disease and OCD. A ...
Alaverdashvili M - - 2008
The variability in the behavioral outcome of human and nonhuman animals after stroke raises the question whether the way that a stroke occurs is a contributing factor. Photothrombotic stroke in rats has been reported to produce especially variable results, with some animals showing either slight to no impairment to other ...
Orito Kensuke - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to characterize behavioral anomalies in rats prenatally exposed to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, a useful model of hyperactive disorder. Rats were treated with BrdU at 50mg/kg IP or carboxymethylcellulose, its vehicle, on gestational Days 9 through 15, and their offsprings were subjected to behavioral tests. Rats ...
Pawluski Jodi L - - 2009
Reproductive experience has significant effects on the brain, behavior and hormone profiles of the mother. Recent work has demonstrated that primiparous rats exhibit decreased dendritic arborizations in the hippocampus, and enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial memory performance at the time of weaning compared to nulliparous and, to a lesser degree, multiparous rats. ...
Nephew Benjamin C - - 2008
Juvenile rats exhibit enhanced parental behavior responses to foster pups from 18 to 25 days of age, compared to virgin adults. Previous studies in adult rats and mice suggest that progesterone can inhibit the display of parental care towards offspring. The present study investigated the role of progesterone in juvenile ...
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