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Kim Sung Hoon - - 2011
Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) injury in rats produces a pain syndrome that includes mechanical and thermal allodynia. Previous studies have indicated that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) play an important role in peripheral mediation of neuropathic pain, and that altered dorsal root ganglion (DRG) function and degree ...
Zhu Tienian - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on hepatic glycogen synthesis and FoxO1 transcriptional activity in type 2 diabetic rats and the mechanism underlying these effects. Fasting blood glucose and glycogen deposition, together with expressions of two key genes related to gluconeogenesis, ...
Manalo Dominador J - - 2011
HIF-1α plays a key role in iron uptake and transport in the liver, whose activity is tightly linked to the repression of hepcidin (Hamp). Hamp prevents intestinal iron uptake and cellular efflux by negatively modulating ferroportin. Hamp is also expressed in the kidneys, where transcriptional control by HIF-1α remains poorly ...
Hsin I-Fang - - 2012
Liver functions and portosystemic collaterals influence the development and severity of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhosis. However, it has not been examined which factor has a greater influence or if shunts can be used to determine the presence and severity of HE. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is ...
Zhao Jinzhuo - - 2011
The study was to explore the potential immunoregulatory mechanisms linking fine particles and cardiac injury. Wistar kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to fine particles with the doses of 0.0, 1.6, 8.0 and 40.0mg/kg b.w., respectively. The exposure was conducted once a day, for three consecutive days. Twenty-four ...
Sun Wu-Yi - - 2011
Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus are two popular traditional Chinese medicines, commonly used in Chinese herb prescription to treat liver disease. The extract prepared from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus (PAE) demonstrated better hepatoprotective activity than the herbs used individually as shown in our previous studies. This ...
Biancalana Adriano - - 2011
The extracellular matrix consists of collagen, proteoglycans and non-collagen proteins. The incidence of obesity and associated diseases is currently increasing in developed countries. Obesity is considered to be a disease of modern times, and genes predisposing to the disease have been identified in humans and animals. The objective of the ...
Xiao Yan - - 2011
The biochemical changes such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were investigated in rats with global cerebral ischemia and in vascular dementia (VaD) subjects in this study. The AChE activity showed a significant decrease in plasma and a significant increase in the hippocampus but not in the ...
Pudhom Khanitha - - 2011
Twelve naturally occurring 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes (1-12) isolated from Gardenia sootepensis and Gardenia obtusifolia, and eight semi-synthetic derivatives (13-20) were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity on a rat aortic sprouting assay, an ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Among these compounds, sootepin B (1) displayed the most potent activity in terms of ...
Saether Per C - - 2011
Signaling by the CD94/NKG2 heterodimeric NK cell receptor family has been well characterized in the human but has remained unclear in the mouse and rat. In the human, the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C associates with DAP12 by an ionic bond between oppositely charged residues within the transmembrane regions of NKG2C and ...
Li Dongfang - - 2011
Abstract Objective: We previously showed that human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) can lower seizure severity and prolong seizure latency in picrotoxin-kindled rats. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of IVIG on seizure activity and investigate its influence on astrocytes in the hippocampus of picrotoxin-kindled rats. Methods: ...
Juif Pierre-Eric - - 2011
Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (FIS) inbred rats were used to study the relationship of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity with inflammation-related pain behavior. LEW rats are susceptible to the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, whereas FIS rats are resistant. Since contradictory data have previously been collected under conditions of ...
Mitchinson Ben - - 2011
In rats, the long facial whiskers (mystacial macrovibrissae) are repetitively and rapidly swept back and forth during exploration in a behaviour known as 'whisking'. In this paper, we summarize previous evidence from rats, and present new data for rat, mouse and the marsupial grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) showing that ...
Al Dera Hussain - - 2012
In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), somatosympathetic reflexes produce exaggerated decreases in skin blood flow below the lesion. This hypoperfusion appears to result from an increased responsiveness of cutaneous arterial vessels to neural activation. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie SCI-induced enhancement of neurovascular transmission in a cutaneous ...
Lin Guiting - - 2011
Abstract Background aims. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of both active and quiescent stem cells in bone marrow, hair follicle and intestine. We attempted to identify active and quiescent vascular stromal cells (VSC) in adipose tissue. Methods. For identification of active VSC, adult rats were injected intraperitoneally with thymidine ...
Töllner Kathrin - - 2011
Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy treatment. However, mechanisms of resistance are only incompletely understood. We have recently shown that repeated administration of the AED phenytoin allows selecting resistant and responsive rats from the amygdala kindling model of epilepsy, providing a tool to study mechanisms ...
Shekh-Ahmad Tawfeeq - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a major antiepileptic drug (AED) that is less potent than other AEDs. 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (TMCA) is an inactive cyclopropyl analogue of VPA that serves as a starting material for the synthesis of CNS-active compounds. METHODS: New conjugation products between N,N'-dimethylethanolamine to VPA and TMCA to ...
Yang Wenjun - - 2011
Background/Aims: NF-κB protein family members act as transcription facts and play a key role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammatory signals. We proposed to determine the role of NF-κB in the development of trauma-associated liver damage and inflammation. Methodology: NF-κB DNA-binding activity was inhibited using double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides ...
Scherer Emilene B S - - 2011
Since mild hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebral diseases and extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, which are controlled by the enzymatic action of ectonucleotidases, can induce an immune response, in the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia on ectonucleotidase activities and expression in lymphocytes from mesenteric ...
Trepiccione Francesco - - 2011
Primary hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although the pathogenesis is not completely understood, an imbalance of sodium and chloride homeostasis seems to be relevant both in the induction and in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Besides individual renal phenotypes, salt intake is one of ...
Ozaykan Besim - - 2011
In this study, we investigated the effects of salt loading on sympathetic pressor activity, cardiac autonomic activity, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and on the relations between them in anesthetized two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. We submitted rats to either renal artery clipping or sham operation. Distilled ...
Hofacer Rylon R Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45219, - - 2012
Although omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids negatively regulate triglyceride biosynthesis, the mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood, and emerging evidence suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) is required for de novo triglyceride biosynthesis. To investigate this mechanism, we determined the effects of perinatal n-3 deficiency and postnatal repletion on rat liver ...
Ramesh Thiyagarajan - - 2011
The intracellular levels of oxidant and antioxidant balances are gradually distorted during the aging process. An age associated elevation of oxidative stress occurring throughout the lifetime is hypothesized to be the major cause of aging. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the putative antioxidant activity of the fermented Panax ...
Armbruster Caroline - - 2011
In an in vitro model of the entire rat diaphragm, diaphragmatic contraction forces at defined preload levels were investigated. A total of 24 excised rat diaphragms were electrically stimulated inside a two-chamber strain-applicator. The resulting contraction forces were determined on eight adjusted preload levels via measuring the elicited pressure in ...
Inoue Bruna H - - 2012
Heart failure (HF) is associated with a reduced effective circulating volume that drives sodium and water retention and extracellular volume expansion. We therefore hypothesized that Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), the major apical transcellular pathway for sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, is upregulated in an experimental model of HF. ...
Erkhembayar Suvd - - 2011
Selenium is a candidate treatment for liver tumour prevention in chronic liver disease. In this study, we have studied selenium uptake, distribution and accumulation in rats provided with water containing tumour-preventive doses of sodium selenite for 10weeks. Male Fischer 344 rats were given drinking water containing 1μg/mL or 5μg/mL sodium ...
Cox F Fionnuala - - 2011
The glycoprotein, CD200, is primarily expressed on neurons and its cognate receptor CD200R is expressed principally on cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia. The interaction of CD200 with its receptor plays a significant role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state and therefore a decrease in CD200 expression in ...
Haag Johannes - - 2011
In this study, the obtainment and characterization of decellularized rat tracheal grafts are described. The detergent-enzymatic method, already used to develop bioengineered pig and human trachea scaffolds, has been applied to rat tracheae in order to obtain airway grafts suitable to be used to improve our knowledge on the process ...
Wei Na N Division of Peptides Related to Human Disease, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, - - 2011
To investigate the effects of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on maltose and sucrase activities and expression of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) in obese rat intestinal mucosa. We divided 49 Sprague-Dawley rats into a group of 31 high fat diet-induced obese rats and a group of 18 normal controls. The ...
Davies Emily K - - 2011
Cutaneous inflammation induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the UV-B range has received significant recent interest as a translational inflammatory pain model. Changes in thermal and mechanical sensitivities in the area of primary hyperalgesia are well documented in both the rat and human UV-B models, but the occurrence of secondary ...
Yamamoto Satoshi - - 2011
One of the remarkable achievements in knockout (KO) rat production reported during the period 2008-2010 is the derivation of authentic embryonic stem (ES) cells from rat blastocysts using a novel culture medium containing glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors (2i medium). Here, we report gene-targeting technology ...
Eyman Maria - - 2012
Cytoplasmic protein synthesis of brain synaptosomes has generally been determined in the Ficoll purified fraction which contains fewer contaminating mitochondria, microsomes and myelin fragments than the parent P2 fraction. Using a highly selective assay of this activity we have compared the total translation activity and the specific activity of the ...
Mifune Hiroharu - - 2011
An abnormal eating behavior is often associated with diabetes mellitus in individuals. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the relationship among uncontrolled diabetes, food intake, and the production of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, in spontaneous diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. Male SDT rats and age-matched control Sprague-Dawley (SD) ...
Quist Brian W - - 2011
Rats use specialized tactile hairs on their snout, called vibrissae (whiskers), to explore their surroundings. Vibrissae have no sensors along their length, but instead transmit mechanical information to receptors embedded in the follicle at the vibrissa base. The transmission of mechanical information along the vibrissa, and thus the tactile information ...
Yamasaki Simone Cristina - - 2011
This study evaluated the hypothesis that neutral (APN) and dipeptidyl-IV (DPPIV) aminopeptidase activity levels would be critical for the susceptibility to arthritis in collagen-induced model (CIA). The macroscopic signs of arthritis in CIA rats were checked and peripheral blood, synovial fluid and synovial tissue from knee joint were withdrawn. Soluble ...
Li Hua - - 2011
Cortex Moutan (root bark of PAEONIA SUFFRUTICOSA Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of SALVIA MILTIORRHIZA Bunge) are two herbs widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. In clinical practice, these two herbs are prescribed together. Studies on the pharmacokinetic interaction between ...
Diaz Dolores - - 2011
MEK, a kinase downstream of Ras and Raf oncogenes, constitutes a high priority target in oncology research. MEK small molecule inhibitors cause soft tissue mineralization in rats secondary to serum inorganic phosphorous (iP) elevation, but the molecular mechanism for this toxicity remains undetermined. We performed investigative studies with structurally distinct ...
Heidemann Sabrina M - - 2011
ABSTRACT Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may contain mediators of acute lung injury. The objectives were to determine if EBC could be collected in a mechanically ventilated rat, to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the EBC after staphylococcal enterotoxin B administration (SEB) and to find out if ...
Assaf Naglaa - - 2011
Dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) is water disinfectant by-product. Its broad-spectrum toxicity in different test systems in vivo and in vitro has been reported. However, there is a scanty of information regarding dibromoacetonitrile hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms for dibromoacetonitrile-induced tumor initiation in rat liver cells. Dibromoacetonitrile was ...
Brinegar Jennifer L - - 2011
Modeling activity-based anorexia, food-deprived rats consistently show that activity increases as weight decreases. This effect was explored in 8 food-deprived, Sprague-Dawley rats as potentially mediated by intrinsic value of activity. Running-wheel activity rates were recorded for free-fed weight, reduction to 90% of free-fed weight, and to 80% of free-fed weight. ...
Pekthong Dumrongsak - - 2011
Benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylation (BROD) is usually used as a marker of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1 in rat. However, some reports show that CYP1A2 is also highly implicated. The purpose of the present study was to establish bupropion (BUP) hydroxylation, but not BROD, as a selective in vitro marker of CYP2B1 catalytic activity. ...
Liu Pei-Yi - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The chronic, persistent pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has many characteristics of neuropathic pain, initiated and maintained by the activation of spinal microglia. We investigated whether activated microglia in the thoracic spinal cord contribute to chronic pain in a rat model of CP. METHODS: CP was ...
Kawamura Kazunori - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: We recently developed a selective (11)C-labeled I(2)-imidazoline receptor (I(2)R) ligand, 2-(3-fluoro-4-[(11)C]tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole ([(11)C]FTIMD). [(11)C]FTIMD showed specific binding to I(2)Rs in rat brains having a high density of I(2)R, as well as to I(2)Rs those in monkey brains, as illustrated by positron emission tomography (PET) and autoradiography. However, [(11)C]FTIMD also showed ...
Kleinedler James J - - 2011
To expedite the investigation of new devices for inhibiting restenosis, we aimed to develop a modified model of arterial angioplasty and stenting in rats that showed greater face validity than the traditional rat model. Carotid arteries from Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal or an atherogenic diet containing a low dose ...
Chen Zhongjian - - 2011
Luteolin (3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) and apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) are two common flavones and major bioactive components in Flos Chrysanthemi extract (FCE). Although FCE contains approximate luteolin (6.5%, w/w) and apigenin (5.4%, w/w), luteolin showed a much lower exposure than apigenin when FCE was orally administered to rats. The ...
Gunduz Ozgur - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to develop a new experimental pain model by adapting the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve to the exclusively sensory saphenous nerve in rats. Animals were divided into naïve, sham, and two experimental groups, in which two or four 4-0 ...
Lee Wayne Y W WY School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, - - 2012
This study investigated the effects of Danshen and its active ingredients on the protein expression and enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 in primary rat hepatocytes. The ethanolic extract of Danshen roots (containing mainly tanshinones) inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation (IC(50)=24.6 μg/ml) in primary rat hepatocytes while the water extract containing mainly salvianolic ...
Dandu Reddeppa Reddy - - 2011
A series of pyridazinone-phenethylamine derivatives with moderate to low nanomolar affinity for rat and human H(3)R are described. These analogs exhibited excellent selectivity and metabolic stability, with acceptable rat pharmacokinetic properties. In vivo, 7 and 11 demonstrated potent H(3)R functional antagonism in the rat dipsogenia model and robust wake-promoting activity ...
Fujimoto Tatsuhiko - - 2011
During our efforts to identify a series of potent, selective, orally active human Orexin-2 Receptor (OX2R) antagonists, we elucidated structure-activity relationship (SAR) on the 7-position of a benzoxazepine scaffold by utilizing Hammett σ(p) and Hansch-Fujita π value as aromatic substituent constants. The attempts led to the discovery of compound 1m, ...
Christensen T - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for depression in the search for novel disease targets and treatment regimens. Furthermore, the study includes a search for biomarkers involved in treatment resistance and stress resilience in order to investigate mechanisms underlying antidepressant drug refraction and stress-coping strategies. ...
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