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Nonkes Lourens J P - - 2012
Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT(-/-)) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting (EDSS), heavily depends on the medial prefrontal cortex. This region shows ...
Samotaeva Irina S - - 2012
The effects of metoprine, an inhibitor of histamine N-methyltransferase, on open field activity and brain regional histamine (HA) content were examined in rats with mixed, absence and audiogenic, epilepsy (WAG/Rij-AGS), rats with audiogenic epilepsy (Wistar-AGS) and in non-epileptic control rats (Wistar-nAGS). HA content was increased by metoprine (20mg/kg, i.p.) in ...
Valdés-Cruz Alejandro - - 2012
A neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) in rats has been commonly used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that NVHL resulted in dendritic retraction and spine loss in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In addition, the hippocampus and PFC are important structures in ...
Resende Leticia S - - 2012
The links between spatial behavior and hippocampal levels of synapsin I and phosphosynapsin I were assessed in normal rats and in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) rat model of Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome. Synapsin I tethers small synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, is involved in neurotransmitter release ...
Schwarting R K W RK Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany. - - 2012
In the present review, the phenomenon of ultrasonic vocalization in rats will be outlined, including the three classes of vocalizations, namely 40-kHz calls of pups, and 22- and 50-kHz calls of juvenile and adult rats, their general relevance to behavioral neuroscience, and their special relevance to research on anxiety, fear, ...
May Matthew - - 2012
Laboratory rats display pronounced defensive behaviors when confronted with a range of cat-derived stimuli, including collars worn by a cat, cloths rubbed on a cat, and cat fur. One possible explanation of this phenomenon (the "kairomone hypothesis") is that rats derive a survival advantage by eavesdropping on signals used by ...
Macedo Carlos Eduardo - - 2012
Rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) have been used to model certain features of schizophrenia because they display dopaminergic activity and behavioral alterations consistent with a dysfunctional prefrontal cortex after puberty. Microdialysis studies in normal rats demonstrated increased prefrontal dopamine release during the incentive phase of behavior in ...
Kashtelyan Vadim V Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, - - 2012
Adaptive behavior depends on the detection of potential errors so that ongoing behavior might be corrected. Here, we ask whether basolateral amygdala (ABL) might serve this function by examining activity in rats performing a task in which errors were induced by pitting two behavioral responses against each other. This response ...
Stilley Julie A W - - 2012
Ovulatory dysfunction occurs in women with endometriosis, yet the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that endometriotic lesions synthesize and secrete tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1 into the peritoneal cavity in humans and a rat model of endometriosis, where excess TIMP1 localizes in the ovarian theca in endometriosis and ...
Konoshenko Maria Yu - - 2012
Although numerous studies have demonstrated strong differences in behavioral, hormonal and neurobiological characteristics between male rats selected for elimination (tame) and enhancement (aggressive) of aggressiveness towards humans, few studies have examined changes in female behavior under this selection. The objective of the current work was to evaluate the effects of ...
Abelaira Helena M - - 2012
Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant and has an antiglutamatergic action, which may contribute to its antidepressant effects, since glutamate has been linked to depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of lamotrigine treatment in maternally deprived rats. To this aim, deprived and non-deprived ...
De Jesús-Burgos María M Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, UPR-MSC, PO Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936-5067, - - 2012
Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females than males. The underlying reasons for this gender difference are unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been linked to anxiety and it has been shown that interaction between estrogen receptors and mGluRs modulate sexual receptivity in rats. We investigated the role of mGluRs ...
Vetri Francesco - - 2012
We hypothesized that chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling in the brain and that this may be linked to protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation. Therefore, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and in nondiabetic (ND) controls, we monitored pial arteriole diameter ...
Quintanar-Stephano Andrés - - 2012
Objective: The role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a direct immune regulator has not yet been clarified, and more work is needed to assess its involvement in the immunoneuroendocrine network. In the present study, the effects of neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) and desmopressin (DP), an agonist of AVP, on acute ...
Rodríguez-Vilarrupla Aina - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a transcription factor activated by ligands that regulates genes related to vascular tone, oxidative stress, and fibrogenesis, pathways implicated in the development of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. This study aims at evaluating the effects of PPARα activation with fenofibrate on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, ...
Nakagaki Toshiaki T Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, - - 2012
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention in hypertension and heart failure. MRs in the central nervous system are thought to have an important role in blood pressure regulation. Thus, we examined whether activation of the MR pathway in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of the ...
Sheng Zhi-Feng - - 2012
Twenty-one 3.5-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: BTX group, in which each rat received a single intramuscular injection of 2 U of Clostridium botulinum toxin (BTX) in the quadriceps femoris muscle of the right hind limb; BTX + SR group, in which each rat received a ...
Alterman A - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have evaluated the effects of stress on functional and proteomic changes in submandibular saliva of rats. DESIGN: Male adult rats were divided in three groups: IMO (2h/day of immobilization for 7 days), LL (constant light during 20 days), C (unstressed controls submitted to 14h light-10h ...
Souza Ana Carolina C Pessoa de - - 2012
The pathophysiology of sepsis involves complex cytokine and inflammatory mediator networks, a mechanism to which NF-κB activation is central. Downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction. Erythropoietin (EPO) has emerged as a major tissue-protective cytokine in the setting of stress. We investigated the role of ...
Aslami H - - 2012
Background. Mechanical ventilation exaggerates pneumonia-associated pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of plasma-derived human antithrombin (AT), one of the natural inhibitors of coagulation, prevents ventilator-induced pulmonary coagulopathy, inflammation and bacterial outgrowth in a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats. Methods: Forty-eight hours after induction of S. pneumoniae pneumonia rats were ...
Cruz-Martín Alberto - - 2012
Rats can discriminate simple shapes visually, even if they are moved around, made smaller, or partially covered up; the strategy they use may help shed light on human brain mechanisms for discriminating complex features, such as faces.
Dos Santos Maísa P - - 2012
A low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days increased the lipid content in the carcass and adipose tissues of rats. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms of this lipid increase in the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) of these animals. The LPHC diet induced an approximately two- ...
Istrate Andrey N - - 2012
In an attempt to reveal the mechanism of rats' resistance to Alzheimer's disease, we determined the structure of the metal-binding domain 1-16 of rat β-amyloid (rat Aβ(1-16)) in solution in the absence and presence of zinc ions. A zinc-induced dimerization of the domain was detected. The zinc coordination site was ...
Huang Li-Ya - - 2012
Based on the function of chemokine fractalkine (FKN), acting as both adhesion and chemoattractant, FKN plays a role in acute inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of FKN mediated upregulation inflammation in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rat models. Western blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence demonstrated ...
Su Xiao - - 2012
The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway (CAP), which terminates in the spleen, attenuates postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) in rodents. Surgical patients with metabolic syndrome exhibit exaggerated and persistent PCD that is reproduced in postoperative rats selectively bred for easy fatigability and that contain all features of metabolic syndrome (low-capacity runners [LCRs]). We ...
Leke Renata - - 2012
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different rat models. However, these studies are controversial and the ...
Goswami Sonal - - 2012
Despite recent progress, the causes and pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood, partly because of ethical limitations inherent to human studies. One approach to circumvent this obstacle is to study PTSD in a valid animal model of the human syndrome. In one such model, extreme and long-lasting ...
McGill Trevor J - - 2012
To assess structural, functional, and visual behavioral relationships in mutant rhodopsin transgenic (Tg) rats and to determine whether early optokinetic tracking (OKT) visual experience, known to permanently elevate visual thresholds in normal rats, can enhance vision in rats with photoreceptor degeneration. Eight lines of pigmented Tg rats and RCS rats ...
Grant Robyn A - - 2012
Rodents, such as rats and mice, are strongly tactile animals who explore the environment with their long mobile facial whiskers, or macrovibrissae, and orient to explore objects further with their shorter, more densely packed, microvibrissae. Although whisker motion (whisking) has been extensively studied, less is known about how rodents orient ...
Masuo Yoshinori - - 2012
Mechanisms underlying behavioral abnormalities of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) disorder are still unknown. It is worth clarifying alterations in the brain of animal models for ADHD. The animals with neonatal treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and congenic wiggling (Wig) rats show motor hyperactivities during a period of darkness at ...
Weiss Shahaf - - 2012
We set out to solve two inherent problems in the study of animal spatial cognition (i) What is a "place"?; and (ii) whether behaviors that are not revealed as differing by one methodology could be revealed as different when analyzed using a different approach. We applied network analysis to scrutinize ...
Cerbai Francesca - - 2012
Ageing is accompanied by a decline in cognitive functions; along with a variety of neurobiological changes. The association between inflammation and ageing is based on complex molecular and cellular changes that we are only just beginning to understand. The hippocampus is one of the structures more closely related to electrophysiological, ...
Moskovitz Jackob - - 2011
The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi) exhibits a relatively long life span, which is attributed to an efficient antioxidant defense affording protection against accumulation of oxidative modifications of proteins. Methionine residues can be oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) and then enzymatically reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) system. ...
Golden Glen J GJ Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2012
Calcium intake depends on orosensory factors, implying the presence of a mechanism for calcium detection in the mouth. To better understand how information about oral calcium is conveyed to the brain, we examined the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) taste preferences and thresholds in male ...
do Carmo Jussara M - - 2012
We have previously demonstrated that leptin-mediated activation of the central nervous system (CNS) melanocortin system reduces appetite and increases sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP). In the present study we examined whether endogenous melanocortin system activation, independent of leptin's actions, contributes to the regulation of BP and metabolic functions in ...
Bishayee Anupam - - 2011
Black currant fruits containing high amounts of anthocyanins are known to possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously reported that anthocyanin-rich black currant skin extract (BCSE) inhibits diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis in rats although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Our present study investigates the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of ...
Kim Kyoung Soo - - 2011
This study examined in an arthritis animal model whether elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) is a more severe disease than younger onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced by injecting 5% kaolin/carrageenan into the left tibiotarsal ankles of 18-month-old and 4-week-old rats. Various parameters were measured to evaluate the arthritic progression ...
Zheng Jun - - 2011
Proteinuria is an important risk factor for the progression and prognosis of chronic kidney disease. Bufalin, a cardiotonic steroid, has been shown to posses a variety of biological activities including cardiotonic, anaesthetic and antineoplastic activities, and regulate the immune response. This study investigated the effects of bufalin against proteinuria and ...
Carroll Mairéad A MA Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA. mairead - - 2012
Activation of rat adenosine(2A) receptors (A(2A) R) dilates preglomerular microvessels, an effect mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). High salt (HS) intake increases epoxygenase activity and adenosine levels. A greater vasodilator response to a stable adenosine analog, 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA), was seen in kidneys obtained from HS-fed rats which was mediated by ...
Rodriguez-Perez Ana I - - 2012
There is a lack of consensus about the effects of the type of menopause (surgical or natural) and of oestrogen replacement therapy on Parkinson's disease. The effects of the timing of replacement therapy and the female's age may explain the observed differences in such effects. However, the mechanisms involved are ...
Wu Sheng-Ying - - 2012
Aldosterone (Aldo) is an important active hormone in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the role of endogenous Aldo in aortic calcification in rats. We induced arterial calcification in rats by intramuscular administration ...
Xie Guanhua G Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, University of Southern California Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, California 90033, - - 2012
Capillarization, characterized by loss of differentiation of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), precedes the onset of hepatic fibrosis. We investigated whether restoration of LSEC differentiation would normalize crosstalk with activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and thereby promote quiescence of HSC and regression of fibrosis. Rat LSECs were cultured with inhibitors ...
Morikawa Toshio - - 2011
A methanol extract of the bark of Shorea roxburghii (Dipterocarpaceae) was found to inhibit plasma glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded mice. From the extract, three new 3-ethyl-4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins, 1'S-dihydrophayomphenol A(2) (1) and phayomphenols B(1) (2) and B(2) (3), were isolated together with 24 known compounds including 20 stilbenoids and oligostilbenoids. The structures ...
Qiu Wen - - 2012
The proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N), resembling human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN), have been studied for many years, but the mechanisms, especially the role of signalling pathway activation and its regulation in GMCs triggered by sublytic C5b-9 complexes in ...
Homma Tsuyoshi - - 2012
Although chronic cardiac dysfunction is known to progressively exacerbate renal injury, a condition known as type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the mechanism responsible is largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of renal injury in rats with both unilateral nephrectomy (NX) and surgically induced myocardial infarction ...
Joseph Elizabeth K EK Department of Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0440, - - 2012
While the onset of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by endothelin-1 was delayed in female rats, compared to males, the duration was much longer. Given that the repeated test stimulus used to assess nociceptive threshold enhances hyperalgesia, a phenomenon we have referred to as stimulus-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia, we also evaluated for ...
Zeng Lihua - - 2011
Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to EMP irradiation of 100 kV/m peak-to-peak e-field intensity and different numbers of pulses. Rat sperm samples were prepared for analysis of sperm qualities; Testes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and serum hormone concentrations were examined by radioimmunoassay; Enzymatic activities of Total-superoxide dismutase(T-SOD) and ...
Fausther Michel - - 2012
Ectonucleotidases modulate purinergic signaling by hydrolyzing ATP to adenosine. Here we characterized the impact of the cellular distribution of hepatic ectonucleotidases, namely nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)1/CD39, NTPDase2/CD39L1, NTPDase8, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, and of their specific biochemical properties, on the levels of P1 and P2 receptor agonists, with an emphasis on adenosine-producing ...
Abramova A Yu - - 2011
The relationships between open field behavior, initial nociceptive thresholds, and immunoreactivity assessed according to the development of hyperthermia triggered by LPS pyrogenal were examined in Wistar rats. Behaviorally active animals demonstrated higher nociceptive thresholds and greater immunoreactivity in comparison with passive rats.
Stark Rebecca - - 2011
Prior studies demonstrated the feasibility of lengthening intestinal segments with mechanical force, but no previous studies have restored the lengthened segment back into intestinal continuity. A 1-cm segment of isolated rat jejunum was lengthened using a Nitinol spring. After lengthening, this segment was restored into intestinal continuity via a transection ...
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