Search Results
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Smriga M - - 2002
Taste acceptance involves both innate and acquired components. We observed an increased acceptance of salty and sweet solutions in adult rats whose tongues had been exposed to an NaCl-enriched milk formula during one day of early postnatal development. This behavioral effect was associated with changes in the norepinephrine system of ...
Rabin Bernard M - - 2002
On long-duration trips outside of the magnetosphere, astronauts will be exposed to protons and to heavy particles which can affect their performance of required tasks. It is essential to determine the range of behaviors that might be affected by exposure to these types of radiation in order to understand the ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2002
Adult female offspring of dams exposed to gestational stress (prenatal stress, PNS) may show altered reproductive behavior, exploration in novel environments, and/or social interactions than do their non-PNS counterparts. These behavioral differences may be more readily observed in a seminatural, paced mating paradigm, in which females have greater control of ...
Gonzalez Andrea - - 2002
This study investigated the effects of early-rearing experiences on responsiveness to pups and on the pattern of c-fos activation in the brain of juvenile female rats. From Days 4 to 20, littermate females were reared with their mothers (MR) or artificially (AR). AR rats received minimal licking-like tactile stimulation (AR-min) ...
Ferreira A - - 2002
Concomitant to the expression of maternal behavior, the lactating female develops anxiolysis in the elevated plus maze test, aggression towards intruders and reduced fear in response to a sudden auditory stimulus. This study aims to determine if these behavioral changes are associated with maternal behavior independently of the endocrine status ...
Ho Ying-Jui - - 2002
Previous work has shown that systematic individual differences between male Wistar rats can be detected in tasks like the elevated plus-maze, or the open field. Here, we investigated whether individual profiles of anxiety, as measured with the plus-maze, may predict behavioral response profiles in other tasks where anxiety, aversion, or ...
Pawlak Cornelius R - - 2002
Our previous work has shown that normal male wistar rats can differ systematically with respect to rearing activity in a novel open field: animals with high rearing activity (HRA rats) differed from those with low rearing activity (LRA rats) in dopaminergic and cholinergic brain activity, as well as in their ...
Périer Céline - - 2002
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in basal ganglia functions and has been shown to be hyperactive in parkinsonian syndromes. The zona incerta (ZI), located dorsally to the STN, is also reported to be overactive after nigrostriatal denervation. In this study, we examined the behavioral consequences of an ...
Fuji Jun-Ichiro - - 2002
A male rat showing intermittent circling behavior was discovered among the Jcl:Wistar rats in our laboratories, and among its backcross offspring individuals showing the same behavior were found. The abnormalities in these animals were characterized by intermittent circling behavior (walking and/or running in circles) and head tossing with the neck ...
Jones Juli E - - 2002
Acute food deprivation or chronic food restriction suppresses reproduction in female mammals. Although a link between undernutrition and ovarian function is well established in rats, a similar link with reproductive behavior in this species is yet to be described. Therefore, we compared the display of estrous behaviors induced by exogenous ...
Landgraf Rainer - - 2002
In addition to their robust difference in trait anxiety, as illustrated by a variety of behavioral tests, HAB and LAB rats differ in their stress coping strategies, the former being more susceptible and vulnerable to stressor exposure and preferring more passive strategies. HAB rats of either gender show signs of ...
Miller Cheryl C - - 2002
Intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to reduce anxiety-like effects in rodents and also profoundly alter feeding. The area postrema-lesioned (APX) rat model of food motivated behavior overconsumes palatable foods and expresses significantly higher levels of NPY in the hypothalamus than sham-lesioned control rats. For this reason, ...
Ellenbroek Bart A - - 2002
Many years ago we found a bimodal distribution of a number of different behaviors in our regular outbred Wistar stock. This was observed in the response to novelty, the response in a resident-intruder test as well as in the stereotypy response to the dopamine agonist apomorphine. On the basis of ...
Overstreet David H - - 2002
The present review will describe the formation of two pharmacologically selected lines of rats, their behavioral phenotypes, their responses to select drugs, their possible neurochemical correlates, and their use to detect the therapeutic potential of antidepressant drugs. The Flinders Line rats were established at Flinders University in Australia by selectively ...
Farrell William J - - 2002
Mother rats (Rattus norvegicus; 6 to 8 days postpartum) approach and maintain proximal orientation to a pup that is emitting ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) far more than do virgin females (W. J. Farrell & J. R. Alberts, 2002). We used a playback regimen to examine the roles of acoustic and nonacoustic ...
Timberlake William - - 2002
The general hypothesis underlying this paper is that behavior in traditional paradigms of laboratory learning is based on niche-related mechanisms. The specific hypothesis is that the behavior of Norway rats in laboratory mazes is based on niche-related mechanisms related to trail following and navigating. I evaluate seven types of evidence ...
McNaught Kevin St P - - 2002
Structural and functional defects in 26/20S proteasomes occur in the substantia nigra pars compacta and may underlie protein accumulation, Lewy body formation and dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. We therefore determined the pathogenicity of proteasomal impairment following stereotaxic unilateral infusion of lactacystin, a selective proteasome inhibitor, into the substantia ...
Hsuchou Hung - - 2002
Muricidal behavior in rats is composed of two main components, attacking and killing performance. Since a large number of mice could be killed by rats during behavioral experiments, research has been limited in the past decade possibly because of ethical considerations. In preliminary studies, we found that the rat incisors ...
Fernández-Teruel A - - 2002
The Roman high- and low-avoidance (RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh) rat lines represent, respectively, low emotional/anxious and high novelty seeker vs. high emotional/anxious and low novelty seeker profiles. In the present study, RLA/Verh and RHA/Verh rats, either reared in pairs from weaning (untreated) or reared in groups of 8-10 in an enriched ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2002
Prenatal stress (PNS) alters behavior of adult offspring in novel environments or in social interactions; variable effects of PNS on female reproductive behavior have been reported. Effects of exposure to restraint and lights for 45 min/day on Gestational Days 14-20 were examined on the motor and socio-sexual behavior of adult ...
Guarraci Fay A - - 2002
The present study investigated the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in paced mating behavior in female rats. A sexually receptive female rat will approach and withdraw from a sexually active male, thereby controlling the timing of the receipt of sexual stimulation (e.g., mounts, intromissions, ejaculations). In this study, ibotenic ...
Von Frijtag J C - - 2002
In the present study, the consequences of individual rearing during the play period on adult responses to aggression were investigated in a complex social setting. In a group of either socially or individually reared rats, an aggressor was repeatedly introduced. Separate control groups of individually and socially reared rats were ...
Avaliani T V - - 2002
Unilateral trauma to the sensorimotor cortex in ambidextrous maternal female rats decreased the resistance of their offspring, as indicated by a reduction in the functional activity of natural killer cells. Offspring rats showed T-cell immunodeficiency regardless of the lateralization of the trauma in their mothers; this was more severe after ...
Molina-Hernandez Miguel - - 2002
In a conflict test based on the rat's choice between an immediate punished reinforcer or a delayed nonpunished reinforcer, anxiolytic drugs increase the number of immediate punished reinforcers. In this study, two hypotheses were tested: first, during late proestrus or during midpregnancy, female rats will display an elevated amount of ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2002
The purpose of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that attenuating the endogenous increase of the 5alpha-reduced progesterone metabolite 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) in the hippocampus will alter anxiety and depression behavior of proestrous rats. In Experiment 1, anxiety (open field) and depression (forced swim test) behavior was compared of rats ...
Raber Pnina - - 2002
When the degree of genetic determination of a trait (i.e. its heritability) is high, one tends to presume that environmental factors will not modify its expression by much. Contrary to this expectation, we show here in rats that a psychosocial-behavioral variable, the identity of cagemates, can largely over-ride genetic predisposition ...
Sederholm F - - 2002
Intraventricular infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY) decreases the amount female rats ingest during intraoral infusion (consummatory behavior) of a 1-M solution of sucrose at a rate of 0.5 ml/min and simultaneously increases the number of times the rats visit a bottle filled with sucrose (appetitive behavior). In this study, we ...
Lau C E - - 2002
We characterized the effects of i.v. and s.c. zolpidem (1-8 mg/kg) under a differential reinforcement of low-rate schedule (i.e. DRL 45 s) in 3-hour sessions. Both behavioral and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses were used with the intent to compare the effects of zolpidem with those of benzodiazepines reported previously under the same ...
Hofer Myron A - - 2002
The ultrasonic vocalization (USV), or isolation calling response, of infant rats and mice has been studied as a measure of the intensity of an aversive affective state and as an early communicative behavior between pup and mother. The four protocols described in this unit are for the basic isolation testing ...
Graziano A - - 2002
By combining an observational spatial learning paradigm with a cerebellar lesion that blocks the acquisition of new spatial strategies, it is possible to separate a complex spatial behavior into its fundamental units to study which relationships among units have to be maintained so that the entire behavior might be acquired. ...
Wallace Douglas G - - 2002
A rat's proclivity to explore a novel environment presents a behaviorally rich paradigm to investigate the role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation. Here we describe a novel technique of behavioral analysis that is derived from a single exploratory trip. An exploratory trip was defined as a rat's departure from ...
Cook Charles D - - 2002
RATIONALE: Gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous chemical found in the human brain that when administered systemically readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and produces behavioral effects. Some previously reported observations, including reports of specific antagonism by NCS382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]-benzocycloheptene-5- ol-4-ylidene acetic acid), support the hypothesis that GHB is a neurotransmitter with its ...
Zangen A - - 2002
Involvement of both the serotonergic and the endogenous opioid systems in the onset of depressive behavior has been suggested. Previously we showed that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) facilitates beta-endorphin release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Herein, the microdialysis method was used to assess in vivo the effects of serotonin on beta-endorphin release ...
Brown Lucy L - - 2002
The striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum are clearly identified by their neurochemical expression patterns and anatomical connections. To determine whether these compartments are distinguishable functionally, we used [14C]deoxyglucose metabolic mapping in the rat and tested whether neutral behavioral states (free movement, gentle restraint, and focal tactile stimulation under ...
Lindblom N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The presently available pharmaceutical aids in smoking cessation possess a rather limited effectiveness. Therefore, we have synthesized a series of immunoconjugates that stimulate the induction of antibodies which may bind nicotine in the blood, thereby preventing it from passing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the reinforcing action of nicotine in ...
Nary Filho Hugo - - 2002
The authors evaluated the biocompatibility of three suture materials, polyglecaprone 25, polyglactin 910 and polytetrafluorethylene, implanted into subcutaneous tissue in the dorsal region of 20 Wistar albinus rats. After periods of 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and the specimens were processed for routine histotechnical analysis ...
Díaz-Romero Marilú - - 2002
This study analysed the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of bombesin (BN) at doses of 0.001, 0.005, 0.1 and 1.0 microg/2 microl on yawning, grooming and other behavioral correlates in two inbred strains of male rats. These were selected for high-yawning (HY) and low-yawning (LY) frequency, a difference that correlates ...
Lindemann S - - 2001
Circling, turning, rotating, spinning, wheeling, and cursive hyperkinesia are all synonymous terms used to describe the active movement of an animal in a circular direction. Circling behavior can be evoked by unilateral electrical and chemical stimulation or lesions of various brain sites, but can also occur after systemic drug administration ...
Brudzynski S M - - 2001
The present review is focused on the neural mechanisms and acoustic features of 22kHz alarm calls emitted by adult rats as a defensive measure in numerous behavioral situations. The alarm calls are initiated by activity of the cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and a subsequent release of ...
Michel G F - - 2001
Hofer, Brunelli, Shair, & Masmela (2001) provide valuable information about the effects of selective breeding on rat-pup behaviors and physiology. Although the design and statistical analytic techniques employed are typical of those used to evaluate behavioral development in animals, I offer several suggestions about how to evaluate the influence of ...
Dominguez J M - - 2001
Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA ...
Drai D - - 2001
Detailed studies of rat exploratory behavior reveal that it consists of typical behavior patterns having a distinct structure. Recently we have developed interactive software that uses as input the automatically digitized time-series of the animal's location for the visualization, analysis, capturing and quantification of these patterns. We use this software ...
Maren S - - 2001
Considerable evidence indicates an important role for amygdaloid nuclei in both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recent reports from my laboratory have focused on the impact of neurotoxic lesions of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) on conditional freezing behavior in rats. In these studies, I ...
Jenkins J A - - 2001
Although the etiology of clinical depression is unknown, women are more likely to suffer from major depressive disorder than men. In addition, in some women, there is a clear association between depression and specific phases of the menstrual cycle. Surprisingly little research has examined gender differences and the influences of ...
Whishaw I Q - - 2001
The emergence of the laboratory mouse as a favored species for genetic research has posed a number of problems for scientists interested in the reflection of genetic influences in mouse behavior. It is commonly thought that rat behavior, which has been studied more extensively than mouse behavior, could be easily ...
Peretto P - - 2001
The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is a sexually dimorphic structure of the vomeronasal system, which plays a role in the control of sexual behaviors. In adult rats, we have demonstrated previously that the migrating neuroblasts of the subependymal layer (SEL) directed to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) also reach the ...
Boccia M L - - 2001
We compared the effects of daily long (3 h), brief (15 min) or no maternal separation (LMS, BMS, NMS) on postnatal days 2-14 on maternal behavior, aggression and anxiety levels during lactation in adulthood. Animals subjected to LMS received less maternal grooming than animals subjected to BMS. Maternal behaviors, including ...
Kask A - - 2001
The rat social interaction (SI) test is used widely to measure anxiety-like behavior, yet the influence of various factors such as testing time, pre-experimental manipulations (transport stress), and testing of animals from the same cage (cohort removal, CR) on SI has not been systematically studied. We measured SI behavior of ...
Pliakas A M AM Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, - - 2001
Drugs of abuse regulate the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in striatal regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). To explore how regulation of CREB in the NAc affects behavior, we used herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to elevate CREB expression in this region or to overexpress a dominant-negative ...
Hédou G - - 2001
The Porsolt forced swim test (FST) is a commonly used paradigm to evaluate antidepressant activity of drugs. This test is based on visual measurement of the rat's floating time (FT) in a tank filled with water. Here, we present an automated, accurate and faster method for estimating FT by the ...
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