Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1320
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Farook J M - - 2004
This study investigated the behavioral mechanisms underlying the anxiogenic, or anxiolytic mediated effects of CCK(2) receptor mediated agonist (CCK-4) and antagonist drugs (LY225910, LY288513, CR2945) in PVG hooded and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the elevated plus maze test apparatus. In addition, the effects of a CCK(1) antagonist (CR1409) were investigated ...
Takeda Atsushi - - 2004
On the basis of the evidence that zinc is released from glutamatergic neuron terminals in the amygdala, the effect of chelation of amygdalar extracellular zinc on glutamate release from the neuron terminals was studied by using in vivo microdialysis. When the amygdala was perfused with 100 microM CaEDTA to chelate ...
Jutkiewicz Emily M - - 2004
The diarylpiperazine delta-opioid agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] produces convulsions, antidepressant-like effects, and locomotor stimulation in rats. The present study compared the behavioral effects in Sprague-Dawley rats of SNC80 with its two derivatives, SNC86 [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and SNC162 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-phenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide], which differ by one functional group located in the 3-position of the benzylic ring. ...
Lovic Vedran - - 2004
Mammalian nervous system is plastic, particularly during early stages of development. Rat neonates that are reared without mothers, grow up to show deficient maternal behavior towards their own offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess whether maternal behavior deficits, seen in artificially-reared (AR) female rats, are associated with ...
Yan Li L Bioeng. Graduate Program, California Univ., San Francisco, CA, - - 2004
We have built a collection of flexible, hepatomimetic, in silico components. Some are agent-based. We assemble them into devices that mimic aspects of anatomic structures and the behaviors of hepatic lobules (the primary functional unit of the liver) along with aspects of liver function. We validate against outflow profiles for ...
Kiyokawa Yasushi - - 2004
Our previous study suggested that the alarm pheromones in rats could be divided into at least two functionally different categories: one evoking autonomic responses and the other evoking behavioral responses, and the present study was conducted to test this hypothesis. Four regions of the body surface, i.e. the whisker pad, ...
Homberg J R - - 2004
Numerous clinical studies have indicated that lifetime anxiety is highly prevalent in drug addicts. In the treatment of drug abuse, dually diagnosed drug addicts may benefit from pharmacological intervention strategies that alleviate the psychiatric symptomatology. We have previously shown that rats with different coping strategies in a stressful environment show ...
Saha S N - - 2004
The present study was carried out in five cats which did not attack the rats spontaneously. Predatory attack on an anaesthetized rat was elicited by electrical stimulation of extreme lateral regions of hypothalamus. These sites were stimulated at a current strength from 300-700 microa to evoke a predatory attack on ...
Hubbard D T - - 2004
Laboratory rats show a range of defensive behaviors, including freezing, avoidance, and risk assessment upon exposure to cat odor, an unconditioned but highly effective threat stimulus. This study examined defensive behaviors, and the rapid conditioning to context plus cue, of these behaviors, in 18-, 26-, and 38-day-old male and female ...
Guilhermano Luiz G - - 2004
There are controversial results of clinical trials on the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum, while several preclinical studies describe antidepressant properties for Hypericum extracts. This study evaluates the antidepressant effect of two commercially available hydroalcoholic extracts of H. perforatum standardized to contain 0.3% hypericin in comparison to imipramine (IMI), in ...
Levshina I P - - 2004
This report demonstrates the possibility of interpreting rat behavior in situations associated with the choice between "safe" locations in a Y maze using pain reinforcement on the basis of summation rules for complex amplitude probabilities characterizing the prognostic assessment by the rat that it will achieve relative safety. Functionally incomplete ...
Stone Eric A - - 2003
Brain alpha1-adrenoceptors have been shown to be essential for motor activity and movement in mice using intraventricular injection of alpha1-antagonists. To facilitate subsequent neuroanatomical mapping of these receptors, the present study was undertaken to replicate these effects in the rat. Rats were administered the alpha1-antagonist, terazosin, in the absence and ...
Markova E V - - 2003
Comparative analysis of the state of the thymus, activity of cell component of the immune system, and open field behavior of Wistar and OXYS rats showed early involution of the thymus in OXYS rats. By morphological picture this involution corresponded to accidental involution and was paralleled by low level of ...
Siviy Stephen M - - 2003
The relative playfulness of inbred Lewis and Fischer-344 rats was characterized. Fischer rats were consistently less playful than Lewis rats, with rats of this strain less likely to initiate playful interactions with either responsive or unresponsive partners and also less likely to respond playfully when playful solicitations were directed to ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2003
Whether prenatal stress (PNS) and gonadal hormones may influence depressive behavior of rats in the forced swim test was investigated. In Experiment I, adult diestrous female rats had increased immobility, which is indicative of depression, but did not show any significant difference in the duration of struggling compared to intact ...
Ramos André - - 2003
We have recently identified, using two inbred rat strains (Lewis and SHR), the first two loci for an emotionality-related behavior in rats (locomotion in the central area of the open field test). Aiming to develop an alternative genetic model that will help to corroborate the existence of these loci and ...
Myers Karyn - - 2004
RATIONALE: Previous results indicate that peripheral administration of secretin leads to robust Fos protein expression in the central nucleus of the rat amygdala. The implications of this observation on rat brain function, if any, remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of systemic secretin administration on the expression of fear-potentiated ...
Primeaux Stefany D - - 2003
The syndrome of behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical changes caused by ablation of the olfactory bulbs (OBX) in rats serves as a reliable and well-validated model of depression. Previous experiments have demonstrated that OBX leads to increased expression of the preproenkephalin (ENK) gene in the olfactory tubercle (OT) portion of the ...
Steffens Marc - - 2003
It has been suggested that the endocannabinoid anandamide is released from central neurons upon depolarization of the cell membrane. In order to determine whether anandamide levels were increased after K(+) depolarization of fresh human and rat brain slices, we developed a rapid and sensitive method for the isolation and quantitation ...
Markova E V - - 2003
The state of the thymus, activity of cell-mediated immunity, and open field behavior were compared in Wistar and OXYS rats (premature aging). Early involution of the thymus was revealed in OXYS rats, which by the type of morphological changes corresponded to accidental involution and was associated with low level of ...
Sukhotina Irina A - - 2003
In humans and laboratory animals, drug withdrawal often is associated with depression-like behaviors. In the present study, rats had unlimited free-choice access to water and a saccharin-containing solution before being subjected to repeated episodes of saccharin deprivation. Saccharin deprivation (1) reduced immobility time in the forced swim test, (2) increased ...
Gorenkova N A - - 2003
In experiments on rats we studied the effects of antioxidant and membrane-protecting agent mexidol and neuropeptides delta sleep-inducing peptide and oxytocin administered during resuscitation after 12-min clinical death. Individual and combination treatment with these substances accelerated recovery of the neurological status and partially or completely corrected behavioral disorders associated with ...
Whitaker S - - 2003
Three experiments studied timing in rats on 2-valued mixed-fixed-interval schedules, with equally probable components, Fixed-Interval S and Fixed-Interval L (FI S and FI L, respectively). When the L:S ratio was greater than 4, 2 distinct response peaks appeared close to FI S and FI L, and data could be well ...
Venhuis Bastiaan J - - 2003
A series of racemic and enantiomerically pure oxime derivatives of the potential anti-Parkinson prodrug 6-(N,N-di-n-propylamino)-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one (1) were synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The oximes induced rotational behavior in the Ungerstedt rat rotation model for Parkinson's disease after oral administration. Especially the unsubstituted oxime ((-)-3) and the acetyl-oxime ((-)-10) induced a pronounced ...
Kabbaj M - - 2003
Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in physiological regulation of the limbic-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis, such that F344 rats exhibit greater LHPA axis responses to a variety of stimuli. Furthermore, LHPA axis activity has been implicated in the development of sensitization to abused drugs, and F344 rats exhibit greater ...
Todorović Cedomir - - 2003
We investigated the relationship between immunological and behavioral changes during ageing in Dark Agouti female rats. Results showed that ageing was associated with decreased exploratory behavior and increased emotionality (open field test) and decreased pain perception (writhing assay), but not with altered depression-like behavior (forced swim test). The observed behavioral ...
Ricceri Laura - - 2003
The immunotoxin 192 IgG saporin (192 IgG-sap) offers a valuable tool to investigate the role of the developing basal forebrain cholinergic system in modulating behavioral functions in developing, as well as adult rats. After neonatal 192 IgG-sap lesions, rats display reduced ultrasonic vocalizations as neonates, deficits in passive avoidance learning ...
Bushnell Philip J. - - 2003
Animal models of human cognitive processes are essential for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of these processes and for developing therapies for intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases. A discrete-trial signal detection task was developed for assessing sustained attention in rats; a previous study showed that rats perform as predicted from the human ...
Champagne Frances A - - 2003
Variations in maternal care have been widely considered as a critical influence in development. In the rat, variations in maternal behavior, particularly in licking/grooming, regulate the development of endocrine, emotional and cognitive responses to stress. These studies form the basis of a potentially useful model for the study of maternal ...
MacPhail R C - - 2003
Strain differences represent an overlooked variable that may play an important role in neurotoxic outcomes that can impact regulatory decision making. Here, we examined the strain-dependent effects of trimethyltin (TMT), a compound used as a positive control for behavioral and neurochemical assessments of neurotoxicity. Adult male Long-Evans (LE) and Fischer ...
Volchegorskii I A - - 2003
Four sessions of immobilization stress induced anxiogenic behavioral disorders in rats, which were accompanied by decreases in glucocorticoid sensitivity, increases in MAO-B activity in brain tissue, increases in tolerance to glucose loading, and decreases in resistance to acute hypoxia. Alloxan diabetes was accompanied by a decrease in behavioral activity of ...
Manaf P - - 2003
The performance of three closely related species of spiny rats was compared in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field tests. Laboratory rats were also evaluated. It was hypothesized that such tests should reveal differences in anxiety and exploratory profile among the wild species, which differ with respect to habitat, ...
Arakawa Hiroyuki - - 2003
The effects of the duration of isolation and age during isolation on open-field behavior in rats were examined. An inner wall divided the floor of the field into two areas, a peripheral alley and the center square, and the subjects' behavior in each area was measured. An increase in the ...
Salum Cristiane - - 2003
Three groups of rats were tested in different types of elevated plus-mazes, a normal one (two closed and two open arms), a totally closed one (four closed arms) and a totally open (four open arms). Closed arms were surrounded by 40-cm high wooden walls and open arms were surrounded by ...
Whishaw Ian Q - - 2003
The rotorod test, in which animals walk on a rotating drum, is widely used to assess motor status in laboratory rodents. Performance is measured by the duration that an animal stays up on the drum as a function of drum speed. Here we report that the task provides a rich ...
McBride Jodi L - - 2003
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine (CAG) tract at the IT15 locus on chromosome 4. These excessive repeats lead to the degeneration of striatal and cortical neurons resulting in a devastating cognitive, psychiatric, and motor disorder for which no treatments are available. Neurotrophic ...
Wintink Amanda J - - 2003
Modeling fear in animals is a critical approach for identifying the neural mechanisms involved in human disorders such as generalized anxiety and panic. Amygdala kindling has proven useful in this regard because it produces dramatic increases in fearful behavior. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the behavioral effects ...
Martín Sonsoles - - 2003
Previously, we have shown that Lewis (LEW) rats acquire faster than Fischer 344 (F344) rats operant food- and morphine-reinforced tasks under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. The first purpose of the present work has been to study if differences in operant responding behavior may participate in the reported differences in morphine ...
Leggio Benedetta B Department of Neuroscience, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 4, 53100 Siena, - - 2003
Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and non-preferring (sNP) rats were studied to ascertain whether some behavioral and/or neurochemical traits, beyond ethanol preference, differentiated the two lines. Spontaneous reactivity of Wistar, sP and sNP rats to aversive or pleasurable stimuli was examined in an avoidance test, an elevated plus maze test, and in ...
Clark Ann S - - 2003
ICI 182,780 (ICI) is a pure antiestrogen that when administered systemically does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thus its actions are limited to the periphery. Four experiments were conducted to test the effects of ICI on the display of sexual behaviors in ovariectomized rats. Experiment 1 examined the effects of ...
Eguibar José R - - 2003
We used SKF 38393 and quinpirole for determining whether activation of D(1) and D(2) receptors, respectively, is involved in behaviors of rats selectively bred for high or low rates of yawning. After injection of SKF 38393, yawning diminished more markedly in high-yawning (HY) than in low-yawning (LY) rats, whereas this ...
Mizuma Hiroshi - - 2003
To clarify the therapeutic effects of 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6R-BH(4)) on the abnormal behaviors induced by neonatal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT, 100 microg; i.c.v.) treatment in immature rats, 6R-BH(4) (10-40 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally from 22nd to 28th days or only once on the 28th day. The locomotion activities decreased dramatically in 5,7-DHT-treated rats ...
Jentsch J David - - 2003
Brattleboro rats are a variety of the outbred Long-Evans strain that possess a single nucleotide deletion in the second exon of the arginine vasopressin gene, resulting in the synthesis of an altered protein that does not enter the normal secretory pathway. Rats heterozygous (di/+) for the deletion have a partial ...
Sharma S - - 2003
In the present experimental paradigm, we examine the effect of L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) co-administration with haloperidol on vacuous chewing movements (VCM) in rats-a model of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans. We examined the dose dependent induction of VCM through both injected and orally administered PLG (MIF-1). Our results show significant levels ...
Hayes Robert J - - 2003
RATIONALE: The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLC) is part of a neural circuit that is activated in humans during cocaine craving elicited by exposure to drug-related environmental cues. In animals, the BLC is necessary for cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine-associated cues. It has not been determined whether BLC activation ...
Vajnerová O - - 2003
In rats, the basic licking rhythm is generated by the central pattern generator located in the brainstem. Nevertheless, the licking frequency can be regulated between about 7.5 and 4 Hz by changing the drinking conditions. If these conditions are kept constant, the licking frequency can be influenced only to a ...
Leggett R W - - 2003
Military uses of depleted uranium (DU) munitions have resulted in casualties with embedded DU fragments. Assessment of radiological or chemical health risks from these fragments requires a model relating urinary U to the rate of migration of U from the fragments, and its accumulation in systemic tissues. A detailed biokinetic ...
Breuer M - - 2003
The sex pheromone of Thaumetopoea processionea has recently been described as a mixture of different isomers with (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate as the major active compound. First trials have shown that traps baited with this compound attract male moths in the field. In the present paper we evaluate the use of pheromone ...
Yang Z R - - 2003
The hemorheological behavior pre- and post-freezing and tissue survival area (TSA) of frostbitten hind feet in cold-acclimated rats (group CA) and the control (group C) were observed in order to go further into the mechanism of cold acclimation. The results indicated that blood viscosity and RBC aggregation tendency were lowered ...
Matsuoka Masato - - 2002
The expression of activity-related cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc, could be useful as a marker for neuronal activity. We investigated Arc-immunoreactivity in both the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of adult male rats in response to mating or exposure to female pheromones. Mating behavior strongly enhanced the ...
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