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Results 451 - 500 of 1320
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Pedrycz Agnieszka - - 2005
The purpose of the study was ultrastructural evaluation of long-lasting activity of an antibiotic from anthracycline group-adriamycin (ADR), on fetal kidneys from rat females which 4 weeks before fertilization were given a single dose of adriamycin intraperitoneally. The results showed the damage of glomerular filtration barrier (fusion of podocytes' foot ...
Voigt Jörg-Peter - - 2005
The transgenic rat TGR(ASrAOGEN)680, characterized by a transgene-producing antisense RNA against angiotensinogen in the brain, provides an opportunity to study the behavioral effects of angiotensin. While exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark box, TGR(ASrAOGEN)680 rats showed more signs of anxiety compared to parental Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In ...
Fecho Karamarie - - 2005
Individual differences in pain sensitivity are believed to reflect the interplay of many factors, including genetics. Inbred rat strains can be used to study the impact of genetic factors on pain sensitivity. Inbred Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (FIS) rat strains display profound and contrasting alterations in neuroendocrine, immunological and ...
Diergaarde Leontien - - 2005
In the present study, rats received amygdala lesions (AMX) on either Postnatal Day 7 (PD 7; immature brain) or PD 21 (almost mature brain), and adult social activity was studied after short-term isolation housing. Sham-operated rats demonstrated increased following and approaching behavior after 7 days of isolation compared with after ...
Zamudio Sergio - - 2005
Here we have investigated whether differences in levels of dopamine D1-like, D2-like receptors, dopamine D3 receptors, and dopamine transporter could be related to behaviors such as immobility response and locomotion between Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats. The levels of the dopamine receptors and transporter were measured by autoradiographic study at ...
Torras-Garcia Meritxell M Institut de Neurociències, Dept. Psicobiologia i Metodologia de les Ciències de la Salut, Facultat de Psicologia, Edifici B, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, - - 2005
The present experiment investigated the effects of aging on emotional behavior, without concomitant influences from any previous behavioral manipulation apart from weighing the rats. Anxiety-related behaviors were measured in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Performance in the open field (OF) was also assessed to control for any effect of aging on ...
Leo Gregory C - - 2005
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were used to study whether there are differences in the urine content between behaviorally distinct groups of rats: dominant and submissive. The dominant-submissive relationships (DSRs) were established in rat pairs competing for access to the feeder filled with sweetened milk. Dominant rats spend significantly longer ...
Skov-Rackette Shannon I - - 2005
Six experiments using habituation of exploratory behavior tested whether disoriented rats foraging in a large arena encode the shapes of arrays of objects. Rats did not respond to changes in position of a single object, but they responded to a change in object color and to a change in position ...
Chartrel Nicolas - - 2005
In the present study, we report the identification, in the frog brain, of a novel neuropeptide, termed 26RFa, that belongs to the RFamide peptide family. The cDNAs encoding the precursors for 26RFa have been characterized in human and rats. In rats, prepro-26RFa mRNA is expressed exclusively in two hypothalamic nuclei ...
Stark Charles Patrick - - 2005
Researchers have found that stimulation of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) in male rats increases appetitive copulatory behavior directed toward an anestrous female but suppresses copulation with an estrous female (C. P. Stark et al., 1998). The objective in the present study was to determine if the behavioral ...
Velísek Libor - - 2005
Repetitive behaviors (such as circling) are one of the defining features of autism. The substantia nigra (SN) is involved in circling. We used unilateral SN pars reticulata (SNR) infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol to induce circling and deoxyglucose autoradiography mapping in adult and postnatal day (PN) 15 male and ...
de Paula Hugo Medeiros Garrido - - 2005
It is reported in the literature that nearly 20% of rats are susceptible to displays of wild running (WR) behavior when submitted to high intensity acoustic stimulation. Some characteristics of WR suggest that it can be viewed as a panic-like reaction. This work aimed to test whether WR-sensitive rats show ...
Song Cai - - 2005
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. The olfactory system in the rat forms a part of the limbic region in which the amygdala and hippocampus contribute to the emotional ...
Brudzynski Stefan M - - 2005
Ultrasonic calls used by rats during intraspecies communication have acoustic features, which can be selectively recognized by recipients, and possess a quantitative dimension reflecting the magnitude of the sender's response. This paper reviews basic principles of animal communication with particular attention to rat calls, and the features of ultrasonic calls, ...
Neumann I D - - 2005
We studied interactions of genetic and environmental factors shaping adult emotionality and stress coping, and tested the hypothesis that repeated periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) exerts differential effects on adult behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responsiveness in dependence on the genetic predisposition to either hyper- or hypo-anxiety. Exposure of male Wistar rats ...
Ebner Karl - - 2005
We investigated in the present study the neuroendocrine correlates in intruder and resident rats of a social confrontation. Adult male Wistar rats (intruders) were introduced into the home cage of a well-trained resident to induce characteristic agonistic interactions including physical attacks prior to separation by a wire mesh. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ...
Barlow Shayne C - - 2005
Rodent pinworms rarely cause clinical disease, but infestation can affect experimental results. Our facility maintained a colony of Wistar rats for behavioral pharmacology studies that had been infested with Syphacia muris for > 15 years. The laboratory in which the animals were housed encompassed several rooms and contained a variety ...
Burgdorf Jeffrey - - 2005
Adolescent and adult rats exhibit at least two distinct ultrasonic vocalizations that reflect distinct emotional states. Rats exhibit 22-kHz calls during social defeat, drug withdrawal, as well as in anticipation of aversive events. In contrast, 50-kHz calls are exhibited in high rates during play behavior, mating, as well as in ...
Overstreet David H - - 2005
The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats were originally selectively bred for increased responses to an anticholinesterase agent. The FSL rat partially resembles depressed individuals because it exhibits reduced appetite and psychomotor function but exhibits normal hedonic responses and cognitive function. The FSL rat also exhibits sleep and immune abnormalities that ...
Wang Hong - - 2005
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neurotransmitter in the brain closely related to anxiety. Of the two CCK receptor subtypes, CCK(2) receptors are most implicated in the control of anxiety-related behavior. CCK(2) receptor activation causes anxiogenic effects while the blockade of this receptor has anxiolytic effects. This review focuses on the molecular ...
Gulia K K - - 2005
To investigate the role of specific adrenoreceptors subtypes on sexual behavior, atenolol, butoxamine, a mixture of atenolol and butoxamine, and saline (vehicle) were injected into the lateral septum in four different groups of sexually active male rats. Application of a mixture of atenolol and butoxamine produced inhibition of copulatory activity. ...
Schneider Tomasz - - 2005
Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Recently, a new rodent model of autism was created by exposure of rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12.5th day of ...
Laska Matthias - - 2005
2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is a volatile component of the anal gland secretion of the red fox and elicits behavioral and physiological fear responses in the rat. Using instrumental conditioning paradigms, we determined olfactory detection thresholds for TMT in three rats, a natural prey species of the red fox, and compared their ...
Fraley G S - - 2004
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a recently described neuropeptide, which shares a partial sequence identity with galanin but is derived from a separate gene. Central injections of GALP stimulate the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and induce the expression of Fos in several brain areas known to ...
Kalynchuk Lisa E - - 2004
This experiment examined the effect of repeated corticosterone injections on anxiety and depression-like behavior in male and female rats. Rats received either corticosterone or vehicle injections for 21 consecutive days prior to behavioral testing in the forced swim, open-field, and predator odor tests. The corticosterone injections significantly increased depression-like behavior ...
Turek Victoria F - - 2005
An oft-overlooked consequence of fever is the occurrence of thermoregulatory heat-seeking/producing behaviors. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates fever resulting from low dose, peripherally administered pyrogens, suggesting that the vagus is involved in generating the pathogen-induced rise in core body temperature (T(c)). This study was designed to confirm that rats utilize behavioral thermoregulation ...
Smagin Gennady N - - 2004
We have been investigating the effects of ketoconazole on cocaine reward in rats for several years now. However, we recently confirmed that ketoconazole-induced changes in cocaine self-administration and reinstatement do not always correspond with decreases in plasma corticosterone, which suggests that other mechanisms must be underlying the behavioral effects that ...
Rees Stephanie L - - 2004
It is well known that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated during stress. Recent work suggests it is also implicated in the regulation of "normal" behaviors. The present studies investigated the effects of adrenalectomy and of varying glucocorticoid concentrations on adult maternal behavior in primiparous rats. In two studies, rats ...
Lopak Vanessa - - 2004
The present experiments explored how manipulating the period of individual housing, partner novelty, or short periods of conspecific interaction affected the feeding suppression evident when young adult male rats were moved from individual to pair housing. In the first experiment, after a period of pair housing, rats were individually housed ...
Mann Phyllis E - - 2004
Virgin female rats do not respond maternally to foster pups due to an endogenous neural circuit that actively inhibits the display of maternal behavior. Once pregnant, primigravid rats will continue to avoid foster pups until just prior to or at parturition. Anosmia or lesions of the olfactory tract, medial amygdala, ...
Kimura F - - 2004
Bottle choice tests in rats are useful for the study of fat appetite. However, little is known about the feeding behavior of rats toward oxidized oil. In this study, 24-h two-bottle choice tests were performed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 5 days. When rats were given a choice between ...
Collins Stephanie L - - 2004
Chronic treatment with nicotine differentially alters behavior in adolescent rats compared to adult rats. It is not known, however, whether the effects of nicotine on the neurochemical pathways with which it interacts differ in adolescents vs. adults. In the current study, the effects of a 7-day treatment with nicotine on ...
Oliveira Luciana C - - 2004
The amygdala and ventral portion of the periaqueductal gray (vPAG) are crucial for the expression of the contextual freezing behavior. However, it is still unclear whether the amygdala also plays a role in defensive behaviors induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). In the present study, rats ...
Keller Avril - - 2004
Febrile convulsions are common among preschool children and are studied experimentally with hyperthermia in rat pups. Although heat-induced convulsions (HC+) can affect behaviors in adulthood, to date no one has examined the effects on behavior in the neonatal period. We examined the effects of HC+ on ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and ...
Murgatroyd Chris - - 2004
Two inbred rat lines have been developed that show either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior. The behavioral phenotype correlates with arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but not supraoptic nucleus, with HAB animals overexpressing the neuropeptide in both magnocellular and parvocellular ...
Carvajal Cristina C - - 2004
The behavioral phenotype of five-month-old rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) has previously been described [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97 (2000) 12852]. In this transgenic rat model, there is central overexpression of prepro-NPY mRNA and NPY peptide in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and decreased Y1 binding sites within the hippocampus. ...
Kuwagata Makiko - - 2004
Prenatal exposure to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been reported to induce abnormal behaviors in offspring, including marked hyperactivity. In this study, the contribution of the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to BrdU-induced developmental neurotoxicity was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with BrdU on gestational days 9 through 15 (50mg/kg, i.p.) ...
Vendrame Martina - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenously delivered human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) have been previously shown to improve functional recovery of stroked rats. To extend these findings, we examined the behavioral recovery and stroke infarct volume in the presence of increasing doses of HUCBC after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ...
Weitzdoerfer Rachel - - 2004
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major determinant of neurological morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Many studies have been investigating neurological deficits following PA, including seizures, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, as well as psychiatric deficits. Most research performed so far has been focusing on acute or subacute sequelae and ...
Freidin Esteban - - 2004
Frustration is an emotional state produced by the surprising omission in quantity and/or quality of an appetitive reinforcer. The aversive properties of stressors, such as electric shocks, produce responses similar to those elicited by a state of frustration. In this set of three experiments, we assessed the effects of water ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2004
Androgens may mediate anxiety behaviors; however, these effects and mechanisms of androgens are not well understood. The following experiments investigated whether testosterone (T)'s effects on anxiety behavior are mediated by its 5alpha-reduced, nonaromatizable metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and/or its 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) reduced metabolite 3alpha-androstanediol (3alpha-diol). In Experiment 1, gonadally-intact adult ...
Solache-Ríos M - - 2004
A Mexican clinoptilolite-rich tuff was modified with the hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and used for the sorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol. Whereas the zeolitic tuff had no affinity for phenol and 4-chlorophenol, the modified zeolite removed these organic compounds. The sorption behavior from aqueous solutions was studied by means of batch ...
Csutoras Csaba - - 2004
We synthesized several N-substituted-11-hydroxynoraporphines and their esters of varying chain length, evaluated their binding affinity at dopamine (DA) receptor sites in rat caudate-putamen membranes, and quantified their effects on motor activity in normal adult male rats. The 11-hydroxyaporphines showed similar neuropharmacological properties to the corresponding 10,11-catecholaporphines. At moderate doses, their ...
Deseure Kristof - - 2004
Unilateral chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (IoN-CCI) induces an increase in face-grooming behavior that is not part of normal body grooming (i.e., "isolated face grooming"). Despite the validity of isolated face grooming as a measure of spontaneous neuropathic pain, variation between rats in postoperative face grooming has limited ...
Bakker J - - 2004
We previously found that male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice that carry a targeted mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the CYP19 gene and as a result cannot aromatize androgen to estrogen show impaired sexual behavior in adulthood. To determine whether this impairment was due to a lack of activation ...
Fuchs Rita A - - 2004
RATIONALE: The nucleus accumbens (NAC) is theorized to be a critical element of the neural circuitry that mediates relapse to cocaine seeking. Evidence suggests that the NAC is a functionally heterogeneous structure, and the core (NACc) and shell (NACs) regions of the NAC may play a differential role in stimulus-induced ...
Alcalay Roy N - - 2004
NAP, an 8-amino-acid peptide (NAPVSIPQ=Asn-Ala-Pro-Val-Ser-Ile-Pro-Gln), provides neuroprotection at very low doses in a variety of animal models. Previously, acute NAP administration by the intranasal route resulted in improved performance in the Morris water maze of normal and cognitively impaired rats. In these animals, it was observed, but not quantified, that ...
Hemmings Susan J - - 2004
The effect of exposure to, followed by consumption of, a diet containing 10% powdered elk velvet antler (EVA) from the 18th day of gestation to the 88th day after birth was examined in male and female Fischer 344 rats. There were no teratogenic effects of EVA exposure in utero or ...
Yilmazer-Hanke D M - - 2004
Two Wistar rat lines selectively bred for high (HAB), and low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) on the elevated plus maze were tested for the fear-sensitized acoustic startle response. The study of male rats from the F9 generation revealed a higher anxiety level of HAB rats on the elevated plus maze. However, ...
Kelley J J - - 2004
In a subset of rats, typical antipsychotic drugs (tAPD) produce oral dyskinesias called vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) that resemble tardive dyskinesia (TD), a behavioral side effect seen in a subset of people following tAPD treatment. Morphological changes within the striatum following tAPD have been correlated to VCMs in animal models. ...
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