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Okrouhlík Jan J Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, České Budějovice 370 05, Czech Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Capacities for and constraints of heat dissipation are considered to be important factors governing maximum intensity and duration of physical activity. Subterranean mammals are endurance diggers, but because of lack of air currents in their burrows, high relative humidity and other physical constraints, the capacity of common mammalian cooling mechanisms ...
Mohammed Mazher M Centre for Neuroscience, Department of Human Physiology, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; and - - 2014
Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to substantial increases in body temperature evoked by threatening or emotional stimuli. BAT thermogenesis also contributes to increases in body temperature that occur during active phases of the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC), as part of normal daily life. Hypothalamic orexin-synthesizing neurons influence many ...
Nagasaki Shuji S Drug Discovery Department, ASKA Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan; Department of Endocrinology and Applied Medical Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
TSH is the important regulator of thyroid function but detailed molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. We first generated the iodine deficient (ID) rat in which goiter is induced by accelerated endogenous TSH secretion. The result of microarray analysis demonstrated markedly increased levels of adrenomedullin 2 / intermedin (AM2/IMD) expression ...
Coelho Deise Riba DR Laboratório de Toxicologia Ambiental, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2014
Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of ...
Bacova B B Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute for Heart Research, Bratislava, Slovak - - 2014
The cardiovascular system is modulated by thyroid hormones and their deficiency or excess in hypo- (HY) or hyperthyroid (TH) status may affect both cardiac function and arrhythmogenesis. We hypothesized that intercellular communication via connexin-43 (Cx43) channels might be implicated. The goal of this study was to explore myocardial Cx43 and ...
Shimokawa Noriaki N Department of Integrative Physiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, 371-8511, - - 2014
Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. Despite the extensive studies of the neural function of thyroid hormones, little is known about the effects of hypothyroidism on behavioural traits and the mechanisms underlying such effects. Here, we report our study of ...
Bhat Virunya S VS a NSF International , Ann Arbor , Michigan , - - 2014
1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-diisononylester (DINCH), a polyvinyl chloride plasticizer, has food, beverage, and medical device applications that may result in general population exposure. Although no apparent toxicity information in humans was identified, there is a substantial data set in lab animals to serve as the basis of hazard identification for DINCH. ...
Takahashi Naoki N Drug Discovery Laboratories, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Co., - - 2014
We recently reported that the novel thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) selective agonists SKL-12846 and SKL-13784 reduce blood cholesterol levels without affecting thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in cholesterol-fed rats. Our aim in this study was to elucidate what sets apart these SKL-compounds as TRβ agonists with no effect on TSH. To ...
Chang Yen-Jui YJ Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, - - 2014
Thyroid hormones are crucial hormones that primarily regulate the metabolism of entire body cells. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into sham thyroidectomy (Sham Tx), thyroidectomy (Tx), Tx with thyroxine replacement (Tx + T4), and PTU injection (PTU) groups. Metabolic parameters were measured by means of metabolic cages for ...
Cui Si-Lu SL Institute for Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Heilongjiang Province & Ministry of Health, Harbin 150081, - - 2014
Here, we sought to establish an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis rat model induced by bovine thyroglobulin (bTg) injection and to investigate pathological changes and variations in serum interferon- γ -inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) in thyroid tissue following iodine treatment. Four-week-old female Lewis rats (n = 135) were randomly divided into ...
Gonçalves Carlos Frederico Lima - - 2014
[This corrects the article on p. e73908 in vol. 8.].
Mukherjee Sutapa S Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751004, India ; Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati (A Central University), Santiniketan, West Bengal 731235, - - 2014
Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative ...
Awad Hossam A HA Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi - - 2013
Recent literature lacks studies on the effects of progesterone withdrawal on peripheral conversion of thyroxin (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by iodothyronine deiodinase 2 (D2) in different body tissues. The present study aimed to assess the possible relation of progesterone to T4, T3, and D2 in ovarectomized rats. Thirty female Wistar ...
Walrand Stephane S Endocrinology Research Unit, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, - - 2013
Hyperthyroidism causes increased energy intake and expenditure, although anorexia and higher weight loss have been reported in elderly individuals with hyperthyroidism. To determine the effect of age on energy homeostasis in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, we administered 200 μg tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 7- and 27-mo-old rats for 14 d. T3 ...
Prado-Uribe María-Del-Carmen MD Medical Research Unit in Nephrology Diseases, Specialty Hospital, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexican Social Security Institute, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address: - - 2013
Thyroid hormones exert important effects on heart remodeling through mir-208. The process may have a role in myocardial changes in chronic kidney disease where thyroid abnormalities are common. In this study the effect of T4 supplementation on left ventricle (LV) remodeling in 5/6 nephrectomized rats (5/6Nx) was analyzed. 5/6Nx rats ...
Dodd Darol E - - 2013
Male F344 rats were exposed to potassium bromate (KBrO3) in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 100, 200, or 400mg/L for 2 or 13 weeks. Endpoints evaluated included clinical observations, body weights, serum chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and select tissue histopathology (kidney, lung, liver, thyroid, and tunica ...
Nambiar Prashant R - - 2013
Thionamides such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) have been used for more than 50 years to treat the more common causes of thyrotoxicosis/hyperthyroidism such as Graves' disease. Serious adverse effects associated with thionamides in humans include idiosyncratic liver damage, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and vasculitis. Both prospective and retrospective clinical ...
Zhang Youhua Y Department of Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, - - 2013
Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects ...
Rider Cynthia V - - 2013
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal supplement that is used to improve circulation and brain function. In spite of widespread human exposure to relatively high doses over potentially long periods of time, there is a paucity of data from animal studies regarding the toxicity and carcinogenicity associated with ...
Paul Katie B - - 2013
Thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of thyroid hormone, is a known target for thyroid-disrupting chemicals. In vivo toxicological evidence supporting TPO-inhibition as one molecular-initiating event that leads to thyroid disruption is derived largely from rat models; however, a significant fraction of research on the inhibition of TPO ...
Zhao Xin - - 2013
Fuzi-Lizhong pill (FLZ) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating patients with Spleen Yang deficient syndrome. Ghrelin, a peptide with 28 amino acid residues, plays multiple roles in thermogenesis. This study aims to explore FLZ regulating ghrelin to compensate hypothermia in rats with hypothyroid and indigestion. In litter-matched rats, hypothermia ...
Santillo Alessandra - - 2013
Rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones. In the present study we found that both isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (TRα and TRβ) are expressed in rat HG. Although TRα is ...
Mohammed Tarek Mostafa - - 2013
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) ...
Kokoshima Hiroko - - 2013
We observed spontaneous dwarfism among Wistar Hannover GALAS rats, caused by primary hypothyroidism. The dwarf (D) rats showed markedly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values. In this study, we investigated the incidence and histopathological characteristics of the proliferative lesions of the thyroid follicular cells in our D rats. Gross enlargement ...
Takeuchi Sora - - 2013
Objectives. Recent research suggests that lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) could be one of the target antigens in the pathogenesis of vasculitides. We established a transgenic rat model, env-pX rats, with various vasculitides including cutaneous vasculitis. Human primary cutaneous vasculitis includes cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPN) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). We measured ...
Patel Maulik M Department of Pharmacology, A.R. College of Pharmacy, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, - - 2013
To explore the general physiological and molecular changes occurring as a result of acute hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was developed by thyroidectomy in wistar rats. After surgery, animals were observed for 14 days in order to determine changes in body weight, feed consumption, rectal temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, clinical pathological ...
Garrido Rosario R Roche Pharmaceuticals, Nonclinical Safety, Nutley, New Jersey 07110, USA. - - 2013
Preclinical evaluation of a new compound, RO2910, identified a hypertrophic response in liver, thyroid gland, and pituitary gland (pars distalis). We aimed to develop and validate automated image analysis methods to quantify and refine the interpretation of semi-quantitative histology. Wistar-Han rats were administered RO2910 for 14 days. Liver, thyroid, and ...
Santos Maria C S - - 2013
Diabetes mellitus (DM) disrupts the pituitary-thyroid axis and leads to a higher prevalence of thyroid disease. However, the role of reactive oxygen species in DM thyroid disease pathogenesis is unknown. Dual oxidases (DUOX) is responsible for H(2)O(2) production, which is a cosubstrate for thyroperoxidase, but the accumulation of H(2)O(2) also ...
Vázquez-Román Victoria - - 2013
The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs ...
Kim Jonghan J Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2013
Iron loading is associated with altered lipid metabolism, but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared serum iron and triglycerides (TGs) in Belgrade rats, a genetic model of iron-loading anemia. Homozygous b/b rats had greater serum iron (68 vs. 28 μM; P=0.0004) and TG levels (180 vs. 84 mg/dl; P=0.014) compared ...
Alkayed Feras - - 2012
ATP and hydrolysis products of ATP like adenosine regulate the chemotaxis of neutrophils by activating purinoceptors and adenosine receptors. The present study was designed to examine exogenous ATP, activation of purinoceptors, and activation of A(3) adenosine receptor as key steps in the signal cascades that control cell orientation and migration ...
Boeloni Jankerle N - - 2012
The objective of this study was to verify the osteogenic potential of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized female rats with hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Sixty two-month-old female rats were assigned to the following groups: (1) control (sham-operated), (2) ovariectomized (OVX'd), (3) hypothyroid sham-operated (Hypo-), (4) ...
Lavado-Autric Rosalia - - 2012
Severe iodine deficiency is characterized by goiter, preferential synthesis, and secretion of T(3) in thyroids, hypothyroxinemia in plasma and tissues, normal or low plasma T(3), and slightly increased plasma TSH. We studied changes in deiodinase activities and mRNA in several tissues of rats maintained on low-iodine diets (LIDs) or LIDs ...
Rodriguez Isabel - - 2012
Background: The purpose was to analyze the cardiac and renal capillary density and glomerular morphology that result from a chronic excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones in rats.Methods: We performed histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats to evaluate the density of mesenteric, renal and cardiac vessels ...
Tousson Ehab - - 2012
The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone action and marked changes occur in cardiac function in the case of hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Also, thyroid hormone has a significant regulatory effect on the rate of heme oxidation in the liver. Heme oxygenase (HO) is a heme-catabolizing enzyme that ...
Miyawaki Izuru I Safety Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd., 3-1-98, Kasugade Naka, Konohanaku, Osaka 554-0022, Japan. - - 2012
Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase ...
Niu Katelyn Y - - 2012
In this study, we assessed the effects of peripherally administered cannabinoids in an orofacial myositis model, and the role of sex hormones in cannabinoid receptor (CBR) expression in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Peripherally administered arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a specific CB1R agonist, significantly attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in the masseter ...
Kaminsky P - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the respective impact of thyroxine and growth hormone on in vivo skeletal mitochondrial function assessed via post exercise phosphocreatine recovery. DESIGN: The hind leg muscles of 32 hypophysectomized rats were investigated using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest and during ...
Hauton David - - 2012
Environmental stresses such as hypoxia can alter the development of the fetus that are manifested later in life, but the impact of early maternal hypoxia (MH) on cardiac performance, coronary flow and catecholamine responsiveness in adult offspring is less clear. The effects of exposure to chronic hypoxia (FIO(2)=0.12) in early ...
Kalashnikova S A - - 2012
We studied morphological structure of the kidneys in chronic endotoxemia modeled against the background of hypothyroidism. The detected changes did not differ from those under conditions of basic endotoxemia model and were characterized by the development of glomerulosclerosis and glomerulohyalinosis. The changes were less severe in rats with hypothyroidism and ...
Luo Yongjun - - 2012
The mitochondrion is an important cellular component responsible for regulating energy, oxidative metabolism, and acclimatization to high altitude. This study is aimed at investigating the impact of long-term exposure to hypoxia on the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in rat livers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and exposed to normoxia ...
Nathaniel Thomas I - - 2012
Recent investigations of hypoxia physiology in the naked mole rat have opened up an interesting line of research into the basic physiological and genomic alterations that accompany hypoxia survival. The extent to which such findings connect the effect of hypoxia to metabolic rate (O(2) consumption), core body temperature (Tb) and ...
Mouradian Gary C GC Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2012
Brown Norway (BN) rats have a relatively specific deficit in CO2 sensitivity. This deficit could be due to an abnormally weak carotid body contribution to CO2 sensitivity. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that CBD would have less of an effect on eupnoeic breathing and CO2 sensitivity in the BN rats ...
Band Mark - - 2012
Vertebrate brains are sensitive to oxygen depletion, which may lead to cell death. Hypoxia sensitivity originates from the high intrinsic rate of ATP consumption of brain tissue, accompanied by the release of glutamate, leading to the opening of ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs). The relative ...
Gourdin M J - - 2012
In a previous study, we showed that clonidine, an α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, administered prior to hypoxia improves post-hypoxic contractility (PC) and endothelium-dependent dilatation (PED) in isolated young rat aortas. These effects were not investigated in old rats. Ageing influences vascular physiology and modifies the response to vasoactive drugs. Some drugs, such ...
Fournier Sébastien - - 2012
Housing conditions affect animal physiology. We previously showed that the hypoxic ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxia of adult male rats housed in triads during the juvenile period (postnatal day 21 to adulthood) were significantly reduced compared with animals housed in pairs. Because sex hormones influence development and responsiveness to ...
Tin Chung - - 2012
A negative influence of central chemosensitivity on peripheral chemoreflex response has been demonstrated recently in a decerebrate-vagotomized rat preparation in situ with separate carotid body and brainstem perfusions. Here, we report similar negative influences of hypercapnia on the hypoxic respiratory response in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats before and after vagotomy ...
Pahlavan Payam S - - 2012
Aims: Haemorrhagic brain damage is frequently encountered as a complication of premature birth. Much less frequently, multifocal petechial haemorrhage is identified in asphyxiated term newborns. Our goal was to develop an experimental rat model to reproduce this pattern of brain damage. Methods: Neonatal rat pups were exposed to a 24-hour ...
Cui Fang - - 2012
Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia (HIH) produces many favorable effects in the cardiovascular system such as anti-hypertensive effect. In this study, we showed that HIH significantly attenuated a depressor response induced by acute hypoxia. Sprague-Dawley rats received HIH in a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 5000 m. The artery blood pressure ...
Peterson Bethany L - - 2012
Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three ...
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